loading
Picture of DIY Arduino or
DSCF2307.JPG
DSCF2292.JPG
THIS ENTIRE TUTORIAL IS ALSO AVAILABLE ON MY WEBSITE AT
http://www.theparsley.com/arduino/diy/

To quote the Arduino website:

"Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments."

I got one a while ago and life has never been the same. Here is the official website for Arduino: http://www.arduino.cc/

There are a bunch of tutorials that show you how to build your own Arduino on a breadboard, called Hack-duinos or something similar. While these are handy, I prefer to use more solid electronic devices. So I build them with a home made PCB and solder all the components on there myself.

Some may say, "This task seems time consuming and a tad expensive... Why not just kerplunk the 30-some-odd bucks for an REAL Arduino?" Well, some of us enjoy the craziness of making something completely from scratch -- and in doing so, learning more about the device you are using.

This tutorial will take you through all the steps of making your own printed circuit board(PCB), building an Arduino or "DIY-Duino" and loading your own programs/sketches onto the board you have built.
 
Remove these adsRemove these ads by Signing Up

Step 1: Materials List -- For All Steps

Picture of Materials List -- For All Steps

COMPLETE MATERIALS LIST
You will find detail on these materials throughout the specific steps of this instructable.

// ------- PCB MATERIALS LIST ------- //
Copper Board: 12" x 12"
You can buy a smaller board, if you want.
I buy the 12x12 because I use it for a lot of projects.
http://www.parts-express.com/pe/showdetl.cfm?Partnumber=055-140

DIY-Duino Pattern sheet
Click here to download the Pattern file
You must use this file to ensure the proper resolution and size of the image.

Photo Paper
High-quality photo paper with a glossy finish is the best to use.

Laser Printer
Or copies from a place like Kinkos or Staples.

Fine grain sandpaper
To rough up the board and make it able to absorb the pattern better.

Common, houshold tape
For securing the pattern to the copper board

Piece of scrap cardboard
This will be your makeshift ironing board.

Paper towels
To put over your board before ironing.

Clothes Iron
Use one you don't mind being ruined.
Chances are, it will get funky.

Plastic container
To bathe your board in warm water after ironing.

Tweezers
Not necessary, but can be helpfull for peeling off transfer remnants.

//------- ETCHING MATERIALS LIST -------//
Jug of Muriatic Acid
You can get this at the hardware store.

Container of Laquor Remover
Removes the toner once the pattern is etched.
Also useful if you make mistakes on transfering your pattern.
You can remove the toner and try again.
You can get this at the hardware store

Container of Hydrogen Peroxide
Any Grocery Store

Standard kitchen paper towels
Use for the ironing, agitating the acid solution, and removing the toner with the lacquer remover

(2) Plastic containers
(1 for the acid mixture, one to rinse, one to bathe the PCB in hot water)

Acid disposal container
Size this, depending on how much you're using.

Pair of plastic dishwashing gloves
You can often find a better, more durable pair of gloves at the hardware store -- right near the muriatic acid oddly enough.

Other Protection
Breathing and eye protection.

Package of photo paper
I if you have access to a laser printer or laser copier. Otherwise, skip this.

1/4 Cup Measuring Cup
Use one that you don't mind being destroyed. Once you use this to measure out the Muriatic Acid, It should only be used for this purpose. NEVER use it to measure food again.

//------- DIY-DUINO COMPONENTS LIST -------//
(3) Little bits of wire

DIP Sockets Solder Tail - 28-Pin 0.3"
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/7942
$1.50

ATmega328 with Arduino Bootloader
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9217
$5.50

Basic LED - Green (or whatever color tussles your vessel)
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9650
$0.35

Resistor 330 Ohm 1/6th Watt PTH
-- 220 Ohm will work fine too if you have one
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8377
$0.25

Resistor 10k Ohm 1/6th Watt PTH
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8374
$0.25

Mini Push Button Switch
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/97
$0.35

(2) Electrolytic Decoupling Capacitors - 10uF/25V
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/523
$0.45x2=$0.90

Voltage Regulator - 5V
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/107
$1.25

(1) Crystal 16MHz
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/536
$0.95

(2) Capacitor Ceramic 22pf
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8571
$0.25x2=$0.50

(3) Female Headers
You'll need to cut them, and it's a little trickey...
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/115

(4) Standoffs
From Radio Shack or
From Sparkfun

//------- PROGRAMMING MATERIALS LIST -------//
FT232RL USB to Serial

http://www.sparkfun.com/products/718
$14.95

A breadboard
4 short wires
4 longer wires
An LED-- to test if your upload was a success

//------- TOOLS LIST-------//
Dremel or Hacksaw
I suggest buying a Dremel or other rotary tool for this instructable, you will probably need a Dremel to drill the holes.

