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Before I even realised the 2x4 competition was going on, I had a spare 2x4 and had been watching far too many of Paul Sellers' woodworking videos, which had filled my head with delusions of being a proper woodworker. It struck me that there are plenty of "rustic garden chair from a 2x4" type guides around but not many making something a bit more refined-looking. I wanted a project to practise my carpentry skills on so I thought why not see if I could make a decent-looking indoor chair from a single 2x4? Here's how I got on.

Step 1: Planning

The first step was to figure out a rough design for the chair and work out if I could actually get that much usable wood from one 2x4. Here in metric-land, rough softwood timber comes in pieces about 2440 x 95 x 45mm, roughly 8' x 1 3/4" x 3 3/4". When I talk about "2x2" or "2x1" I mean the resulting size from resawing that wood into halves or quarters, though it isn't that exact size in inches.

The basic plan was to cut the wood into three sections: a 50cm piece I would resaw into two 2x2 for the front legs, a 90cm piece that would provide two 2x2 for the back and back legs, and a 100cm piece I would resaw into four 2x1 strips that would then form the rest of the frame- the seat sides, stretcher and back spindles/rails.

I figured out that I could get three ~30cm pieces, six 40cm pieces and three ~20cm pieces which would let me build the frame of a reasonably sized chair. The third image here shows the cut list to provide those lengths.

The part where I went totally off-piste was the back angle. The back of a dining chair should slope backwards at about 8 degrees, which sane people achieve by cutting a shape out of a larger piece of wood, but this would result in far too much waste. I had to figure out a way to take a single continuous 2x2 and introduce a shallow bend into the middle.

I'm new to the whole chair anatomy thing- the final image shows the words I'm using for various parts of the chair, which I may well be using incorrectly but it beats calling them "vertical back part" and "horizontal back part".

Step 2: Resawing

Step one was to cut the entire 2x4 into the lengths I wanted: 50cm, 90cm and 100cm. A tape measure, pencil and mitre saw made quick work of this.

Once I had the lengths I needed I had to resaw them into thinner pieces. Any sane woodworker would use a table saw to do this, but I don't have a table saw so had to improvise. I fitted a 4 tooth-per-inch blade on the bandsaw as a general purpose blade can't cut this thickness of wood without clogging. I also clamped a feather board to the table and clamped both ends of the fence to try and keep it cutting as square as possible.

It's important to get the cut in the middle of the wood so the two resulting pieces are the same size - to do this I made a short cut into one end, then measured the distance from the fence to the cut, and adjusted the position of the fence until the saw was going to leave the same amount of wood on both sides.

When resawing long pieces of wood on a small bandsaw you'll end up with the weight of the board hanging off the far end, which is bad news. If possible, find an assistant to support the wood coming out of the cut to avoid having to reach around the blade. I wouldn't advise resawing this way, but if you do do it, pay attention and be safe!

Once you've resawed to the width you need, cut the 2x1s down to the lengths from the cut list and you have your raw lengths ready for cleaning up.

Step 3: Plane Sailing

Cutting a thick piece of softwood on a cheap bandsaw with a coarse blade will probably result in wavy cuts. This job was no exception. I took the wavy wood over to a bench vise and planed down the cut surfaces until smooth. You could use a powered sander here instead of a plane, but be careful not to take off too much material.

Step 4: Fancy Touches- Back

After dry fitting the back together to see how it looked, I began to feel like I was just creating another boxy square design without any of those decorative flourishes that set fine furniture apart from its rustic and flatpack cousins. Before I started assembling the chair I decided to:

- Cut some cutouts from the spindles to make them more slender-looking

- Cut a slight radius into the top and bottom rails

To make the cutouts on the spindles, I made a template out of a scrap of plywood, used this to draw the cut lines on the spindles and cut them out on the bandsaw. The template for the top and bottom curve on the rails could be drawn freehand but I cheated and cut this one on the laser cutter.

I also clamped the three spindles together and sanded a slight radius into the ends with the nose of a belt sander, so they would be tapered slightly where they met the rails - this again makes them look a bit more slender, and also hides any slight misalignment as I was still honing my dowel-joint-making skills at this point.

