The amplifier in an audio system serves as the central command unit in a way, as it takes the audio from the source, amplifies it, and sends it to the speakers. A receiver, or integrated amplifier, is even more involved in its role, as it has source selectors, speaker selectors, equalizers, and often a radio receiver, as well as other functions. For ultimate simplicity, and cost effectiveness, an integrated amp of receiver is recommended over obtaining and using the individual components. When it comes to receiver choice, there's two main categories: new and vintage. Vintage is generally preferable, as long as you don't need satellite radio, an iPod dock, wireless streaming or other superfluous features. Vintage receivers are better than modern receivers with the same features for a few reasons:
Build quality: vintage receivers are solidly built. They use high quality materials (often all metal) and wood too.
Sound quality: vintage receivers often have very low harmonic distortion that often rivals modern receivers. Beyond that, the sound is often thought of as being more lifelike, dynamic, or full by some.
Repairability: a vintage receiver will last a lifetime. Literally. They require maintenance, but so do modern receivers. But often, modern receivers are unrepairable with surface mount components and other construction methods. Vintage receivers were usually built with the intention of being repaired when they break. Not thrown out.
Value: A high end, restored vintage receiver will run you between 100 an 350 dollars usually. A modern receiver with that level of sound quality is near impossible to find at that price. But a vintage receiver in need of repair will run you about 30 bucks, and can be brought back to better-than-factory condition for about 50 to 70 dollars, plus a couple hours of your time.
This Instructable serves as a basic guide to selecting of a vintage receiver and general repairs that need to be done to bring it back on line. A word to the wise: this Instructable, as I said, is a general guide. There may be questions or issues that you stumble upon specific to your receiver. RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH. audiokarma.org and diyaudio.com are both great resources, but a simple google search can turn up much information. Also, try finding a repair manual on Google. If you find a free download, or even one for a couple bucks, it might just save your project from the scrap heap. 

Step 1: Find a Receiver

When it comes to selecting a vintage receiver, there are a few considerations to make. The first is the age. The golden age of receiver quality is often thought of as being from 1970 to 1985 (ish). The second major consideration is brand. Some good brands to be on the lookout for include: McIntosh, Sansui, Pioneer, Sherwood, Marantz, Kenwood, Onkyo, and Yamaha. There are other great brands out there so do your research. A third consideration is condition. If there is a bad transformer in the power supply, walk away. Bad caps and scratchy controls, however, are not a major problem and are easy to repair. Blown bulbs are also expected, and should not lend much to the decision. Also, burned out components can sometimes be an issue. Burned resistors are no biggy, but burned transistors can be a complete roadblock, with certain transistors no longer being available and equivalents being hard to determine. When it comes to where to find a receiver, there are many options. eBay is probably the most obvious choice, thought for a good value take a look at local thrift shops and antique shops. Many have old audio equipment kicking around. Since they often don't deal with vintage audio equipment, it can be purchased at a good price.
Here, I'm going to use the rebuilding of my Sherwood S-8900 as an example. This receiver was op of the line in 1974, with a list price of $399 dollars. About $1800 today. It's well built and easy to work on. I picked it up in working condition for 30 dollars from a local antique store.

Step 2: Diagnose Potential Issues

There are a few issues that almost any old receiver will have, even if they had been well taken care of by the previous owner. These issues stem from the limited lifespan of certain components. Three main issues are:
Old capacitors: electrolytic and paper capacitors degrade with age. Paper capacitors tend to change their values, while electrolytics break down chemically and essentially turn into a resistor. When power is put through them, they heat up, boil the liquids inside, and go boom. For this reason NEVER PLUG IN AN OLD RECEIVER RIGHT AWAY. Capacitors have a shelf life of anywhere from 10 to 30 years, but a usable life of 1000 to 5000 hours, depending on application and quality. For those reasons it can be assumed a receiver from the 1970s has bad capacitors.
