Step 2: Doily!
And so it begins. The gluing-hanging-drying phase takes quite a bit of time, it turns out, but the final product looks so much better when everything's had time to dry properly.
Taking your first doily, place on some newspaper and brush liberally with glue. It's fine to be heavy-handed here. When it's all good and saturated with glue, place on the top of your balloon, leaving a bit of room around the top, which is where your blub will eventually slip through.
Repeat with more doilies, and be sure to overlap along the edges. You'll notice that the lamp will be weighed down with each added doily, and at a certain point you won't be able to add any more. When this first (approx. 1/3) of your balloon is covered, let dry as is.
A day or 2 later, once it's all dry, cut balloon from makeshift hanging, and prop up so an un-doilied side is exposed. Cover again with doilies, using the same method as before, and rotate when dry again. Repeat until the whole balloon is covered.
Optional: Once you have a doilied balloon, hang back up on your (ladder) hanging apparatus, and add another thick layer of glue for good measure. Allow time to dry. Then grab that spray starch and go to town spraying your balloon. I did multiple layers of starch, in addition to that extra glue, and ended up using almost an entire can. The spraying-and-drying time for this stage took about another week, but the extra stability's worth it if you have the time.