1/32" Drill bit
I don't know of one of these for a normal drill, neither did the lady at Lowes -- again... Dremel

Metal-cutting disc for Dremel
To cut out the copperboard

Solder
Flux
Desoldering braid -- for errors!
Soldering Iron
Soldering Gripper

Step 2: About making PCBs

Just as there are several ways to build your own Arduino, there are likely just as many, if not more, ways to create your own printed circuit board or PCB. This tutorial opens with an in-depth lesson on how to make your own. I've tried several methods of making PCBs, and what follows is a procedure that has worked the best for me.

A little background first... People who are new to making their own PCBs often call this method "The Toner-Transfer Method".
When searching for how to make your own PCBs on the Net, this is the phrase that will often come up.
However, those who have been making these for a while will correctly call it the "Gootee Method" -- and the PCBs themselves are called "Gootee Boards". The reason is this -- the most in-depth documentation on how to etch your own PCB (at least that I know of) has been compiled and tested by Thomas Gootee.

See his website: http://fullnet.com/~tomg/gooteepc.htm

The PCB you will be making in this instructable is founded in Gootee's teachings, with a few differences/deviations.

Step 3: Transfering the Pattern - Materials

Picture of Transfering the Pattern - Materials
Copper Board: 12" x 12"
You can buy a smaller board, if you want. I buy the 12x12 because I use it for a lot of projects.
http://www.parts-express.com/pe/showdetl.cfm?Partnumber=055-140

Photo Paper
High-quality photo paper with a glossy finish is the best to use.

Clothes Iron
Use one you don't mind being ruined.
Chances are, it will get funky.

Piece of scrap cardboard
This will be your makeshift ironing board.

Arduino Pattern sheet
Download the Pattern file here
You must use this file to ensure the proper resolution and size of the image. You don't want to print and etch your board and have it be the wrong size.

Paper towels
To put over your board before ironing.

Plastic container
To bathe your board in warm water after ironing.

Common, houshold tape
For securing the pattern to the copper board

Tweezers
Not necessary, but can be helpfull for peeling off transfer remnants.

Fine grain sandpaper
To rough up the board and make it able to absorb the pattern better.

Step 4: Cut out the copperboard and sand it

Picture of Cut out the copperboard and sand it
A07.JPG
Cut out the board
Protect your eyes.

Use your dremel or a hacksaw and cut out the shape for your board.

Give yourself some space around the edges. I usually give myself about a 1/4 inch extra margin. Mostly, because I often add in risers or spacers when I'm done at each of the corners.

Spacers are good to use, because they keep your soldered bits off of the table or ground or any other surface. They protect your board from getting fried if it happens to come to rest upon a metal surface.

Now sand the board
Sand the top of the copper with a fine sand paper. This gives it some more surface area for the toner to stick to.

Sand the edges too, because sometimes they can be sharp, and you don't want to cut yourself.

It's far easier to assemble a board when you don't have bandages on your fingers.

Step 5: Preparing the pattern

Picture of Preparing the pattern
A04.JPG
If you have access to a laser printer or a laser copier, fantastic. If not, no problem, you'll let Staples or Kinkos or another copy place do that for you.

If you HAVE access to a laser printer:
Put your photo paper in the printer and be sure that the glossy side is oriented correctly. You need the image to be printed on the glossy side. If possible, set the printer to print out with the maximum quality/toner thickness available. Print the Pattern file. Try not to touch the image area or get anything else on it. Any oils, abrasions or anything else will hamper the transfer.

If you DO NOT HAVE access to a laser printer:
Print the Pattern file. Try to get the best, darkest quality printout possible. Bring the printout to your local copy store and have them make laser copies of it on high-quality photo paper. Explain to them what you are attempting to do with these copies. Occasionally, there will be someone working there that knows or has heard of what you're doing. Try not to touch the image area or get anything else on it. Any oils, abrasions or anything else will hamper the transfer.

Prepare the pattern
Cut one of the patterns out. On 3 sides, trim close along the edge of the pattern. On one side, leave a little tab for you to hold on to. Again, you don't want anything to touch the image.

Step 6: The Transfer Procedure - Preparations

Picture of The Transfer Procedure - Preparations
Transfer preparation/things to get ready
Heat up your clothes iron, put it on the hottest setting -- High/Linen. With no steam. We want this sucka HOT! It's good to start your iron heating up while you get the other stuff ready. Be careful not to burn yourself or anything else! Be carefull to turn the iron off when you're done!

Step 7: The Transfer Procedure

Picture of The Transfer Procedure
Get a plastic container, large enough so the PCB can lay flat, I use a sandwich container, and fill it with hot water. This will bathe your PCB after your transfer the pattern.

Step 8: The Transfer Procedure

Picture of The Transfer Procedure
A08.JPG
A09.JPG
DSCF2327.JPG
Cut out a piece of scrap cardboard for your ironing board.

I use pieces of cardboard box, usually just cutting off one of the flaps.

Place your cut and sanded piece of copperboard in the middle of the cardboard with the copper side facing up.

