Instructables
We built a 1000 watt wind turbine to help charge the battery bank that powers our offgrid home. It's a permanent magnet alternator, generating 3 phase ac, rectified to dc, and fed to a charge controller. The magnets spin with the wind, the coils are fixed, so no brushes or slip rings necessary.

Update: DIY Amp Hour meter for monitoring charge!

All about homebrew wind and offgrid power systems, the complete reference!

Step 1: Build the magnet disks

We had 12" steel disks hydro cut. We cut a template for mounting the magnets. Then we mounted 12 grade n50 magnets around the outside edge. We then built a form, and poured the resin with hardner.

Step 2: Build the coil disk

We wound the nine individual coils, soldered them in a 3 phase wye configuration, and encased them in resin. We used 35 turns of 2 parallel strands of 14 gauge enameled (magnet) wire for 12 volts. Use 70 turns of single strand for 24 volts. # 3 phase diagram shown here shows 3 stator coils. each of those coils is actually 3 coils in series. coils 1,4, and 7 are series together, 2,5, and 8 are series together, and 3,6, and 9 are series together.

more details, see the following page 15 for the series star, 1-y diagram.

http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/axialflux/files

AXIAL_FLUX_HowItWorks.pdf

Step 3: Build the bearing assembly

Picture of Build the bearing assembly
bearing.jpg
Two Harley Davidson wheel bearings are inserted into the pipe, with a smaller pipe locked between them to keep them in place.

Step 4: Construct the blades

The blades are 2" x 6" pine, cut at 10 degrees on a table saw, and sanded into a rough airfoil. Not perfect, but close enough.

More can be found at

http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/axialflux/

http://www.green-trust.org

http://youtube.com/watch?v=o9EEHFKEckM

Step 5: Further Reading

 
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paumavallyed@yahoo.com,I had some trouble downloading the complete DIY 1000 watt wind turbine building process, my computer has some issues. I may have missed the finished product.
Question: In the first picture. It shows the man installing a few final parts. Do the electronics have a nose cone to deflect water, or what would protect these electronics. Do they need protection from the elements ? This is an amazing creation !
Very functional.
sspence (author)  paumavallyed4 years ago
 There's no electronics (rectifier and charge controller) at the turbine, they stay indoors in the battery room. No nose cone necessary.
danlong sspence3 years ago
Hi guy, Should have done this last year when I first found it as I see wire has jumped and the price of the magnets almost triple as with just about any parts "alternative energy". (there's only a buck or two difference between the drilled and not drilled magnets).


So you are saying you pump AC to the house then condition it? What about ramping the the output voltage to 620VAC for transmission to reduce losses. I need to build a 130 foot tower because I'm in the woods in a valley, then another 200 feet to the house.


Also, I assume from the photo that your turbine is fixed directional. Any hints on omni-directional. I was considering a vertical turbine because our "prevailing" winds in Wisconsin, in this valley, could be any direction for days. But the vertical turbine, along with lack of efficiency, is noisy.

Thanks, Dan
Krb6863 years ago
How many KW hrs. do you think this turbine could produce in a year? I am just curious because I've read the average middle class American uses around 11,000 a year and I would like to know what percentage of this can be made from the turbine.
sspence (author)  Krb6863 years ago
It varies with location, but 600 kWh / year is a safe bet.
antling3 years ago
Good project! A must try for me.
We lived close to the sea.
the most important thing about prototyping is falling down and getting back up looking for better way to do it take lighting are led's any better then edisons incadesent light bulbs certainly not any cheaper. or maybe we took wrong turn way back then and should have been on low voltage all along our devices seem to be working fine on it. My 12 volt weed eater does lots work
right generator wrong rotor. try a savanious rotor and have that same cat cut your discs and cut 15 aluminum pipe in half so cat and weld it all in one unit then balance that whole thing like they do tires when you mount them. here is photo of the one i built in 1980 wish it been all aluminun and had magnets holding it up off its bearing also consider a saphire bearing on bottom center pivot point. love the build my own generator concept best atenpt so far i'd say the other guys power electronics weren't bad. one with tilt up tower
Savinous Wind Turbine.jpg1980.jpgPancake Motor (how it works).jpg
dianarachel4 years ago
I am really interested with alternative energy and am trying to build a wind turbine for my science fair project.  I was wondering why you chose to use magnets and how well your design suited your enegery needs.

diana
sspence (author)  dianarachel4 years ago
 There are two ways of creating an alternator. With permanent magnets, or with electromagnets. Electromagnets steal power when it's least available, hence permanent magnets. This design is ideal for off grid use.

thank you so much
jbooth4 years ago
Can I use stereo speaker magnets to build a dc generator?

jbooth
m_zeitgeist4 years ago
good project
bertzie5 years ago
How much would something like this cost to do?
shooter015 years ago
How do you hook this up to a home. I live on top of a hill and a turbine would work great for me, but I just cannot comprehend how it hooks to my homes power supply.
sspence (author)  shooter015 years ago
turbine charges batteries which feed an inverter connected to your ac breaker panel.
So I will probobly need and electrician to do this? right. And while you were pouring that compound that holds the magnets together what did you put underneath them and overtop of them, and then you covered that with the compound. What exactly is the compound you used? How far apart do the coils and magnets need to be from each other? What was the stuff that came in a bar that you filled the holes in the dried compound with and then sanded off?
sspence (author)  shooter015 years ago
I was my own electrician.

there is a steel plate under the magnets, and I put a paper strip around the outside to hold the epoxy.

used bondo to fill the holes.