Step 5: Fancy Touches- Legs

Continuing the little design touches, I decided to

- Taper the bottom section of the legs down to a smaller "foot"

- Chamfer the top parts of the legs into a pyramid so they don't just terminate in a square end

To chamfer the tops of the legs, I used a woodworking gauge to divide the top of each leg into thirds (like a tic-tac-toe board) and scribed a line 5mm down from the top edge, and cut the four bevels on the bandsaw.

To taper the bottom of each leg, I needed to cut two wedges out on adjacent sides. To do this I had to mark and cut one wedge, then mark the second one on the cut face. Each wedge is 150mm x 15mm so the foot is about half the area of the leg which seemed to look like the right proportions.

Step 6: Bending Over Backwards

This part was done more as a personal challenge to myself and to see whether I could make the chair from a single 2x4 worth of wood. The sensible way to make a back leg with a bend in it would be to trace the outline on a piece of 2x4 wood and cut it out. I only had two straight 2x2s which I needed to introduce a bend into, so I decided to cut them at an angle and rotate one of the pieces, so I could glue them back together with a lap joint at an angle.

The 90cm 2x2 wouldn't fit in the bandsaw and I couldn't reliably get a perfectly straight cut on it anyway. This is another part of the process which would have been much easier with a table saw. As it is, I had to clamp the 2x2 between two workbenches, and clamp a long straightedge to it at a 10 degree angle to guide the jigsaw. 10 degrees is more angle than I would have liked, but anything shallower would have made the cut impractically long - each cut was about 25cm long and took several minutes of painstaking jigsawing, but I ended up with a cut surface that was flat enough to glue up. These joints were the only ones that used screws, because just clamping them together resulted in the two halves sliding apart, so I drilled and countersunk two holes through each joint to accept wood screws that held the two halves in the right position while the glue dried.

Step 7: Starting to Assemble

With all the pieces made, it was time to start assembling. The easiest way to assemble a chair of this shape is to glue the back together as one piece, and the front similarly, then attach the two parts of the frame together with the sides of the seat and stretchers.

The first part to be assembled was the back. To make the dowel joints I'd drill two 28mm deep, 9mm diameter holes into the ends of the spindles and the sides of the rails, and glue a 50mm section of 9mm dowel into the joints. The holes were deeper than they needed to be to allow a little room for glue at the ends.

Having done this the hard way, I'd recommend drilling the holes into the ends of the spindles, measuring their position and drilling the corresponding holes in the rails, because drilling accurately placed holes into the softwood end grain was tricky.

Gluing the back together required a bit of ingenuity as I didn't have a single bar clamp long enough - I'd really recommend you figure this sort of thing out before starting as it's quite stressful trying to improvise clamping arrangements while the glue is drying!

I also drilled the holes for the stretcher, but didn't glue it up on its own. I made sure to drill the holes in the ends of the side arms of the stretcher so they were pointing straight forward/back in the chair, which made assembling the frame much easier than if they were drilled straight into the ends.

Step 8: The Final Stretch

Right. Take a deep breath and mentally prepare yourself. Lay everything you need out where it's accessible: a glue pot, spreader stick, lots of paper towel for wiping up squeezeout, enough dowels of the appropriate lengths and all the frame pieces.

Glue the holes in the stretcher, insert dowels and fit it together.

Place the back of the chair on the workbench facing up, glue all the holes and insert dowels. Glue the protruding ends of these dowels, and fit the stretcher onto the lower set of dowels. Glue up the seat sides and fit them onto the upper dowels.

Add glue to the exposed holes in the side parts you just added, insert and glue up the remaining dowels, and fit the front legs onto those. Take a breath.

Make sure all the joints are fully pushed together with as little gap as you can manage - a little persuasion with a mallet can help out, but don't go wild on it. Set the chair upright on its legs and make sure it's not crooked or twisted. You can add a strap clamp or bar clamps to hold it all together while it dries.

Admire the chair from all angles - this step is important.

Once this was done, I grabbed a piece of plywood and jigsawed a seat to fit over the seat sides with corners cut out for the legs. The idea was to upholster this with fabric and upholstery foam (inspired by, naturally, Paul Sellers' video on how to upholster a chair seat which came out when I was half way through making this chair) but I ran out of time for the contest deadline so for now a seat pad will have to do. And I was trying to make something that didn't look like garden furniture...