Scratchy controls: the potentiometers that control volume, balance, and EQ need maintenance to function properly that almost was certainly never done. Dirt collects inside of the pots and wipers and traces (depending on material) corrode. Also, the lubricant inside the pot can gunk up with use and needs to be cleaned out and reapplied. If a bad pot is turned, the audio from the speaker often crackles and pops, or even cuts out. While the effect of a bad pot is dramatic, often a cleaning is all it needs and that is easy enough.
Blown bulbs: most receivers that fall into the vintage category preceded widespread use of LEDs. For this reason, small incandescent bulbs were the source of illumination. Being incandescent, they burn out over time. Thankfully, replacement is easy if you can find a bulb, but if you can't an LED conversion is possible.

Step 3: Capacitor Replacement

The most overlooked issue by newcomers to vintage audio is the capacitors. But a bad capacitor has the potential to fail catastrophically, as a quick search of YouTube will demonstrate. But with vintage receivers, they were built to be repaired and used indefinitely, so capacitor replacement is easy enough. First step is to open your receiver and have a look around. Marvel at the vintage construction techniques, and then start numbering the capacitors. Make a list of all the capacitors, with their numbers and values, because it will make ordering replacements easier. While you are in the receiver, also mark capacitor polarity directly on the circuit board. Also, take note of the capacitor markings and can design. Many of the larger value capacitors, often labeled "computer grade" are two capacitors in one, where the two leads on the cap are in fact both positive and the can a common ground. Both caps are usually the same value, though this is not always the case. The values of each cap are listed separately with a D or a triangle between them.
As to where to order your capacitors, there is one only one place I can recommend, due to their selection, service, and prices, and that is Parts Connexion. They also have many other replacement audio components, but they keep a large stock of many audio grade capacitors that are hard to find anywhere else. And as to what kind of capacitor to order...thats an area of personal preference and hot debate. The sky's the limit with capacitor prices, and many people don't want to buy the most expensive capacitors. Some recommended brand for their sound quality and price are:
Elna Silmic II: said to have very clear, smooth mids and highs, and strong bass. Some feel the bass can be unrealistic however. This is my preferred capacitor.
Nichicon Muze Kz: said to be relatively neutral in tone, and having great clarity. Some say the highs can be harsh.
Some other brands to look into include Mundorf and Sanyo Oscon. When it comes to selecting replacements, make sure the voltage rating of the new cap is higher than the old, as well as capacitance value. But that being said, if the old cap is 250uf, the new one can be 220uf. Power caps can be upgraded to larger values, but not by too much, as it can over stress the power supply. For my receiver, there are 25 electrolytic capacitors. The 3300 uf main power cap was changed to a 4700 uf, as were the 4000uf output caps. Here I used Nichicon Gold Tune, since they are priced well and come in the required values and voltages. Some of the other power supply capacitors that were 500uf were changed to 470uf to balance out the increase of the main capacitor. These, as well as all the smaller value caps, were almost all Elnas. My bill from Parts Connexion for all 25 capacitors plus shipping was about $60.00

Step 4: Fix Scratchy Controls

Scratchy controls go hand in hand with old equipment. The contacts in switches and buttons need to be cleaned, but the biggest issues lie in the potentiometers. The metal wipers tend to corrode, and the carbon contacts become scratched and dirty. Thankfully, potentiometers and switches are easy enough to clean. To clean a potentiometer can be done two ways. One is the more drastic method of opening it up and using a pencil eraser to clean the carbon contacts, remove corrosion from the wiper, lubricate and reassemble. This is risky, so the way I would recommend to start with us a chemical cleaning. It's a multiple step process but with positive results:
Dust removal: use an air duster to spray the dust out from in the pot. Put the straw in the space by the leads and give a couple sprays. Deoxidation: use a chemical cleaner to remove any tough dirt and oxidation. For this I recommend Caig Deoxit, which is available with Caig Deoxit Gold at RadioShack. Caig products are also available at Parts Connexion. There are many types, but I recommend the airosol spray type, since it more effective at reaching into the pot.