Lay your pattern face down on the copperboard.

Take a couple pieces of tape and secure the pattern to the copperboard.

Place a papertowel over the top of the copperboard.

This should protect your iron from the gunk that is created when you heat up the paper -- but I'm not making any promises.

If you don't want to ruin your iron, don't use a good one. You can usually get one cheap at a yard sale or a new one for less than $25.

Step 9: The Transfer Procedure

Picture of The Transfer Procedure
DSCF2340.JPG
DSCF2364.JPG
Transfering the Image
When the iron is heated up, press down FIRMLY on the top of the papertowel, pattern and copperboard.

Hold it in place for one minute.

After a minute, remove the iron.

You should be able to make out the edges of the board through the paper towel.

Use the tip of the iron to go over the board bit-by-bit.

Take another minute to be sure you apply heat to each part of the board...

Go up and down, side to side and left to right.

Pay special attention to the edges.

In my experience, the edges are where the board/image gets the least ammount of heat.

Finally, for one more minute, hold the iron on the board again to finish up.

Caution, the board will be very hot!

Peel the paper towel off of the top.

If some papertowel sticks to the top, it's ok. This will loosten and be easy to remove in the water bath.


Step 10: The Transfer Procedure

Time for a bath!
Place the board, face up in the plastic container of warm water and let it bathe for 10 minutes.
After 10 minutes, peel the pattern paper off.

In my opinion, the ironing the trickiest part of the entire procedure... If you've done a good job at ironing, the entire paper will peel off and you will be looking at a shiny copperboard with the black laser toner transfered onto it.

However, this will not likely happen. Do not be discouraged! What will likely happen is one of two things:
1. You peel the paper back and some or all of the paper comes off, but the pattern was not totally transfered either.
2. You peel the paper back and only some of it comes off, leaving behind some paper and a thin plastic.

In case 1:
You haven't completely ironed the toner and it hasn't transfered to the board.

You are sadly out of luck -- only for the moment though. You will need to start again.

Hey, at least you have the copper cut out, right? And practice makes perfect... the best way to be an expert at something is to be a complete failure at it first.

The board on the left isn't totally messed up. In fact, I fixed it with a Sharpie... see below on how this works.

But you can see where the toner didn't completely transfer over to the board. On the left corner, the toner is faded -- thats because it's still stuck to the paper.

Now, the board below that one is a total mess. It's one of the first boards I ever tried to make. I'm not sure why I still have it, maybe just to show in this tutorial. You can see that its kind of corroded from sitting around. The main thing to look at is that the toner didn't transfer too well.

If this happens to your board, put it back into the water and let it soak over night. You'll easily be able to peel everything off in the morning.

After all the paper is removed, take some lacquor remover, dampen a papertowel with it, and wipe away all the toner.

Re-sand the copperboard, so that it looks clean and new and start again. Don't sweat it, you'll get it, trust me!

In case 2:
You're left with some paper still stuck to the board. You may notice that there is a thin plastic layer that is sticking to the copper. This is what the pattern image was originally transfered on to.

You may also notice that there is some "plain" paper that comes off easily. Take your thumbs and rub off what you can of the "plain" paper.

Soak the board in the warm water bath for a nother couple minutes. Return and try to rub off more of the "plain" paper.

Eventually you'll be able to get everything off.

The photo has only a little of the plastic stuck to it. You can use your fingernails to peel off the plastic, because the transfered toner resists being chipped by your nails fairly well.

I also find that using some tweezers to peel off the thin plastic works too. BE CAREFULL though with the tweezers, because it IS possible to chip the pattern with them.

Also, you need to get ALL OF THE PAPER AND PLASTIC off of the board for the etching to work thoroughly. Often, I just remove what I can of the "plain" paper and then set the board in the bath for a couple hours.

When you return, you'll find that the plastic does not stick so much to the board and you can peel it off easily. Again, you can use tweezers, but use them carefully.

Step 11: The Transfer Procedure - Minor Touch-ups

Picture of The Transfer Procedure - Minor Touch-ups
DSCF2148.JPG
OK, so you got all of the paper and plastic removed.

Double check your board. Make sure all lines connect properly.

Go over any nicks with a Sharpie permanent marker. I have one of the thin-line Sharpes for fixing these little nicks. Sharpie ink resists the acid.

If everything looks good, you are now ready to etch your board.

Step 12: Etching - Materials

Picture of Etching - Materials
B02.JPG
B03.JPG
Jug of Muriatic Acid
You can get this at the hardware store.

Container of Laquor Remover
This is for if you make mistakes on transfering your pattern.
You can remove the toner and try again.
You can get this at the hardware store

Container of Hydrogen Peroxide
Any Grocery Store

Standard kitchen paper towels
Use for the ironing, agitating the acid solution, and removing the toner with the lacquer remover

(2) Plastic containers
(1 for the acid mixture, one to rinse, one to bathe the PCB in hot water)

Acid disposal container
Size this, depending on how much you're using. See below on disposal.

