Introduction: Easier Screen Printing

A year or so ago, I wanted to get into screen printing, so I bought (aka my mom gave me) a Speedball starter set. It came with a screen, ink, and even everything photo emulsion. I thought I had it made.

I didn't. I couldn't get anything to look good, no matter how hard I tried. The ink either bled like crazy or didn't go through the screen. And forget photo emulsion, that was way too hard.

The next summer, someone taught me a really easy way to silkscreen on to paper. Since then, I have developed that technique and I'm going to show share with you what I know. Because let's be honest, you can never have too many silkscreening tutorials.


First off, what is silkscreening?

Basically, the action is like spreading butter on toast, but you're spreading ink across a screen, and with a "squeegee" instead of a butter knife. Along the way across the screen, the ink goes through little tiny holes and sticks to what you're printing on.

That's really the easiest way to put it.

You control what the image looks like by putting a stencil between the screen and the material you're printing on. In this case, we're printing on a T-shirt. The ink only affects the section of the shirt that isn't covered by the stencil. To make a complicated image, people usually put photo emulsion on the screen that makes a stencil using light. We're not doing that. That's way too hard for a beginner like you and I don't even know how to do it right. We're going a little more hands on.

Step 1: Designing a Good Stencil

The first step to making a stencil is choosing a design. We're going to be making the stencil by hand. You want a design that won't be impossible to make into a stencil. Basically, if it's too much work to trace it with a pencil, it's way too much work to print using this method.

Also, think about islands. (Not tropical islands, but islands in your design.) For example, the letter "A" has one island: the white triangle on top. The letter "B" has two. C has none. It's much easier to print a V than an A, but don't be too discouraged. Islands aren't impossible as long as you keep the number of them down and the size of them up. A couple A's the size of CD's isn't bad at all. "AAAAA" the size you're seeing them on your screen isn’t going to happen. If you have the need for very small islands, the advantages this method has over photo emulsion start to disappear. As you get better at this method, you can make islands smaller and use more of them, but if you want to make small text, or detailed lines, learn to use photo emulsion eventually.


You can only print one solid color at a time. In this case, I'm printing the Instructables robot on to a grey shirt. I'm using gray as the background to save me a step, since gray is a color in the design. You don't have to do this, but it saves ink and time. Why not?

For this design, I'm using black as the base coat. This means that every other color will be printed on top of the black ink, not the shirt itself. (Except the gray, since the shirt is gray, but that doesn’t count since it’s not ink.) I will demonstrate how to make the first stencil, but every other stencil is made the same way.

NOTE: Don't use black as the base coat. Use colors, and then put black on top. It looks much better.

Step 2: Printing It Out

First, you have to get it ready for printing. You could print out your actual design, but I used Adobe Flash to trace it and get each color on it's own layer. When you print it, I recommend using thicker than usual paper. Don't use copy paper. The ink will saturate it and bleed through. You could you plastic transparency paper, or laminate copy paper. It's all good.

Step 3: Cutting Everything Out

Now, using a hobby knife (or a laser cutter if you're so lucky), cut out the islands first and put them aside. Then, cut out the main image. Don't throw anything out yet.

Step 4: Dealing With Islands

After you cut everything out, flip the inverted stencil upside down and put the islands and the cutout back in place.

Then, take a strip of scotch tape and put it across the islands like so. Make sure the tape touches every island and extends to both sides of the design. Fold the end of the piece over to make taking the tape off easy. Do this to any islands in your design.

This part is tricky. Take the part of the image that isn’t the island out the stencil without taking the islands with it. The islands will stay on the scotch tape.

This part is also tricky. You need to put a double sided adhesive on each islands. I use blue painter's tape rolled over onto itself. I assume double stick tape will work too. Be careful to make sure that the tape doesn't extend past the paper. Also, if you use single sided tape rolled over, don’t use so much tape that makes the paper stick off the mesh a significant amount.

Step 5: Putting the Stencil on the Screen

I don't have a picture of this, but using a piece of paper and a Sharpie, I drew in corners on the mesh so every time I put an 8 1/2 x 11 inch piece of paper on the screen, I do so in the same place. This helps when you're doing multiple colors, which I'll end up doing in the Instructable.