Lubrication: this is a necessary step to preserve the life of the pot. For this step Caig FaderLube is probably the best, though I have used WD40 with success. Many hate the idea of using WD40, but if the pots on the receiver were as bad as mine the WD40 also helps break up the tougher corrosion that the Caig products did not. The lubricating properties also preserve the pot and prevent further corrosion.
When cleaning the potentiometers, they can be left in the receiver if you are able to still stick the straw of the spray in the space by the leads. Just try not to make a massive mess, and keep the pot surrounded by paper towels so the spray does not end up coating the inside of the receiver or circuit boards. 

Step 5: Replace Bulbs

It can be guaranteed that your receiver has blown bulbs. But do not despair; it's an easy fix. The most obvious route is to replace the bulbs with new ones. This is certainly possible, though it can require a bit of legwork finding replacements. A good place to start is dgwojo.com. If that does not appeal to you, or you want to to change the color of the lights on your receiver, an LED replacement is possible.
The LEDs should usually be wired in series with a resistor, since the voltage supplied to them by the receiver can be around 12 volts. You can also figure 3 ultrabright LEDs to replace one bulb and ensure they are equal or greater brightness. However, when it comes to figuring out the number of LEDs and resistor, it's up to the stats of your receiver, making it hard to provide specific instructions. Often, by googling the type of bulb used in the receiver, the specs of the bulb allow you to determine the voltage that will be suppled to the LEDs. You can also just measure the voltage being supplied to the socket with the receiver switched on.
When replacing the bulbs with LEDs, also try to preserve the connections for the bulbs so if you ever want to go back to bulbs it is possible without too much extra work.
For my receiver, the bulbs were GE53, which is a 14v bulb. I smashed the glass of the bulb and soldered the series resistors and LEDs to the filament support wires in the bulb. The space in the bulb was then filled with hot glue. This allowed the LEDs to be inserted into the stock bulb sockets. Blue LEDs were used to light up the glass, green for the FM signal dial, and red for the stereo light. Since my bulbs are bayonet base, it's important to make sure that the LEDs face the right way when the bulbs are rotated and locked into position. The LEDs are powered of AC, which the LEDs I used can be powered off of safely. Some LEDs have poor reverse polarity strength, but the LEDs I used are the high dispersion type from Christmas lights, which also handle reverse polarity well. Some receivers, however, for things like stereo lights used DC electricity, so heed the polarity. My stereo light operates on DC, so the LED had to be soldered on with the polarity correct.

Step 6: Finishing Touches and Use

While you have the Deoxit out, it is a good idea to use it to clean some of the input/output jacks on the back of the receiver. Cotton balls and swabs are good for this. After an initial cleaning with Deoxit, apply Deoxit Gold to preserve the metal and prevent more corrosion. Cleaning the case of the receiver should also be done. A mild soap and water solution can be used on tough dirt on wood and metal surfaces; just make sure it isn't dripping into the circuit or controls. Windex is also an old standby. Sometimes plastics for knobs and switches can become discolored. These can be cleaned, thought I'm not going to recommend it due to the chemicals and effort.
Now it's time to use it! It's a good idea to power the receiver on with the case apart, and leave it one for a couple minutes. This is just incase you installed a cap backward, and it bursts, you don't have to tear it apart to replace that cap (it's happened to the best of us). Also, many feel that caps have a break/burn in period, others do not. The Silmics have incredibly strong bass immediately after installation, and it is my experience that this does recede with time; so don't judge the sound immediately. Break in can take up to 40 hours of listening time. 
My results were exceptionally positive. Over my old 1990's Pioneer receiver, the sound is much more full, with bass that is cleaner and more controlled. Highs don't screech, but they aren't mellowed out too much either. The mids are very clear, but don't shout on complex music like the Pioneer did.  Plus, the silver front and glowing blue tuning dial look retro but not outdated. For 90 bucks, it can't be beat!