Pair of plastic dishwashing gloves
You can often find a better, more durable pair of gloves at the hardware store -- right near the muriatic acid oddly enough.

Other Protection
Breathing and eye protection are essential.

1/4 Cup Measuring Cup
Use one that you don't mind being destroyed. Once you use this to measure out the Muriatic Acid, It should only be used for this purpose. NEVER use it to measure food again.

Step 13: Etching - Precautions

Picture of Etching - Precautions
First, some precautions
Muriatic Acid is very dangerous, both to breathe, and to get on any part of your body. It will also destroy most of what it comes into contact with, metal, clothing.

Most important, protect your skin and eyes. I ALWAYS wear goggles and it's not even an option to not use plastic gloves.

Put on your eye protection. Put on your protective gloves. Put on your breathing protection. Make sure you are not wearing clothes that you want to keep clean. Chances are they will be ruined. It is best to do the etching outside, in a garage or basement, or in a bathroom. Somewhere where if you spill a little acid, it won't hurt anything.

If you can't do your etching outside, do it in a well-ventilated room, and be sure to protect anything you don't want completely ruined from the acid.

Basically the only thing that won't be runied by the acid is plastic.

Step 14: Etching - Preparations

The containers
You will be using 3 containers. One container will hold your etching solution, the second will hold hydrogen peroxide only, and the third will be used to discard your solutions in a safe and proper manner.

The hydrogen peroxide container will be used to rinse off your board after it is finished etching.

Now, prepare your etching solution
The mixture is 1 part Muriatic Acid to 2 parts Hydrogen Peroxide.

Use the 1/4 cup measuring cup to portion out one 1/4 cup full of Muriatic Acid and two 1/4 cups full of hydrogen peroxide into one of your plastic containers.

Step 15: Etching - The Procedure

Check the copper board to be sure you have removed all traces of the photo paper.

You should have checked it over and made sure that all of the traces are completed, and there are no chips that would make an incomplete circuit.

If there are any chips or scratches, fix them with a Sharpie as described earlier.

Lets start etching!
Gently place the board into the etching solution.

You will notice that the etching solution begins to change color.

This is the acid reacting to the copper and starting to dissolve it.

Agitate the container gently, so that the etching solution mixes over the submerged board.
Use a paper towel to wipe the board while it's submerged.

This helps along the etching process.

After about 4 minutes, you will notice that the copper will begin to dissolve.
Continue to wipe areas where there is still copper.

After about 5 minutes, your board should be completely etched.

The etching solution will have changed to a green color after reachint with the copper.

Remove the board and rinse it in the second container, the one that has just hydrogen peroxide.

This will dilute the remaining acid.

Now, it's not the best thing in the world to do, but we've diluted any solution still clinging to our board and most of the copper that has dissolved into the solution is diluted as well. So... take your board and rinse it under some water.

Here is what you should have.

You will notice in the photo attached that there is still some copper in the top right corner.

This should be ok.

But if this happens on your board and you want to remove it, just gently sand it off. Be careful not to sand off anything you don't want to!

The final step is to use lacquer remover to get the toner off.

Put some lacquer remover on a paper towel and wipe off the toner.

Do your best to get all of the toner off.

Your board should look like the final photo attached.

Rinse this puppy off once more and get ready to drill the holes for the components.

Step 16: Drilling Holes for the Components

Picture of Drilling Holes for the Components
DSCF2217.JPG
DSCF2219.JPG
Up until now, you could get by without a Dremel or other rotary tool. It may have been trickier, but do-able.

However, I must say, I can't imagine getting past this part with a normal drill.

First, I don't think they even sell 1/32" drill bits for normal drills. Second normal drills are just too cumbersome to do this delicate work. One slip and you've ruined your precious PCB.

So, do yourself a favor and score a Dremel or rotary tool. They are usefull for many more things than just making PCBs!

Put on your eye protection and carefully drill your holes.

Be carefull with both the PCB and the drill bit itself.

A 1/32" bit is really not much larger than a sewing needle and easy to break.

It's a pain to get half way through drilling and snap a bit. Then you either have to go to the hardware store and get another, or order one online. The hardware store near me doesn't even sell individual bits, they're in a package of different sizes. So it's $10 for one bit and five that I already have like three sets of.

If you order them online, you can buy them in a small cannister of 4. I think I paid $5 for one cannister. It's good to have extras, eventually you will break one.

Anyhow, carefully drill out the holes for your components. Start by drilling through the copper side. Then turn the PCB over to the plastic side and drill through the holes you've made -- just to be sure you have it going through clean.

Hold your PCB up to the light and check that you've drilled everything.

On this board, I've drilled places to add risers in the corners. It's a good idea to have these, so your board isn't sitting on the table and resting on its solder points.

Pat yourself on your back, you're now ready to assemble the components.