Now, tape the whole thing to the back of your screen. The paper stencil will be flipped HORIZONTALLY. You should be looking at the back of the paper. Text will appear backwards, etc.

Flip the screen over and rub the double stick tape on the islands onto the screen. I use a Sharpie or the handle of a pair of scissors. Whatever you have around will work, what you use isn't too important. Doing this will help the islands stay stuck to the mesh.

Flip the screen back over and very carefully, peel the scotch tape off so the islands stay stuck on the mesh. This method insures that the islands in your design are properly aligned on your stencil.

Tape your design to the screen like shown. Also, tape the front of the screen as shown. Taping the screen not only makes sure your design stays in place, but it also insures that no ink gets stuck between the wooden frame and the mesh, so it's pretty important. Don't skimp on tape, but don't be too excessive.

Step 6: Register the Screen

The first step to printing on shirts is to register your screen. Registering your screen makes it much easier to line up the frame for doing multiple colors. This step isn’t needed if you’re only doing one color.(

Shirts are a lot different than paper because shirts are made of fabric and fabric stretches. If the shirt stretches, it will be hard to line up the screen for multiple colors. I take a piece of foam core and stick it in the shirt. Then I take pins and pin the shirt to the board.

(Then, figure out where you want your print to be. I like my prints about 4 or 5 inches from the collar, but that’s just me. After you put your screen down on the shirt, make an outline of the screen with tape. Do a good job of this because if you mess it up, you’ll have a hard time lining up your screen every time.

Step 7: Pulling a Print

Now there are a lot of websites that will tell you how to properly pull a print, and encourage you to do as much research as you can and remember: practice makes perfect. You probably won’t get a good print your first time. That’s okay, just keep at it and eventually you’ll be pulling prints like a pro.

Time to get out the ink.

In this example, I’m starting with black. (I had a big brain fart. Don’t start with black! More on that at the end.) To pull a print, you take a spoonful of ink and put it in the “well” of the screen. The well is just an area off to the side where there aren’t any holes. Look at the picture. Then, take your squeegee, and put it in the line of ink, or the “bead.” Now, with the squeegee at a 45 degree angle, pull the ink across the screen. I do back and forth about 3 or 4 times. In this case, more is not merrier. If your stencil is paper, too many passes with the ink will saturate the paper and make the ink bleed outside the lines. No good.

When you’re done pulling the ink, lift the screen off the shirt, one side at a time, like you’re lifting up the hood of a car.

Your beautiful print should be looking right at you!


Step 8: Cleaning Up

Now it’s time for clean up... I just run the screen under the sink until the ink is gone. You really don’t need soap. You could save some of the tape too if it’s not too messy after you get it wet.

As for drying, just take a piece of paper towel and put it on a table under the screen, with the screen face up. Then take another piece of paper towel, crumple it up, and make little circles on the mesh. This should get the ink out well.

You’ll notice that your design is probably still on your screen. Don’t worry. This doesn’t affect the mesh because the color you’re seeing is on the threads, not in the holes.


If you’re doing multiple colors, make a new stencil, wait for the ink of the last color to dry completely and do it again!

Step 9: Epilogue

The design you see me making in this Instructable is not what I ended up with. I made a whole different print than the one I was making in the pictures. It's the picture in the intro. The technique however, is still what I used.

In the making of this 'ible, I learned a few things about screen printing.

1. Don’t use black as your base coat. Black should be on top, not on bottom.

This seems like it should be common sense for me but it wasn’t. The thing is, if you're making a line drawing, like the robot in this example, putting the black on bottom will make the stencil much easier to cut out. The problem is that printing colors like yellow on top of black ink looks pretty bad. Well, not BAD, but the black shows through. If you want to make the shirt look worn, this is a good technique, but mine just came out bad, so I don't recommend using black as the base coat.

That said:

2. There is a limit to how detailed you can get with this method.

The Instructables robot is pretty much that limit. It had 48 islands. 48. That is WAY TOO MANY. And they were SMALL. If you want this method to make sense, stick to something simpler. Line drawings = NO.