<p>I am hoping you could help me or direct me.</p><p>I just bought a Marconi 1003 record player in a case, after inspection it has a stamp underneath that reads Audio Tool and Engineering 950a.</p><p>Do you think the name is different because parts have been changed?<br>when I turn it on to play a record I have to initiate the spin with my hand. There is a loud hum coming from what might be the motor, the box on the right.<br>Lastly, I get needle sound from the needle on the record, but nothing from the speakers. the tube lights up, maybe an amplifier problem? I did a visual check of the wire and soders and they seem to be okay.<br>Thoughts?</p>
<p>Very helpful. Thank you for taking the time to create this instructable!</p>
<p>Hi -Great article! I have about half dozen wonderful pieces that I got over the years including my first integrated amp when i was in 6th grade, a Kenwood KA 5700. &quot;A vintage receiver in need of repair will run you about 30 bucks, and can be brought back to better-than-factory condition for about 50 to 70 dollars, plus a couple hours of your time.&quot; That's nice to hear. A local shop has a minimum price of 185 for repair! I have another KA 5500 that runs a pair of GNPs (mid &amp; tweeter) on &quot;A&quot;, and then the matching 2x8 GNP subwoofer on &quot;B&quot;....Clicked to &quot;A&quot; the speakers sound fine (although not much bass), when I click &quot;B&quot; I hear the mid &amp; lower frequencies, somewhat odd sounding, coming from the sub. When I click A &amp; B, it's sounds terrible, no high frequencies, just a bunch of mid and low mid. I'm not an electronics expert, but I'm pretty technical. Is this an easy fix? Thanks for your time!</p>
<p>Hello, I also need help with my stereo receiver. I have a MCS Series 3236. I hear sound from the right channel only. The watt meter for the speakers, only indicates signal from the right side. </p><p>I was using MCS speakers and I have changed those out with other known to be good speakers ( tested on my friends JVC stereo system) Still no sound from the left side. Out of curiosity, I plugged my stereo head phones into the head phone jack of the 3236, and the head phones mimic the speaker problem.</p><p>Out of curiosity, I attached a stereo cassette tape deck to the MCS receiver. and Surprisingly, the recording meters indicate sound levels on both left and right channels.! Also the tape deck records sound from both channels! I recorded stereo music onto a cassette from the FM receiver of the MCS 3236. !???? Can you tell me what is causing the problem and where I will find that problem inside? Or give me tips/ suggestions/ direction to direct me to the problem? please. I thank you in advance. </p>
<p>Hello. I am a musician and not an expert by any means on HIFI but I had exactly the same problem as you with my KLH receiver, and I struggled for days checking and switching on and off but no luck. I did an awful lot of research but finallly telephoned to purchase a new amp when my brother, a computer engineer, suggested that on such an amp it is probably dirt\corrosion on the potentiometers. These can be cleaned he said with contact cleaner. I used WD40 and also squirted some at the knobs and push buttons at the front. Nothing happened but the next day I began to listen to a talk through the one speaker and after 5 minutes they both worked again. I cancelled my order for a new amp and one week later they still work perfectly. i love the sound from my KLH speakers and receiver and would, after forty years, be heartbroken to lose such a sound.</p>
Ok, so I have a JVC receiver that I bought new 29 years ago. It's the only stereo I've ever owned. I had it in storage for a years due to moves, but recently hooked it up and it works fine. I'm wondering now, after seeing this, should I get it looked at, maybe cleaned? I'm not mechanical, and I'd rather have someone who knows what they are doing look at it.<br>Thanks.
<p>It should probably be gone through and have the electrolytics replaced. The parts themselves (caps) are fairly inexpensive, and even though it still works, they will fail, probably sooner than later, due to its age.</p>
Yeah, and I looked inside. It's really dusty. Not a bad idea. Thank you.