Step 9: What Did I Learn?

  • Making furniture is tricky and time consuming. I've built working model aeroplanes in less time than this chair.
  • Don't expect to be able to drill precisely positioned holes in pine end grain
  • Just because you can resaw lumber with a bandsaw, doesn't mean you should
  • 10 degrees is too much rake for a dining chair: it's nice and relaxed to sit on but you wouldn't want to eat at a dining table sitting in it.

Despite all this, a piece of simple everyday furniture from scratch is definitely one of the more rewarding things I've made, and I'm sure I'll build more in future. Hopefully this goes to show just how far you can make a 2x4 go with some ingenuity and a healthy disregard of practical limitations :)

Well done PKM! I like your smart use of wood for those back legs, the clever titles for each step, and your use of Sketchup! I try to employ the last 2 in my Instructibles too!
Finished the chair today.
<p>Yours looks great! I love the fabric too, really looking forward to upholstering mine when there's time.</p>
Nice project. I have made it.
<p>Cool! I never expected anyone to actually make it... Yours looks great! I'm interested in what your setup is, if you use a table saw etc.</p>
<p>I had a spare 2x4 and i saw your project, so i thought why not. i use the chair for my clothes next to my bed.</p><p>i've used for this project a small tablesaw for cutting the 2x4 in length, a jigsaw for the seat and a mitrsaw, with your instructions it was a fairly easy project!.</p><p>my only problem was getting the holes for the dowels straight and aligned.</p>
<p>Very nice instructable......I will consider this structure-building in the summer! Thankyou for sharing!</p>
<p>I'd expect the bending to take less work and allow for a smaller angle with steam and some clamping. Didn't try it, but I'd lay the two pieces on a casserole of boiling water, leave them there for an hour or two, maybe add fresh water if too much evaporates, then press them into some pre-made molds - a piece of 2 x 4 onto which you'd screw and glue an additional piece of board cut to the desired angle. Maybe repeat the process a few times, to make sure the wood doesn't un-bend later on.</p>
<p>Just a question - or maybe two...<br>1. Our standard &quot;2x4&quot; measures &quot;38mm x 114mm&quot; which is a bit smaller both ways than what you've used. From your experience - might this look a bit &quot;light weight&quot; after assembly? <br>2. Have you considered using pocket screws instead of dowels on some of the joints?</p>
<p>114mm is wider than mine- I make that nearly 4 1/2 inches. I thought an average american 2x4 was actually 1 1/2&quot; x 3 1/2&quot;, or 38 x 89mm. That would make it a little skinnier, for sure, but probably not so much that it would be too weak to use. If you use a table saw for resawing you'll lose more wood to the cut, as my bandsaw makes a cut about 1.5mm wide and I think table saw kerf tends to be wider than that, but then I probably made up for the difference by planing the ripples off the cut faces.</p><p>I tried to avoid having any visible screws as a challenge here, and I'm glad I did, but I could have built the whole thing in half the time using screws. Different strokes for different... tasks?</p>
Nice to meet another fan of Paul Sellers. I've just made the rebate plane and setting up to start the clock.
<p>Very nice! I've got a way to go before I'm ready to tackle the things he gives designs for- I'd like to be able to make a really nice snug mortise/tenon or dovetail joint before I start messing about with expensive proper wood, and also hone my technique (har har) with planes and chisels. Walk before you can run, sort of thing.</p>
I'm with you on walking, but I use remaindered or reclaimed wood or resaw yellow pine and make panels, fancy wood not in my budget. if you don't mind I'll keep you posted or we can work through the course together
Your chair us going on the list
<p>Very nice job - I am tempted.... and for info, I just successfully bent a 1 x 2 (25 x 50mm) piece using the steamer that removes wallpaper - then clamped to a form. Easier than I had feared.</p>
<p>That sounds like prime Instructable material! I'd be interested to see your setup, and just how far you can bend a 1x2 piece of wood.</p>
<p>Does a dining room chair have to have a slight degree in the back? Stupid question I know, but I am not an expert like most of yall and would love to build my own furniture for my place. Already have an idea of how to take pallets and regular lumber to make a dining room table, just need an idea for the seating now...</p>