2. Mixing colors is hard.

And I can’t really help you do it. My robot came out more orange than I wanted. I wish I had my middle school art teacher here to help me mix colors, but I don’t.


Comments

author
SusanT89 made it! (author)2017-02-17

I am going to try and silk screen t-shirts for our Special Ed team at school. Since it is just going to be words, can I stick stencils to the fabric and then paint with mod podge around them (I have successfully used mod podge previously, but with a less complicated design that I traced onto the screen and hand painted around.

author
fracturedglass made it! (author)2011-01-07

give yourself a bit more credit. i think this looks great. overprinting the other colors on the black lets them stand out better and also gives them a great distressed look. i am also super impressed that you are using Flash to draw with. if you can, buy Illustrator. i think you will love it. awesome job!!

author
Zrcalo made it! (author)Zrcalo2015-11-07

;P flash actually has better tools in regards to pressure sensitivity and brush stroke when compared to illustrator. I've found that illustrator is a chopped back version of flash. Then again, I learned illustrator on cs2 and flash on cs 5.5 sooooo..

author
dixie.stockwell made it! (author)2014-12-29

I know this is pretty old, but I've been searching around and I had a question. Is the screen really necessary? For example, if i just had, say, a sticker that was the shape of a cut out heart, could I just use screen printing ink and either squeegee or stipple that on? I don't see the point in the screen part.

author
MonicaT1 made it! (author)MonicaT12015-02-06

Hi! I thought I would attempt to give you an answer, understanding that I've just started screen printing as a hobby.

From what I've seen, the screen allows, or forces, a controlled amount of ink/paint through onto the surface. The higher the thread count on the screen, the more controlled the ink is. A simple stencil can certainly be done without a screen, but if you want to use/have a detailed image, but with only a few colors, the screen print method gives you the best results. That's how professional printers can get such high-quality, precise images. Plus, since the screen limits the amount of ink/paint used, it will dry faster in between applications than if you used a paint brush and stencils.

I hope that was fairly accurate, that's what I have observed in my limited experience.

author
dixie.stockwell made it! (author)dixie.stockwell2015-02-06

That makes sense, thank you so much! I didn't even think about too much ink being laid onto the fabric. =p

author
Twosoc made it! (author)2013-06-21

Hi, great instructable.

If you want to do a permanent screen without the photo emulsion try painting the screen with emulsion paint (latex paint) in negative, its flexible and waterproof when dry and should hold a sharp edge when the template is stuck down properly. I'd use spray mount to really stick the negative image to the screen (but still be peelable) and make sure the brush direction is from the paper to the screen so you don't get it going under the stencil.

With a bit of practice you can get a really sharp edge. Let it dry for a bit then peel off and you should have a permanent screen without the need to fiddle with the islands everytime you want to print.

An extra step is to make a frame that the screenprint frame will sit just inside of, and not wobble about too much and If you do a screen for each layer of colour then they'll always register each time.

author
rmichaels213 made it! (author)2013-04-04

That shirt looks great. I know this is old, but I was looking for confirmation that you don't need to use photo emulsion to get good looking screen prints on shirts. You use paper, so I assume I'll be fine using transparency stencils (I think they will last a little longer).

My real question (and my first experiment) is how it will look if I add 2 colors to the well and pull them through: will I get a nice mixture and variety of color, or will it come out junky...

author
Super Cameraman made it! (author)Super Cameraman2013-04-04

Photo emulsion will allow you to make more complicated designs because you aren't physically cutting anything. But if you're using a plastic transparency, you should be fine. The printing result will be the same as if you were using emulsion, the design will just probably be simpler. As far as printing on two colors, you'll be fine as long as you let the first color dry before starting the other color! Good luck!

author
razorwinged made it! (author)2012-12-26

hi! i just wanted to let you know that because i like this instructable so much, i have added it to my silkscreen guide... https://www.instructables.com/id/silkscreen-printing-easy-and-cheap/

thanks for sharing your ideas!

author
transparency made it! (author)2010-10-21

Use the Tulip slick fabric ink in wal mart, dry's a lil hard but wash inside out and you should be good. have a lil container to hold the extra off your screen.