you ight want to get Dan Bartmann's book, as it explains all this. http://www.otherpower.com
Okay i checked the books website out will the book Homebrew Wind Power A Hands-on Guide to Harnessing the Wind by Dan Bartmann and Dan Fink show me what to get and how to hook it up to my home's power supply?
sspence (author)  shooter015 years ago
Yes, that book will tell you all you need to know. I have it, and recommend it.
One more question how do I know if I have enough wind to make it turn the wind mill?
sspence (author)  shooter015 years ago
you can check your local airport records, but you need at least 15mph winds to do anything useful.
jonek1kw5 years ago
i know those of us who have done any research have come across the books explaining how to get free batteries. Does anybody know if this actually works or how it is done.
taiosan5 years ago
This is simply excellent! I was in the process of hunting parts for my own project (I've been building wind turbines, HHO boosters for the car, and other energy production devices since 1972) when I came across this one, and you've changed my mind. I was going to buy stepper motors or a permanent magnet rotor for a car alternator. Now, I'll build my own motor. Thanks for the excellent photos, too.
Son Mojo5 years ago
I have read this log over and over again. This is the only place where it all started to make sense. My question about the 13AWG is based on... well I know that thicker wire equals increased amps, so does that mean less RPM's of the rotors to achieve the same thing. I will ultimately get Hugh Pigotte's book, but I was just wondering if deviating from Spence's formula by just this one thing ie. wire gauge is going to be a huge mistake. I'm thinking not, but it would be nice for some solid input about this... Thanks for everything guys.
sspence (author)  Son Mojo5 years ago
less rpm's means lower voltage, so you would need more windings in the coil. heavier wire means the unit can produce more amps without burning up, but only if the wind is there to spin it. don't deviate from the plan unless you understand the blade length, tip speed ratio, torque & rpm, winding size and number correlations.
Joe Juarez6 years ago
where can I get more detailed instructions: like--how many wraps ,of what gage copper wire, how to connect the coils in three fase fashion, the dementions of the individual coils, how to charge storage batteries, how to contribute to the power grid, and how to recieve monitary reembursment for same.
i think all these questions are amazing but also that folks should read the previous posts and answers before asking questions that have been asked and answered about this instructable atleast five times now eg wire guage and number of wraps where i come from if someone is willing to gift you with nowledge you shouldn't waste their time by asking a question they have already answerred especially since all it takes is 2 min of your own research in the same post
monthly reimbursement? check your local stuff first..... in california at least the electric company CANNOT reimburse a house for power without having a resale license..... they got laws passed so as to not pay back to people and lose money.. however.... you can ear credits. for months you create more than you use you get credits for months you use more than you make. you can get bills of small amounts or zero, but not actual money.
sspence (author)  mcfarling5 years ago
We are off grid, so there is no grid connection to sell back to.
added comment... the resale license MUST list electricity resale on it as well.
sspence (author)  Joe Juarez6 years ago
We will be putting out an ebook soon covering most of these answers. we did 35 wraps of diual 14 gauge wire for a 12 volt system. See http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/axialflux/ for more info.
Son Mojo5 years ago
Hey Spence... I made a lot of headway today. I have most of the assembly mocked up, the discs cut for the stator and support (which I have a question about that) and I came up with a nifty device for doing my windings using an old bike I found. Overall on this project, I have spent...um... 28 bucks. I have a picture of the basic elements for your consideration. The question I had was regarding the stator and coil placement. I was thinking of routing out the holes and epoxying the whole thing like that with the coils exposed on both sides of the disc. I also think it will make it a little more slimline. Any thoughts? I'm ordering my wire tomorrow 13AWG magnet wire, coated, for 77 bucks. The magnets are what is going to kill me. I never should have sent my landlord my tax refund...lol
Wind Gen 1.JPG
Son Mojo5 years ago
Hey Spence... I'm pretty new to all of this power stuff, but I totally got what you were trying to get across. I'm gonna start getting all of the stuff I need tomorrow and get cracking on this. I used to build boats, till I got laid off, so I have some experience with carbon fiber and have already designed my foils. I'm doing 6ft diameter carbon and resin core foam with a bamboo spline and hub block. This thing ought to be virtually indestructible. Right now I'm in the process of making the molds so I can make sets for others. One question did occur to me though... Is there any issues with cogging if say... I use a larger diameter steel disk/stator? I was thinking 15" as I think I can get two flat disks for about 10 bucks from a friend. anyway, I'll have to post some pics of my foil follies as I build them...lol. Thanks for all the decent info on how to do this. Son Mojo
sspence (author)  Son Mojo5 years ago
good luck. it's a fun project. cogging is minimised because of the air coils, no metal in the coil pack other than the copper wire.
thecooks85 years ago
did you ever consider a design using an automotive alternator geared or belted to spin faster than the turbine blades? Wouldn't it be easier and less costly?
sspence (author)  thecooks85 years ago
to much loss in the belt system, too much loss in keeping a field powered up, and too much maintenance trying to spin a 3k rpm alternator in a 600 rpm application. Auto alternators make horrible wind turbines unless you replace the field with permanent magnets. This is not a costly wind turbine, and it's easy to build. virtually no maintenance.
gierdos5 years ago
Hey sspence, i was wondering if you could tell us what the annual Kilowatt hour output of this generator is. I have been extremely interested in experimenting with wind generator designs but I'm not sure of the output year round for any of these things. By the way I really enjoyed the instructable.
sspence (author)  gierdos5 years ago
1000 - 3000 kWh / year depending on location. Some see higher output.
gierdos sspence5 years ago
the yearly average wind speed in my town is approximately 9mph, however I live at the top of a hill facing a valley and there is a fair amount of wind.
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