Step 17: Putting It All Together - Materials/Components

Picture of Putting It All Together - Materials/Components
DSCF2230.JPG
DSCF2233.JPG
DSCF2235.JPG
DSCF2249.JPG
DSCF2251.JPG

(3) Little bits of wire

DIP Sockets Solder Tail - 28-Pin 0.3"
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/7942
$1.50

ATmega328 with Arduino Bootloader
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9217
$5.50

Basic LED - Green
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9650
$0.35

Resistor 330 Ohm 1/6th Watt PTH
-- 220 Ohm will work fine too if you have one
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8377
$0.25

Resistor 10k Ohm 1/6th Watt PTH
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8374
$0.25

Mini Push Button Switch
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/97
$0.35

(2) Electrolytic Decoupling Capacitors - 10uF/25V
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/523
$0.45x2=$0.90

Voltage Regulator - 5V
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/107
$1.25

Crystal 16MHz
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/536
$0.95

(2) Capacitor Ceramic 22pf
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/8571
$0.25x2=$0.50

(3) Break-Away Female Headers
These are not really break-away.
You'll need to cut them.
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/115

(4) Standoffs
I got the ones pictured at Radio Shack
Here's a link for some from Sparkfun

Solder

Flux

Desoldering braid -- for errors!

Soldering Iron and a second set of hands helps out in a major way!

Step 18: Putting it Together

Picture of Putting it Together
08_b.JPG

I have drawn up a little diagram of where all the components are supposed to go. And I have also included photos of the board as the components are added.

Here is a simple diagram of the finished setup, complete with the pin locations. Follow the pictures coming up to put the board together correctly.

In this Instructible, I will hope that you are decent at soldering. It is not my goal here to teach you how to solder.

There are a bunch of tutorials an pointers out there on how to solder properly.

Here is one of my favorite pages:
http://www.ladyada.net/media/common/soldering.pdf

Step 19: Putting it together

First, you have the naked board.
It should be oriented with the copper facing away.
You will be soldering the components on the plastic side only, NOT the side with the copper.
Put the leads of the components through the board and solder them to the copper.
The places where there are squares should be where the ground/negative lead of the component are soldered.

Start by soldering the DIP Socket for the ATmega328.
DO NOT solder in the actual chip.
It is always a good idea to use these Sockets, because you can remove your chip if you want to use it in another board or project or whatever. And desoldering them is a royal pain.
Note the area where there is a little oval cut out.
This is to let you know how the chip should be oriented.
When you finally put your ATmega chip into the socket, you want to place it with the oval facing up.
The top left of the chip is the reset.
If you don't put the chip in right, nothing will work.

Add the capacitors and the voltage regulator.
Important: The capacitors have a little white bar on one side. This is to let you know where to attach it to the ground.
Attach the side with the white bar to where the square pad (ground) is and the other to the power.
Do this for both of the capacitors.
The voltage regulator needs to be soldered with the back of the "chair"/ the tall metal part facing out.
You may need to file a little of the legs off of the voltage regulator, as the leads are often squarish and flat.

Add the little wires.
You have three wires. It doesn't really matter what color they are, as I'm sure you know. Just as long as you know where they are supposed to go.
For this circuit, you'll solder wires to span and attach to two grounds and one voltage.
The white wires in the diagram are for ground and the red wire is for power.

Add the 22pf ceramic capacitors (2 of them) and the 16mHz crystal.
It does not matter how the ceramic capacitors or the crystal are oriented.
The crystal is a little wider than we need for this board, so you should bend the leads so that it will fit in snugly at the bottom. You don't want any components dangling.

Add the resistors.
The resistors are 10K Ohm and 220 Ohm.
The 10K Ohm resistor is banded brown, black, orange and gold and will provide resistance to the button.
The 220 Ohm resistor is banded red, red, brown and gold and will provide resistance to the LED.

Add the LED and button.
The LED will light up and tell us that the board is getting power.
The button will allow us to reset the board.
Some buttons have 4 leads, we only need two of them, so you can snip the extras off if you have four.
Be sure to insert the long leg of the LED into the power, and the short leg into the ground(the square pad).

Add the female headers.
It's not really necessary to have all these headers.
Personally, I like to have a voltage and a ground for every usable pin on the chip -- especially next to the analog pins.
But, I suppose as long as you have one extra voltage and one extra ground out, you are good.

Add the power supply.
And you're done.
There are a couple different ways to connect to a power supply.
I'll write a little about that in the next step.

Step 20: Getting power

Picture of Getting power
DSCF2319.JPG
DSCF2310.JPG
DSCF2312.JPG
DSCF2318.JPG
Depending on your preference, you can create a bunch of different power supplies for your board. Check out the photos attached to see some options.

There are a bunch of wall plugs you can buy, but be careful of it's output, because you risk toasting your board.

You want a 9V DC 100-500mA power adapter, one with a 2.1mm barrel plug and positive tip. I don't have one, because I use mostly rechargable 9volt and AAA batteries.

