Dressing for winter running is not just about staying warm. It is about staying the right temperature range. Because of the extreme cold of the weather in winter, much of your effort will be to keep as much of the temperature your body will create as possible.
I will make a clarification that I mean running, as a distinctly more vigorous activity than jogging. The goal is to get your blood pumping hard. Staying active is a great way to stay warm and raise your spirits in the dark months of winter. It may even help you keep off some of those unwanted holiday pounds.
Following these guidelines, some of my friends and I have been able to dress warm enough to run through mild to moderate blizzard conditions. If you decide to do so, please keep safety highly in mind as conditions can change rapidly and rescue may not be possible if things get bad enough.
Runners are crazy. As such I am a little extreme about the minimal level to which I add insulation. I will try to bare in mind that most other people who are also running do not have the tolerance to cold that I do.
Step 1: Know the weather
Then on the way back, with the wind at your back, you will run a little faster and your body will already have made an effort to acclimate to the additional cold of the wind stripping heat away. This will make you feel warmer. Also, by the time you get a couple miles into the run, you will have started to sweat. By the time you turn back into the wind. you could be quite wet, despite the cold air.
The more you can do to protect yourself against wind in this region or any like it, the less you will find air temperature is a significant factor.
Step 2: Head Gear
Next is a face mask. Make sure it is either thin enough or has adequate holes to breath through easily. Keep in mind that in really cold weather ice can form over your mouth/nose, making breathing more difficult. Avoid trying to melt off the ice by taking your mask down. When the ice melts, it will stay near freezing and take extra energy to warm it back up. With a mask like mine, one option is to rotate it. Given where it will rest relative to my hat, I can get three, maybe four, positions that will not put cold water against my bare skin.
With high winds, the mask becomes even more important to prevent windburn. Keep good coverage of both your face and neck. As you get more wind, a pair of safety glasses or goggles can be a game winner. You would be amazed how much more tollerable some running can be if you are not squinting against the icy gale that burns in your eyes. They can also help if there is snow blowing as well.
Step 3: Torso
That may have been enough for insulation, but if not, next you will add layers that are purely for insulation. Here, some may chose to add extra layers of the same. A cotton tee shirt may be enough to get you through, but this would be where you start adding wool or fleece or any heavier layers. Avoid wearing a heavy winter jacket as they tend to be pretty heavy both weight wise and for your likely need for insulation. Apply these layers as needed, but keep in mind that as warm as you are, you will get warmer while you run.
As I mentioned before, I take this to a bit of an extreme, but you should find a good amount of insulation to be "just cool" when starting your run. (Never cold, or you may put yourself at risk for hypothermia) This will allow your body a few extra degrees to warm up before you start to really sweat heavily. You will definitely not need as much in between as a skier because the goal of running is to be moving as much as possible. Skiers have to sit on the lifts while moving little.
Like the skiers, though, we want a good outer layer. A wind breaking jacket or shell is all you really need at this point. more than anything, the wind is going to cause you to get cold. An added bonus to the jacket is that it can help with your hands if the sleeves are long enough. More on that in step 6. Protecting yourself from the wind will let you manage the perspiration that will accumulate. Even with a good wind breaker, I have found that just getting out of the wind can make the weather seem ten or more degrees warmer. There is a reason the weather in this area includes wind chill for temperatures.
Step 4: Legs
Step 5: Feet
Well, it is good to get some warm of socks. Either real or synthetic wool socks are a prime choice. They will help withstand some of the wind for being thick and wool is know for staying a good insulator when wet. Both of these characteristics are important since running shoes are made to allow air to flow freely for running in hot weather. I prefer the summer/hiking variety of socks because my feet stay warm, not hot.
Come early spring, these are also useful as icy puddles may have formed from early melting, but still try to avoid it. Not fun.
Step 6: Hands
Pull your hands part way into your sleeves so your hand is mostly or completely covered by the cuff. In good weather, this can save you from even having to wear gloves in the first place. if need be, ball up your hand to cut off the hole air can slip through. As your blood starts to circulate better, you can easily adjust as needed.
Step 7: Safty
If you can find the time to run when it is still light out, it will be both warmer and safer. You are easier to see and the temperature hasn't started to fall yet. Because it is winter, it is still a good idea to run with your cell phone and avoid routes that take you into areas where you don't get very reliable service. Stay in town and near houses where possible.
Should you end up running at night, wear bright colored clothing and give serious thought to investing in a reflective vest. A tail light and head lamp are an added bonus since they will make you more visible to those around you. Even more than in the warmer months, it is important to give drivers every opportunity to see you so they have more time to stop on the ice.
Step 8: Getting back
Congratulations. You're done.