author
frollard made it! (author)2010-09-15

The only screen printing I've done was with emulsion, single colour -- I loved it, but I DID have a transparency printer, vac-light-table, and proper dark-room to work with the emulsion. I was always awful at the stenciling version -- GREAT writeup with clear instructions!

author
scoochmaroo made it! (author)2010-09-14

Ink-credible!
I have no skill or patience for silk screening. I also started with the speedball kit. I recently picked up a speedball lino but kit, and it seems to be awful too. Now I'm beginning to think it's not just me!

author
Super Cameraman made it! (author)Super Cameraman2010-09-14

it appears speedball kits are a good way to get ALMOST everything you need to get started in something. except instructions. and some key part like... ink that isn't some terrible color? (it came with metallic silver, red, and blue. that's just gross.)

author
scoochmaroo made it! (author)scoochmaroo2010-09-14

Yeah, my ink is the major problem.

author
Super Cameraman made it! (author)Super Cameraman2010-09-14

http://www.amazon.com/Speedball-Fabric-Screenprinting-Starter-Jars/dp/B000SKPUKC

this is a great starter kit, and it's a pretty good price too. If you can mix colors, you can make any color you want.

author
Schmidtn made it! (author)2010-09-14

I don't screen print, but I do dye disc golf discs, which is similar.

Suggestion: Have you tried using GLAD Press'n Seal instead of scotch tape to transfer over your island pieces? It wont peel up your paper like scotch tape sometimes does. They also make something called application tape, but Press'n Seal works almost just as good and is easy to find.

Question: How the heck do you get your round cuts so smooth?! I jokingly hate your skill; those compound curves are hard to cut! Good on you!

author
Super Cameraman made it! (author)Super Cameraman2010-09-14

Really good suggestions! The instructables community never ceases to amaze me.

About the cuts... I will tell you, many knife tips died during the making of this instructable!

author
frenzy made it! (author)2010-09-14

This is pretty impressive for just using stencils. Most people use photo-emulsion silk screening for detailed work.

author
dchall8 made it! (author)2010-09-14

Thank you for posting this. I'm like you...there can never be too many I'bles on screen printing. I'm still looking for a relatively easy and inexpensive way to turn difficult images into a screen.  I like the photo resist idea but it is expensive and the chemicals are on the hazardous side.  I was very successful painting Elmer's glue onto the screen using a black and white image, but that was very tedious.  You have presented another way of looking at an old idea.  Many people suggest using contact paper (sticky on one side) and a mask for the stencil.  By combining the ideas, you could make a series of registered stencils using your technique, paint a mask for each one on a different screen, let that paint dry, and use those screens to make the final image.  Acrylic paint will dry quickly and create a permanent mask. 

Making the screens using your example
1.  Using freezer paper or contact paper in an INKJET printer, print one copy of the robot for each color in the final image. Yours would have orange, red, blue, white, and black. 
2.  Cut out the entire robot (anything you want to be orange background) on one page.  Cut out the tiny detailed colors on the other pages.  In your example it would be red (head detail), white (finger and foot detail), and blue (button/lights detail). 
3.  Stick the robot onto the first screen.
4.  Spray paint the screen with black (or heavily pigmented) acrylic paint (Rustoleum spray?) and let that dry.
5.  Peel off the paper. 
6.  Repeat for the various colors.  If you printed them all at the same time, registration should be easy. 

What you have left is the outline of the robot and the holes.  The black paint fills the holes in the screen creating a mask.  Your next screen might have only the eyes, and so on.  To make the final black lines, you could do that by hand with a Sharpie or black paint on a brush/sponge. 

If you are only going to make one shirt, then you could simply stick the negative image (as a mask) to the shirt with the sticky paper and spray paint through the mask with orange acrylic spray paint.  This method skips the screen and all the clean up.  If you are good with an airbrush, this could be very interesting. 

Any acrylic paint from the hardware store will work.  Let them mix your colors for you.  All you have to do is pick a paint chip from the display and pick your white paint. 

Along the lines of making your a better I'ble, if you had listed the tools and materials you need in step 2 the reader would not have to flip back and forth looking to find what you are talking about. 

author
fizo made it! (author)2010-09-14

i love screenprinting :)
nice feeling to wear a t shirt which is handmade :)

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