Introduction: DIY USB Charger for Your Phone - LM2596
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Step 1: Components
Step 2: Schematic
Schematic of USB charger.
Step 3: Soldering
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Please be positive and constructive.
This may not work for some/most phones. This is because you aren't not telling it that you are using a charger, therefore it must comply by USB spec. As there is no communication on the data lines, it may confuse it.
Most phones require you either:
Bridge the two data pins on the USB together,
or if its an iPhone, it looks for like 2v and 2.6v on the data pins iirc
Easiest to use a USB control IC like the TPS2511DGN