<p>Believe me, I'm no expert :)<br>My chair has a 10 degree rake to the back, which in my opinion is a bit too laid-back for a dining chair. <a href="https://youtu.be/FmWlJ7ExNeI?t=4m20s">This video</a> suggests no more than 7 degrees.</p><p>I wouldn't make it upright either as that will probably be uncomfortable, but ultimately the only way to answer the question is to try building something that fits you. You could always measure a chair you have that fits well and replicate that.</p>
<p>Very well written and demonstrated! Congrats on this whole presentation and most definitely on the final product! I have been looking for exactly this since I have to build a few chairs for myself. NOT having a band saw (and only a very small table saw!), I will have to improvise on getting the rake to somewhere between 5-6 degrees - like you mentioned, the cut is going to be extremely difficult to accommodate. <br><br>But, as we say in South Africa: &quot; 'n Boer maak 'n plan!&quot; (&quot;A Farmer makes a plan!&quot;) ;). By the way - nice to have metric dimensions available! <br><br>Congrats again!</p>
Thanks! I like that saying, if I knew any farmers who spoke Afrikaans I'd probably get some use out of it :)<br> <br> If you do build one I'd love to see it, especially how you manage the oblique cuts on a table saw. If you have a sled (as seen on popular woodworkers' Youtube channels, eg. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/stevinmarin" rel="nofollow">Steve Ramsey</a>&nbsp; or <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Matthiaswandel" rel="nofollow">Matthias Wandel</a> ) that might be the way to go.<br> <br> I don't think you could manage 5 degrees, though- at 6 the cut is almost the entire length of the leg. If you can spare the wood it's probably easier to just cut the outline from 2x4 stock.
I like it! Would it be cheating to start with two 2 &times; 2s or one 2 &times; 2 and two 1 &times; 2s?
Not at all - and probably more sane than doing it this way as there's less resawing to do - I just happened to have a single 2x4 spare.
<p>Simple (or not) trick for making bends in wood:</p><p>Cut across the piece from the side you want to curve to almost through to the far side. Apply wood glue in the cut. Bend wood carefully so that the cut ends move toward each other. Clamp and let dry. Measure angle. Repeat close by the first cut until the desired angle is reached. The trick is figuring how much wood to leave so that the bend does not splinter. The varies by type of wood being used. Soaking the wood left at the joint can help it bend, just leave the wood to be joined dry.</p><p>When all cuts are made and the glue is dry, sand the curves of both sides. Fill any remaining gaps.</p>
<p>one drill bit i use is the brad point, should help with end grain</p><p>it has a center point and outside cutters</p><p>I only use this bit in wood or plastic, NEVER METAL.</p><p><a href="http://www.harborfreight.com/catalogsearch/result?q=brad+point" rel="nofollow">http://www.harborfreight.com/catalogsearch/result?...</a></p><p>the other bit is the Forstner </p><p><a href="http://www.harborfreight.com/catalogsearch/result?q=Forcner" rel="nofollow">http://www.harborfreight.com/catalogsearch/result?...</a></p><p>again, I only use this bit in wood or plastic, NEVER METAL.</p>
<p>You're absolutely right, brad point drill bits are generally much better for wood than regular twist drills. I drilled most of the holes in this project using a 6mm brad point bit and then enlarged them with a 9mm twist bit because I don't have any large brad point bits. I should have mentioned it at the relevant point- if I can edit without it messing up the contest entry, I'll go back and mention that.</p>
<p>wow you did it I am going to see if I can too</p>
Well-presented instructable. I appreciated the clear pictures, the cautions and lessons learned.
<p>Thanks! If I can save one person from the hassle I had trying to drill holes into pine end grain, or convince them that building furniture isn't just for woodworking masters with years of experience, mission accomplished :)</p>
Great work. Really impressive.
<p>quite professional thanks a lot. </p>
Well done. Will vote for you!
Thanks!
<p>This is a very good instructable! You actually show and explain how to build this, rather than just a photo gallery. You have my vote.</p>
Thanks! It's good to know someone reads the words, I know I tend to write quite a lot of them...

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