<p>I have a Yamaha CR-1040 receiver that I bought in the 70's. It used to be that when you turned in on it would take a second or two before there would be a dink sound and then the sound would come on. The dink is gone and there is no sound. Everything else works. Any ideas of where to start in fixing this?</p>
<p>You are referring to a relay. A lot of units have speaker relays that delay the signal to the loudspeakers until the signal stabilizes, then 'click', connecting the speakers. The relay could be bad, or the driving voltage is not the proper level, so it could be the relay or something else. It would need to be checked by someone with the proper equipment. At the age of the unit, all of the electrolytic caps would need to be replaced by now.</p>
<p>replace the power caps first</p>
<p>You mention that if a unit has a bad &quot;transformer&quot; then walk away but, later down you say bad &quot;transistors&quot; can be a road block. </p><p>I suspect you meant to say &quot;transistors&quot; both times as I would suspect a bad transformer would not be much of an issue to replace. Unless, perhaps, it's malfunction has fried the rest of the components.</p>
<p>No, he meant transformer. Though they usually are reliable, they can fail sometimes, and finding a direct replacement would be difficult for an older unit. However, if you are familiar with electronics, you could fit a replacement without too much trouble.</p>
<p>Hello,I have a vintage kenwood 9000 after being on for a few minuets the right channel drops to a very low volume.What do I need to do to fix this ?</p>
<p>JoeBeau is Absolutely Right</p><p>New audio components are not only poorly constructed, (with inferior parts), but worse still they are poorly designed. Complicated circuitry, unnecessary features, and engineered to be thrown away. Often no replaceable parts, (cheaper to sell something new than stock a warehouse with circuit boards. </p><p>Before tackling the repair of my Phase Linear 4000 4-channel pre-amp I bought a temporary replacement: ROTEL surround sound/pre-amp/tuner/processor; since the Phase was 40+years and had some strange problems. (It also has a LOT of circuit boards---12). The ROTEL arrived with 'blackened' fuse, and No help from the owner. </p><p>The skinny=I was successful with the Phase (Hurray---something two tech's didn't want to work on); the ROTEL is still Turtled up-dead. Standby power---Main power---or something I can't trace. If it were a vintage unit, then there would be a chance to discover the problem . . . but with power disappeering behind the front panel, control every function and feature, it's nearly impossible. The front panel must contain processors, 'logic' circuits, and plenty of pretty Blue lights. [Service Manual=none. closest approximate=written in Hindustandi with sections omitted. </p><p>Thanks, BEWARE of technology.</p><p>Ling </p>
<p>Humm.... First thing: the presented steps aren't in the right order. I'd suggest to first test the unit (always check for DC current output before pluging speakers on a unit that is new to you), then clean the switches and pots, since they can cause lots of different issues, otherwise you may be chasing your tail wondering what's wrong with the unit. After that, you may chase around the issues the unit may have. Bad caps can be a problem, but waaaayyy before changing every capacitor in the amplifier, you may solve every issue (dead channel, clicks and pops, noise, protection circuit going on, burned light bulbs, etc.), otherwise, you may create new issues. This is not all about changing old capacitors, a vintage amplifier or receiver can be plagged by many other aged related problems. Among others, cold joints, especially on areas where heat is produced, loosen wire round (can lead to noise and bad connections), loosen screws (an easy one, but can be noisy because of a bad ground), and dirt and dust (foam glass cleaner is great to get rid of 40 or so years of nicotine on knobs, faceplate and cabinet, a light paintbrush is good to remove dust from electronic boards). Also, odds are you're not the first to open the unit and mess around with it. You'll see all kinds of repairs, made by professional and amateur technicians (results may vary a lot). This should get your attention. Once the unit is clean, operational and trouble free, you'll still have to adjust bias and DC offset (not mentionned in this tutorial). After all this, you'll judge if you really need to change every capacitor (your ears will tell you). I've been through the process of recapping an old quality amplifier I had and noticed a sound improvement, but that didn't solved every problem (a lot has been done before, and reccapping was the final touch). This tutorial is misleading. Many old amplifiers don't require an entire recap as a necessity, changing everything doesn't make you a good technician. </p>