There are many tutorials on how to wire a DC power jack, if you don't know how to do it.

Step 21: Programming - Materials

Picture of Programming - Materials
If you already have an Arduino, you can follow the details on how to use it as an In-System Programmer (ISP) here:
http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/ArduinoISP

However, you will need to modify your board to be able to accept a line from the Arduino's Reset to your boards Reset.

Personally, I like to use the FT232RL USB to Serial. I think it's easier and iIt's just become habit for me.

FT232RL USB to Serial
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/718
$14.95

I can't remember if mine came with the male headers, so you might want to get some of those too.

You will need:
The board you created above
Breakout Board for FT232RL USB to Serial
A breadboard
4 short wires
4 longer wires
An LED-- to test if your upload was a success

Step 22: Programming

Picture of Programming
01_b.JPG
The first photo is a picture of the top of the FT232 and the other is the bottom.

You will need to solder male headers to the board.

Be sure to remove any battery or power source from your board before you connect the FT232.

Step 23: Programming

Picture of Programming
Set up your FT232 on a breadboard like this photo.

The wire on the top left is TXD and will go to pin 0 (RX) on your board.

The wire on the bottom left is RXD and will go to 1 (TX) on your board.

The wire on the top right is ground and will be attached to a ground line on your board.

The wire on the bottom right is VCC and will be attached to a power line on your board.

Step 24: Programming

Picture of Programming
04.JPG
The first photo is how the connection looks.

The second is a close up of how the wires are plugged into your board.

The red wire is VCC -- power.

The Black wire is ground.

The yellow wire is TXD and is connected to pin 0 on your board.

The orange wire is RXD and is connected to pin 1 on your board.

Step 25: Programming

Picture of Programming
Open the Arduino Software.

If you do not have the Arduino software, download it here http://arduino.cc/en/Main/Software and follow the instructions for setup.

Go to File >> Examples >> Basics >> and open the Blink sketch...

Or any other sketch of yours.

If you are going to use the Blink Example, plug a LED into pin 13 on your board. The long leg goes to pin13 and the short one goes to ground.

Step 26: Programming

Picture of Programming
You need to be sure you are set to the right chip/board.

Otherwise you will get an error when trying to upload your sketch.

Go to Tools >> Board >> and click on the the chip you have in your board.

In this case, we have the ATmega328.

Step 27: Programming

Picture of Programming
Click the upload button (in yellow in the photo).

The program will tell you that its Uploading to I/) Board.

Wait for it to say: "Binary sketch size: 1018 bytes (of a 30720 byte maximum)"

Step 28: Programming

Picture of Programming
When the software says "Binary sketch size: 1018 bytes (of a 30720 byte maximum)"press the reset button on your board.

You only have a couple seconds to do this, otherwise your upload will fail and you will get an error.

When the program is sending the sketch over, the RX and TX lights on the FT232 will go all blinkey for a couple seconds.

When they stop blinking, you will get a "Done Uploading" message and the LED will begin flashing.

Step 29: Programming

Picture of Programming
Success!

You have successfully created your own PCB, assembled your own DIY-duino, and programmed the board.

Awesome!

If you put one together, post a photo.

Also, if you encounter any problems, post a comment and I'll do the best I can to help you.

HAVE FUN!!!!!!!

Step 30:

Some Good Resources:

My DIY-Duino Page

Here is a link to my page where I also have this tutorial detailed
http://www.theparsley.com/arduino/diy/

The Official Arduino Page
http://www.arduino.cc/

Sparkfun
Good place to get supplies and learn
http://www.sparkfun.com/

Ladyada
Another great site with a wealth of information and products
http://www.ladyada.net/


PCB-123
A good program to design patterns for your own boards. Download the FREE program below:
http://www.sunstone.com/pcb-resources/downloads/ThankYou.aspx?ID=14

1-40 of 225Next »
JunjieR1 month ago
MelbourneL2 months ago

Hi Robonerd! I'm a frustrated in learning electronics so I'm just have only a basic idea about it. I was inspire by your and I want to make it one for my self to but Im in short funds. I have just a few question. Is there any available ATmega328 without Arduino bootloader? if theres any can I still use it? How about the FT232RL USB , is there any other option to use aside from it? cause it just pretty expensive for me. Sorry for my dumb questions and for my bad english. Hope I can get respond to you soon. Thank you!

robonerd (author)  MelbourneL2 months ago
Hi there, I get my chips from Sparkfun, they are about $5 US including the bootloader. Without the bootloader is only $1 less - about $4. You want to get the ones with the bootloader. Basically, you need a bootloader in order for your chip to know it's getting programmed. Without the bootloader, you will have to load the bootloader on the blank chip yourself. And this can be a little complicated if you're just starting up. FT232 is one of the cheaper ways to load a sketch on the chip. You can make one yourself, but again it's trickey for a beginner. Now a days, I just load my sketch onto an actual arduino and then swap the chips to my DIY board. Hope this helps.