<p>I have a Pioneer Amp DC-Z83 and everything works except the EQ. If i unplug it and plug it back in it will light up for a second and then go dark. Does anyone have an idea what the problem might be and how to fix it? It did work not to long ago, then i hadn't used this stereo for about a year and the EQ hasn't worked since.</p>
<p>Hi guys,</p><p>I was wondering if somebody could help me out.</p><p>So I found these Akai sw 155 speakers and a JVC ja-s44 amplifier lying around in my granddad's room and decided to start them up. Long story short, the speakers by themselves work, i.e. the right channel and left channel individually work, but when I plug in both speakers, sound only seems to comes out from the left channel and the sound coming out from the right channel is also very low. Would really appreciate if someone could help me out</p>
<p>Hi, I've had those speakers in storage for a while (gift from a moving friend) and just hooked them up to an old Kenwood. They're absolutely amazing, to my ears. Here's a great place to start for info on your amp and troubleshooting its issues: http://www.audiokarma.org/forums/index.php?threads/jvc-ja-s44-a-restore-and-some-respect-for-good-design.204813/</p>
<p>Hey everybody. </p><p>I'm new to this but I have managed to &quot;fix&quot; a few of my various electronic gadgets over the years. I bought an old Kenwood High Speed (not sure what that means) DC Stereo Receiver KR 6650 at a garage sale. I think It was sold in England because it's got an adaptor on the plug from forked to flat prongs. I've been using it with a couple of great old Heco speakers. It's loud. It has great low end. The controls and switches always had issues. I finally cleaned everything and blew out the aeons of dust which greatly improved the crackly volume pot, non-responding switches and other pots. However lately there has been another issue that I'm not sure about. This is one of those amps that &quot;heats&quot; up for a second or two before the amp portion of the power supply kicks, or rather clicks-in. So when you activate the power switch the light strip comes on, then you hear a click. Well, lately the amp portion of the power has been clicking on and off willy nilly. Sometimes right away, sometimes an hour goes by. Most of the time it'll click back on for a few moments, then click off again, and back. Not ideal as you can imagine unless you're playing musical chairs. It's probably the power supply I'm guessing but I thought I'd post here to see if people had any ideas. </p>
<p>Hi guys</p><p>I have an old amplifier from my Dad (a realistic STA-18), and the left channel doesn't work. I've never worked on something like this before but I tried to figure out the problem. I found a blown fuse inside the amplifier that connected to the left channel on the main amp circuit board. I used a multimeter to test the 4 transistors and found one on the left channel side that didn't give a reading, so I replaced it, and put a new fuse in. Well... limited success: I can now get a faint sound out of the left channel speaker. The fuse didn't blow, but the reading off the new transistor I put in is still a bit funny (very low- changed since installed, so maybe partially burnt right away?). I measure the voltage coming out of the two speakers now: 80 mVolts from right channel (just right I'm told) and only 4 from the left channel... which is about what we're hearing.</p><p>Any advice?</p>
<p>I purchased a vintage hi fi. The original bill of sale says it was from Montgomery Ward. It has a receiver, with FM, Phono, AM, and Tape options. The FM/AM tuner is integrated and the cabinet has a phonograph, as well as speakers. It sounds really nice and has re-ignited a great love of vinyl. My kids love it too. Unfortunately, I have just recently started hearing a boom like noise, not a crackle, but more of a pop that intermittently boomed from one of the speakers. I am not sure what to do, what is wrong or how to fix/diagnosis it. I love the unit and do not want to do any irrepairable damage, so I have stopped using it. I feel like it is probably as simple as a wiring issue, but am not sure where to go. Help would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!</p>
Hi very enjoyable read. I just got back into the vintage stuff and vinyl. I picked up a vintage Realistic 2100d that looks mint. All the reviews I have read is that this thing is amazing. I hooked it all up and plays seamlessly but the sound is very tinny and screachy from the highs? I was using a pioneer sx 3800 and the sound wasnt like that. Can it be a crappy cap or am i missing something with this amp?