Thank you so much for your reply! Now Im here at Chiayi city Taiwan. Trying to look for electronic store nearby hope I can find one to get an arduino. There one store in taipei who selling all kinds of arduino its cheap cause it china made but unfortunately far from my place.

Grumpy Mike2 months ago

Why no decoupling capacitors on your processor chip. It will be very unreliable without them. Just because you got it working with I suspect very limited testing does not mean it will work every time, especially when you start adding things to it.

robonerd (author)  Grumpy Mike2 months ago
I've been using this setup for years and never had so much as a hiccup. But I generally only use it for simple fun projects. Since you feel this is such a necessity, how about you give us a tip and let us know where you would put them to make it more reliable? cheers
Lack of decoupling is the number one reason why amateur designed electronics are so unreliable. Just because you made one and you have not noticed the poor noise margin is no excuse for inflicting that poor design on people who do not know better.
You should use a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor between pins 7 & 8, another one between pins 20 and 22 and finally one between pins 21 and 22. They should be wired as close to the chip as possible with the leads as short as possible. With your PCB you would be better off soldering some surface mount capacitors directly across these pins on the back of the board.
robonerd (author)  Grumpy Mike2 months ago

Thanks for sharing your knowledge. I'm definitely not a pro at electronics. I use it as a relaxing break from applications programming. I mostly make tone-generating projects to give away to friends. And I've honestly never had any problems with any of them. One that I made 4 years ago that plays the blues scale still works just fine. But I have noticed some twitchyness in some projects that involve the use of servos. I wonder if this is related to the noise you mention. I'm going to be putting another tone-generator together this weekend and will add the capacitors as you suggested and see what it does. Back when I wrote this four years ago, there was really no "all-inclusive" online how-to for building your own. So after I gathered a bunch of info together, and built a bunch of working ones, I figured I'd add it all here. This page was one of three or four that were out there that I used for the setup: http://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Standalone -- I wonder why there was no mention of using decoupling capacitors on these pages I learned from? I surely would have added them way back when if there was. Anyhow, thanks again for sharing your knowledge. Cheers.

There is quite a lot of bad stuff out there, remember the Arduino people are not professionals in electronics they are only educators. It is very likely that servo twitchyness is caused by noise. It is a sort of elephant in the room topic, all the professionals know about it and few of the amateurs. I do a lot of point this out on the Arduino forum, which is why I can here as some one was not getting your circuit working. If you want the full low down I wrote this page on the topic.

http://www.thebox.myzen.co.uk/Tutorial/De-coupling...

Good luck.

Gibz73 made it!3 months ago

Thanks Robonerd great tut...I added the header for the reset pin as you mention in one comment...works a blinking treat (pun intended). Regarding my earlier question about powering it straight from 5 v source...I could just connect the power to any of the DIYduino's pwr and Gnd headers cant I? That would give the board power and bypass the 7805, yes? Anyway, here's a pic of my 'duino running the blink sketch. Cheers again <thumbsup>

DIY Duino.jpg
robonerd (author)  Gibz733 months ago

I'm glad you got it to work. Thanks for sharing the photo too. I suppose if you are just running 5V it may work without a regulator. I have never tried it, so I'm not sure. I have a large surplus of 9V batteries. So I've always just used the regulator. If you try it out, please post back your findings here for others to see. Cheers!

arief.adha3 months ago

Very nice tutorial! Check out my proto board design, with this DIY-Arduino / Arduino-shield is piece of cake https://hackaday.io/project/3859-zuc-protoboard

Gibz733 months ago

Hi there, thanks for the tut, great stuff. One question regarding power and the 5v regulator(drop out voltage)...if I wanted to power it with USB should I add a connection to the +v and ground AFTER the regulator part to avoid problems with dropout voltage from regulator?

ignacio.naval made it!3 months ago

Thanks!

20150402121858.jpg
robonerd (author)  ignacio.naval3 months ago

Awesome! :-)

baelza.bubba5 months ago

Thanks Robonerd. I just built the DIY-duino and I'm pretty pleased. Now all I have to do is make something with it!

Great instructions!

robonerd (author)  baelza.bubba5 months ago
My pleasure, I'm glad you found it useful.

Actually ... when I tried to actually do something with it ... I got nada. I originally used your design "as is" and I got a pretty LED :) I then re-vectored the design in Fritzing, transferred, etched and populated the board. Again, pretty LED. I then pulled the ATMEGA328P from my Uno and stuffed it in the DIP, powered it up and ... nothin'.

Can you see what I may have done wrong?

I've built a bunch of ATTiny84 and ATTiny85 breakouts, no problems. But this one has me stumped.

Any help would be appreciated. I suspect that I have done something stupid :) But, Hells ... how else do you learn?