<p>anything that old the caps are dried out and out of spec. replace them all</p>
<p>How did you determine which caps were power caps and which one were output caps?</p>
<p>the power caps are the biggest ones in there so you can't miss them. there are usually at least 2 in there. as far as output caps when you dealing with something that old you should replace all the electrolytic caps because they are dried out and out of spec. </p>
<p>hello, I have a vintage pioneer amp sa608. When starting it up it makes a buzzing noise. After a minute thats gone and the amp plays great. What could be the problem?</p>
<p>does it still have the stock capacitors? If so all the electrolytics have to be replaced. start with the big main power caps then the smaller ones</p>
I have a fisher ca 272 that i bought about a year ago, it sounded great and didnt have any issues until about a month ago while playing it in the mid power range the low end sound just cut out but the high kept playing just a little quieter, any ideas what the problem could be? All of the connections look clean and i could find and blown glass fuses
<p>Hi, I have an old sherwood 2610 cp receiver. All works great other than the AM/FM . No sound when switched to AM or FM. I did discover a blown fuse 250v x 3.5 amp</p><p>and used a 250v x 2amp to check it, no it did not blow the 2 amp fuse......but no difference, still no sound. Any thought's of what else to check? Thanks in advance. </p>
I would say to first get the right fuse before extensive use, but the fact that it didn't blow that fuse is an okay sign. The old fuse being blown probably has no bearing on the fact that the radio channels are not working. Otherwise, the fuse would most likely blow again upon power up since that problem had not been resolved. However, there is small chance that something in the radio receiver failed and blew the fuse. But this would mean a pretty dramatic failure, with signs of burned/warm components so that the radio receiver power is now 'disconnected' so the new fuse wouldnt blow.<br><br>Not having sound from the radio could be a bunch of things. It could be as simple as the wire going to the input selector knob/switch could be broken or disconnected. There might be two wires, assuming it is a stereo radio receiver. If not this, then the problems could be much more difficult to pin down. There could be a malfunctioning squelch/hush circuit, which is designed to get rid of that static sound between actual channels. There may even be a mute function that is stuck on. Unfortunately, there are many causes for such a symptom and no easy answer without running tests. RF circuits can be particularly hard to work on.
<p>Hi, I'm restoring my Denon DR-M14HX Cassette Deck. What type of paint should I use on fixing the scratches on the front trim &amp; facing om this unit?</p>
Hi there...<br>A lovely read, thanks!<br>Just wondered, I have an old Pioneer stereo, F-Z92L, about 26 years old. It has developed the low humming noise you mention. Is it repairable, could it be the power supply caps, and if so, how easy to replace?<br>Many thanks,<br>Roi
<p>That humming sound can be the power supply caps going, as well as the DC blocking caps on the output of the amp, if it has them. In both circumstances, the capacitors would be big like the once pictured in the article. How easy they are to replace depends on the construction of the amp. Something like a Pioneer of that age probably uses a PCB instead of point to point wiring, which makes things easier</p>
Im getting ready to completly recap my s8900 do you have a list of all the caps you bought?
<p>Unfortunately, I do not. This was long enough ago that I also don't have the receipt from my purchase. I would reccommend using a site like Parts Connexion for the capacitors. They had everything I needed.</p>
<p>Hello, I have a Realistic 2300 D that I bought new in the eighties and has been languishing in my garage for years now. I would like to really bring the old girl back to life and I'm curious if the power supply could even be upgraded from its stated 120 watts up to say the level of some of the true monster receivers out in that day that were pushing up to 300 watts? </p>
<p>When a receiver is said to be 300 watts, this refers to the output power available to the speaker (these values can be RMS, 'music power', or some other standard. measuring output power is a topic in itself). This, of course, relies on having a larger power supply. But putting a larger supply into a receiver won't make it put out more power. Modifying for more power is generally not a worthwhile project. The output power of an amplifier is often dependent on component ratings. Changing out components to allow more power handling often times mean the topology of the circuit might no longer be ideal..... it's generally not a project that produces a worthwhile result with the effort. That doesn't mean it isn't possible, but what to do would change from model to model.</p><p>I would recommend keeping the amp as is, and just replace any tired or worn out components. 120 watts is not bad- by no means is it a house shaker, but that is more than enough for normal/loud listening.</p>
A vintage receiver is a worthy investment for an audiophile. I find myself listening to so much more music now; my old receiver now sounds fatiguing.