Thanks robonerd

DIYDuino_pcb.pngDIYDuino.jpgFritzed_DIYDuino01.jpgFritzed_DIYDuino02.jpgFritzed_DIYDuino03.jpg
robonerd (author)  baelza.bubba4 months ago

The setup looks good. I know you probably did this, but did you make sure to put the chip in with the notch facing toward the button? Check soldering - make sure it's clean and thorough. If the V and Ground were NOT complete, then you would not have your pretty LED. So we know that at least these are complete. So just look at some of the other traces and soldering. Pins 6-7-8 look like they may need some more work. Check the copper on the board. If there's some spots where it's thin or grainy, it may not be completing. Then you will have to either patch it with solder or make a new board. Did the sketch work when it was on your Arduino?

duino_notes.jpg

Thanks for taking the time to have a look at the images. The notch is facing the button. I'll paint on some more solder on 6-7-8 and recheck the connection points. When I do a continuity test from the other side, socket to socket, I get a strong response ... but who knows, it could be a problem still. The sketch works fine in the Arduino, which is one reason that the problem is a little vexing. I'll persist with getting the circuit to work! Thanks again for your time, I appreciate it.

robonerd (author)  baelza.bubba4 months ago

I'm glad to help. If the power LED is coming on, then the current is making it all the way around the board. It may be that there are some issues with the copper coming from the board to the female sockets you have for PWM analog etc. Load the basic "Blink" sketch and see if pin 13 is working. If pin 13 is working, then change the pins for the LED to go all the way down. This may help you to pinpoint if there is something not connecting. Best of luck. Don't give up, eventually you will figure it out. Post back when you have more info. Cheers.

Thanks robonerd ... I'll do a more thorough test and get back to you :)

Did you use a continuity tester to check for shorts and to check if all your traces conduct?

Hi ThijssjihT, yep, I continuity test everything ... even my toast in the morning ;) I'm a bit pedantic like that. Thanks for the suggestion :)

Next stupid questions, but better safe than sorry:

Is the voltage on the power rails, and voltage on the chip enough?

G'day again ThijssjihT, yep, I also tested the power with the multimeter and got consistent values all around (@5V after the 7805 and @9V before it). Again, thanks for the suggestion, I appreciate your thoughts

The link to PCB123 is broken. Here is a more current link :

http://www.sunstone.com/docs/pcb123/pcb123v5-2-0allinstaller.msi?sfvrsn=6

i really love reading this tutorial but don't have money to buy this stuff needed. wish to do this someday.

PriyaniP8 months ago

first thank you to share your knowledge with us ,i know to how to resize ur image to my board bcoz i print out you image but i cant set ic base properly

robonerd (author)  PriyaniP8 months ago
you shouldnt resize the image, because this will change the size of the components. you need to print it at 100 %.
before you etch the board, lay the IC on the points to be sure they match up. hope this helps you! best of luck!
tharakanwn9 months ago

I made this Arduino. Power light turning on when connect to power. I use a atmega328 with blink LED but it is not working. But when I connect to PL2303 usb-to-serial it just turn on the LED and when I press the switch it turn off that LED. Everything seems same as the project but I don't know why it is not working correctly. (I can't upload sketch from PL2303 to the chip it gives

avrdude: stk500_getsync(): not in sync: resp=0x00 - I used my original uno board to burn sketch to the chip and put that chip into the DIY Ardduino

)

robonerd (author)  tharakanwn9 months ago
hey, check the soldering around the chip. if you load from arduino and still not working some is crossed ovr somewhere in my experience.

Thank you very much. This is my first time I made a circuit board and DIY arduino..You explain everything very nicely..Please check my soldering and connection to PL2303, may be you will be able to identify what went wrong..I made two of these and both have same problem..

20141020_092746.jpg20141020_092839.jpg20141020_092605.jpg20141020_092644.jpg20141020_092700.jpg20141020_092721.jpg

I used isopropyl alcohol and brush to clean all the flux but still didn't work.Please give your suggestions..

robonerd (author)  tharakanwn9 months ago

Ah cCrud, I just noticed there was an error in the instructions. I thought I fixed a while back when another commented. But must have never saved the changes. The ceramic capictors tou need are actually .22pf (NOT .1uf) sorry, if you try this, it should work. I have edited the Instructable to show this. Hope this works!!

I changed the capacitors to 22PF and it works..yeeeeee. Everything perfect. Now I can upload sketches too. So happy...Thank you very much for your nice work..Good luck

robonerd (author)  tharakanwn9 months ago

Glad it finally worked! I'm so sorry about the error in the tutorial. I thought I had corrected this a loooong time ago. *facepalm* :-) Take care my friend!

What is the software you used to design the circuit? Is it EAGLE?

robonerd (author)  tharakanwn9 months ago

i used "PCB123" not sure if it's still around. but there is a link to it in the Instructable on step 30.

Ok, now it is night I will try change to that tomorrow night after work...Thank you very much.

Just to tell you, I have little confuse on Step 18 capacitor orientation(real board).

1-40 of 225Next »