<p>Joe Beau - I need help from an expert. I have two receivers I would like to integrate - a Pioneer VSX-1123-K and a SX-1280. I would like to power the system (CD, Cassette deck) off of the SX-1280 using it as the main amp and connecting all the components to the A/V receiver. I would want to use my RF-82's for the HT as well as the audio. Would this work if I connected everything to the VSX? I was also wondering if I were to hook up the SX to the VSX if I would have unified volume with the use of the remote?</p>
<p>hello there , I am hoping you could help me out. I just picked up functioning Sansui QRX-3500 4 Channel receiver. I have played music for 2-3 days successfully . (with out warming it up before hand, don't know if thats necessary) today I plugged it into my music (laptop ) and the left speaker was kinda crackling so I tried turning it up, then the smoke was released . where should I start? left speaker is no longer making sound . </p>
<p>If you saw smoke, that means that you blew more than a fuse.</p><p>Start with a visual inspection. Unplug the receiver for a day or two to make give the capacitors time to drain (assuming that they have drain resistors) and then take the cover off the receiver. once inside, short all the large capacitors to discharge them and make sure the work environment is safe. That being said, be cautious poking around in the receiver.</p><p>Now, since there was smoke, there would most likely be visual evidence of damage. Check the capacitors. If any have bulging or domed tops, they're bad. Or, if the top already split open. Also, check the resistors/transistors as well. If any of them appear damaged, that would be your source of smoke. Damaged components, if they had released their magic smoke, will often look as if they had burned. Plastic cases might be melted/cracked, and there might be scorch marks on the circuit board. Once you have figured out which components failed, then it would be time to figure out how to fix it. So start with that for now. I would be more than willing to help once you know what went wrong.</p>
<p>Hi...I have a Sherwood S9910. The sound is great when working, but often it only comes through one speaker...when I tap the &quot;tone&quot; button, it will cut back in. Any ideas on repair?</p>
<p>That sounds like a loose connection. The signal passes through thee tone switch, so to have a bad switch or connection to the switch would render your exact symptoms. So check:</p><ul><li>Connections and wires to swtich<li>The swithch itself making proper contact.</ul>
<p>Thanks so much Joe...I'll do some surgery.</p>
Hello everyone, I've got a 90's pioneer elite VSX-09tx, and the sound doesn't work from any source for about the first thirty seconds, and then one speaker will kick in, and then a few seconds later, the second speaker cuts in and the audio is back. It's almost like it has to &quot;warm up&quot; before outputting the audio from both channels, Any ideas what could be the cause? Thanks.
Well... I can say that with a receiver like that, it relies heavily on some embedded processing to run its various features. This can make repair difficult, as now you have to account for a possible error in the logic system, as well as hardware issues. And because of the complexity of the circuit due to all the features that receiver has, hardware repairs can sometimes be problematic. <br> <br>That being said, I don't know that something is 'broken'. From personal experience, receivers like that have a boot up time, just like a computer. That boot up has to happen when going from standby to on, as well as switching between different modes. If the power to the receiver was cut (like you turn it off when not in use) boot up will take longer. This is because the receiver's processor is still running when in standby. <br> <br>So what you could be seeing is the boot up of the processor. Also, there could be a faulty safety circuit for the speaker outputs. While it sounds unusual that one speaker turns on before the other, I would not worry about it too much unless this is a new problem. If it is a new problem, but it coincides with some change in how you use the receiver, such as unplugging or cutting the power when not in use, I would suggest keeping power on to the receiver if this issue proves problematic.
If I bought it new, does it still count as vintage? :-) Somehow I think it has to be older than me. Still, I do love my Kenwood KR-6600, so I will read all of this article. It seems like a good idea to fix up this old Kenwood.
If I have a vintage receiver from the 70's that works great, how strongly do you recommend replacing the capacitors?

About This Instructable




Bio: Why fix it if it ain't broken? Because it's fun.
More by JoeBeau:How to Launch a Rocket to Space: Inside BURPG Part 4 How to Launch a Rocket to Space: Inside BURPG Part 3 How to Launch a Rocket to Space: Inside BURPG Part 2 
Add instructable to: