Introduction: Easy DIY Electric Motorcycle Conversion

We started with a Honda Rebel junker and a dream - to make a practical, zero emissions vehicle for commuting in San Francisco. After consulting with some plans available online which required chopping the frame significantly, We decided to figure it out for ourselves. Armed with a basic metal shop, we methodically convert the Honda rebel 250 into a clean quiet bike in about a week. It is registered and insured in CA as a modified 250. (if the power system were 24V or less, no registration is required).

The old rebel rolling chassis provided us with many of the needed parts - wheels, tires, brakes, etc... which was a real bonus - but it also supplied us with many rusty, broken, stripped or missing parts. In fact, most of our difficulties were because of the old parts, not because of the conversion itself. Without these annoyances, the conversion would have taken about two and a half days.

With an onboard 48V charger and 3-prong wall plug hardwired on, recharging is easy anywhere there's a wall outlet. Charging time depends upon how depleted the batteries are, but usually they were topped off after 5-8 hours.

Step 1: Gather Parts, Tools and Materials

We scored a blown Honda Rebel 250 on Craigslist for under $500. It had a blown engine, but included all the other parts needed to make the bike safe and street legal: Lights, brakes, wheels, shocks, etc... I had a set of 4 deep cycle batteries from previous projects. We purchased most of the other AC components from Electric Motorsport in Oakland and also consulted a set of plans from 21 Wheels. Ultimately we had to redesign many aspects of the project and develop our own solutions.

BASIC PARTS LIST
Honda Rebel 250 rolling chassis
Perm PMG-132 electric motor
(4) 12V 50Ah batteries in series
36V-72V PWM controller
5 k potentiometer (i.e. twist grip throttle)
48V AC charger
48 -12V down converter OR additional small 12V battery (for lights, signal and horn)
#4 welding cable and lugs
Custom sprockets

BASIC TOOLS
Welder
4" angle grinder (with cutting and grinding wheels)
Drill press
Metal band saw
Sawzall
Standard auto shop tools, wrenches
Heavy duty wire cutters / crimping tool

RESOURCES
Honda Rebel service manual
Make Magazine Gear calculator (for choosing sprocket sizes)
EL Chopper ET builder's plans - outdated, but a great starting point
Friends who can help

Step 2: Stripping the Frame

The first step is stripping the frame of all components. This is fast and fun and only requires basic hand tools. Save all the parts. Keep a jar or bucket handy to collect all the nuts, bolts, washers, etc... You will need most of these bits later.

Once everything is removed from the frame, clean it thoroughly. Be sure to remove all grease, dust, dirt. Lightly sand any rust spots.

Step 3: Removing the Motor Mounts

The frame requires some modification to accomodate the AC motor and batteries. Fortunately, this metal work is fairly simple. ( the plans suggest "chopping" the frame and extending it by several inches to accomodate all the batteries, but we decide to keep the original frame dimensions and distribute all the batteries around the bike. Two batteries will go into the engine compartment, but two others will ride on the back of the bike, like saddlebags.

Using a combination of 4" angle grinder and Sawzall, remove the existing motor mounts points and tabs.

Step 4: Cutting the Swing Arm

The swing arm modification is probably the most challenging part of the metal work. It requires a hole to be cut out of it to make room for the motor. Many people have correctly commented that cutting into the swingarm can seriously weaken it, potentially causing problems. This is partially true, but the final design takes that into account - The placement of the AC motor helps to strengthen and reinforce the swingarm stiffness.

This step requires precision - the motor must sit perfectly in-line with the rear wheel, so that the chain travels straight between them without any flex or twisting caused by misalignment. We used both a square and straight-edge to mark the cut lines with precision.


Step 5: Fabricating the Swing Arm Motor Mount

Once the hole is complete, and the motor fits snugly into it, we measure and fabricate a mount. Cutting a rectangular piece of 1/4" plate steel, then measure and remove a concave semi-circle, resulting in a custom mounting plate that holds the motor precisely in place.

Two holes are measured and cut for mounting bolts, then the piece is welded to the swing arm and the motor attached.

Step 6: Battery Tray Fabrication

Using steel angle iron, we fabricated three trays for batteries. One tray holds two batteries in the engine compartment, while two smaller trays are mounted like saddle bags on the rear of the bike.

The original design for the battery trays used beefy 2" angle iron to insure that they could support the weight (about 50 lbs. each). This was not a great choice. It added far more weight then needed. A redesign of the bike uses slightly smaller batteries, which helped in several ways.

A newer re-design of the bike uses smaller batteries. Now all four batteries could fit into the engine compartment - eliminating the need for the two rear saddlebags. The new design also replaces the 2" steel with 1/2" angle iron as well as gigantic zip-ties. Overall, this new design saves a ton of weight, which helps to offset the smaller range of the smaller battery set.

Step 7: Painting the Frame and Parts

Now is a good time to paint the frame. Fabrication is done and everything fits together.

Mask off any bits of chrome and clean the metal once more. Use a rust inhibiting spray paint and coat the frame lightly with multiple coats of paint. Allow each coat to dry between applications.

Step 8: Gears, Sprockets

This step can a little tricky. You need to calculate some things to try and determine the best arrangement of teeth on the two sprockets - one on the motor (the Drive sprocket) and one on the rear wheel (the Driven sprocket). The performance of the bike will be greatly affected by slight differences in gear-teeth number, so we used a gear calculator, like this great one provided by Make Magazine.

Once we knew the ideal sprocket sizes we purchased them online from Sprocket Specialists

Step 9: Assembly and AC Component Placement.

Once the fabrication of the frame is complete, reassembly of the bike can begin. Start with the basic components: the forks, swing arm, wheels and battery trays. With many of the usual parts of a motorcycle missing, it will definitely look different as you reassemble it.

The new electronic components need to fit somewhere, including the motor controller, charger, fuses, etc... I found this old cooking pot and decided to fit the parts inside of it - It looked odd and dangerous, but somehow appealing.

Step 10: Wiring

This part is challenging. Wiring the new 48 v. AC system is complex, plus the original 12V power system is still needed to run the lights, horn, brake lights etc... There are several different ways to proceed:

One: Keep the old and new electrical systems separate, and run the old system off a small rechargable 12V battery. This option keeps the wiring simple, but requires maintenance of two separate battery/charging systems.

Two: Integrate the two systems by using a DC-to-DC converter, which steps down the power from 48V to 12V This is a more complex wiring set-up, but can be maintained with a single charging system, which is much more convenient on a day-to-day basis.

We chose to integrate the two systems together, so we relied on several sources of information to guide us, including the original Honda Rebel service manual, the suggested wiring diagram from the 21 Wheels plans, consultations with the guys at Electric Motorsport and quite a bit of guessing on our part.

It took a few tries, and we burned out some fuses and bulbs along the way. But ultimately we got the wiring working reliably.


Step 11: Conclusion - UPDATED!

The final layout and design of the bike was ok, but needed some work. After some time on the road, we decided to make some modifications. First to go were the four big, mismatched 80Ah batteries. These were never a good matched set and always caused unreliable performance. I decided to replace them with four sealed, golf cart-style 50Ah batteries, which were smaller and lighter, but stored less energy.

However, the new batteries were small enough that all four could fit into the engine compartment - eliminating the two heavy rear saddle bags ( and all that weight). Using smaller gauge steel and gigantic zip-ties to build the new battrey trays saved even more weight. Sadly, the new design meant there was no room for the cooking pot that held the electronics, so those had to be remounted in an available spot.

The final design looks cleaner, weighs a lot less, but holds less power - a trade off that didn't result in much change in the speed or distance of the bike, which always fluctuated around 35-40 MPH, and 15-30 mile range per charge.

Visit Gomi Style for videos, plans and instructions for many cool projects.

Comments

author
082callahan315 made it! (author)2017-01-24

Hey there, I'm doing this now, with an old 1991 Kawasaki Ninja, and I am a little uneasy about the welding. I have already been fabricating the electrical system, but now that it's attached to the bike, i am fearful of welding it. It may damage the electrical components, and I really don't want that. Do you think there's a way to attach the batteries with straps, or something? Thanks!

author
082callahan315 made it! (author)082callahan3152017-04-26

I just ended up welding it, nothing bad happened! Totally works, thanks!

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TheTutor11 made it! (author)2015-06-08

How fast does it go? How much did the total build cost?

author
andy.knote made it! (author)2014-12-11

Step 10, wiring- You had 4- 12V batteries in series, could you not have tapped 1 battery for 12 volts? I've tapped 12 volts off one battery in a vehicle that used two 12V batteries in series for a 24Volt system...

Still a cool project.

author
andy.knote made it! (author)2014-12-11

See, thats just cool. Nice work.

author
john henry made it! (author)2014-10-30

I been wanting to do something like this for awhile thanks for the Guide!

I helped with a truck conversion in high school so I'm looking forward to doing all the work my self instead of hardly any.

author
udaymohan made it! (author)2013-08-18

Out of curiosity would you not have been able to save considerable amount of weight if you had used lithium ion motorcycle batteries? Might even be able to get more connected and extend the range?

author
billbillt made it! (author)2013-08-14

great

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Juan42 made it! (author)2013-07-18

thanks

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criddifer made it! (author)2010-03-02

you could put a car altanator with a toothed gear on the shaft with very little friction to turn it to charge the extra battery for the light and other normal eletronics on the bike and it should work

author
static made it! (author)static2012-12-29

Think about it. Even you reduce all the losses associated with driving an alternator to zero,it's the vehicle's drive battery that would be providing any energy an alternator would provided. May as well use the added weight to increase battery capacity

author
GroundingStick made it! (author)GroundingStick2013-03-28

Then how about adding a small diesel generator that can power the motor & load the battery? Instant hybrid motorcycle!

author
Danish M1Garand made it! (author)Danish M1Garand2010-12-05

It will add only drag to the system. You can capture some energy through regenerative braking. You add a lot of complexity to your system though.

author
rebel diy made it! (author)2013-03-09

sorry but i hade to comment on this it maby cleaner but it only goes 30 miles i can do 30 miles on my rebel wich is good old fashion petrol and i can get 180 to 200 miles on a tank
surly making the bike electric wouldnt be cost efective as the battarys will cost a lot when they stop holding a charge
it seams a bit pointless to me

author
bodo made it! (author)2009-05-04

cant we use something like bicycle dinamo to get the bateries charged?

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sparkyrust made it! (author)sparkyrust2009-05-04

Actually no. Anything which uses the bike's motion to capture energy is offset by the friction and drag created, so you actually lose more energy this way. Thnaks for the comments!

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luigi2999 made it! (author)luigi29992009-06-22

besides that, the dynamo would have to have it's power converted to DC to charge the battery.

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static made it! (author)static2012-12-29

Not that I'm saying a dynamo on an electric vehicle is something that's sensible, but most dynamos output DC without a need of outboard conversion

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eron silva made it! (author)2009-12-05

Dear friends, is it possible to use a car dynamo (without the AC converting part) as an electric motor for a bycicle conversion?
* I could get a used one almost for free;
* a car dynamo weights 12 kg, but some of it could be shaved off (unnecessary handles, installation arms, perhaps - maybe a half kilo or more...).

author
Opus the Poet made it! (author)Opus the Poet2012-12-24

Yep, easy-peasy. You need a controller for a brushed motor to control the current to the rotor, and a separate controller for a brushless motor to control the current to the stator. The rotor will become magnetically saturated at between 4 and 6 amps (depending on the alternator) so that is a "set it and forget it" part after you measure the magnetic field for peak strength, then it's just a regular brushless motor that runs without drag when you turn off the power to the rotor. The "trick" to getting the most out of the motor is to adjust the rotor current to the lowest setting that still has a saturated rotor, and for that you need that Gauss meter. If you use one that reads low field strength you can still get the relative strength by just looking for how close you can get the meter without pegging it. The further away you have to move the meter the more powerful the magnetic field.

author
Danish M1Garand made it! (author)Danish M1Garand2010-12-05

Look for a DC motor Treadmill. These have a fairly strong DC motor. You can find these on the curb on trash day that have little or no use on them.

author
eron silva made it! (author)eron silva2009-12-17

Friends... I got the answer by myself @ www.4qd.co.uk/serv/appnotes/dynamo.html . Problem is, the article brings the sobering words "the cheapest way is not always the simplest". Check it out and count your blessings if you can afford US$500 for an etek motor, and what-not for the batteries... I will keep on looking for a cheap solution! Any suggestions are welcome (my requirements are humble: 50 Km/h, 24 km round trips, mostly level terrain) 

 

author
BruceKenobi made it! (author)2011-08-13

Hi! I liked the instructable a lot as I am researching to embark in a similar adventure; however I found something contradicting: you mention in the parts list that you used a "Perm PMG-132 electric motor" and then mention "We purchased most of the other AC components from Electric Motorsport " but the Perm PMG-132 is a DC motor (I checked!) it is the Perm's edition of the E-Tek, both are DC motors, so you are doing a DC conversion, what AC parts did you need? just asking as I have been researching a lot on the AC vs DC motor debate and your instructable was a good "case-study" for a success story!

author
Opus the Poet made it! (author)Opus the Poet2012-12-24

Since nobody has replied to your question, the AC parts are the stuff that connects to line power to recharge the batteries. Basically the battery charger is part of the bike instead of external as in many EV. It adds a bit to the weight but also makes charging as easy as finding an outlet while on the road. If you are just using the bike for commuting then you can replace the onboard charger with bigger batteries and a polarized charging plug.

author
TheMadScientist made it! (author)2012-04-05

i'd like to note (this instructable is a bit old but still meaningful) that if you're to do this conversion, you have to find motorcycle that uses chain drive. using a belt drive motorcycle will result in not being able to adjust the chain tension as it stretches, prematurely wearing out your chain and sprockets.

author
jackjackboom made it! (author)jackjackboom2012-10-06

Could you use a shaft driven motorcycle? Those dont need to be tightened, all you need is oil for lubrication.

author
Calorie made it! (author)2009-01-11

The zip wraps do concern me. During a wreck the plastic will stretch and break the locking tabs on the zip ties. I pick through wrecked cars at junk yards, and I've seen batteries where they shouldn't be.

author
sparkyrust made it! (author)sparkyrust2009-01-12

That's a good concern, and one I considered. Ultimately I weighed all the aspects of those zipties vs. metal, which I had in the original design. The weight savings is huge, the ties are remarkably strong, and the batteries are wedged in so tight, with lots of thick battery cabling too boot, that they don't come out easily, even when I want them out. And with a top speed of about 35-40 mph, if I'm in a wreck that has enough force to knock those batteries out of whack.... well then I've probably got a lot of problems to deal with. Thanks again for the comments, Best.

author
Calorie made it! (author)Calorie2009-01-12

That's true. Your going to have problems at 40 mph. But it's best to minimize them. Remeber the important equation is:

Force = Mass + Acceleration

The best way to think of it is that a static force has no change in acceleration. But even a slight difference in acceleration leads to a huge change in force. You can hang on a tree with shoe strings, but the moment you try to swing into the local swimmin' hole you'll find yourself in a great deal of pain.

That change in acceleration is the important part. That's why bicycle and motor helmets seem hard, but in reality they slightly slow the rate of acceleration.

Just being a math and safety dork all at once. I've cracked three helmets with nary a car in sight. All my fault :-(

author
ironman0104 made it! (author)ironman01042012-02-16

Force = Mass X Acceleration.

author
nickstou made it! (author)nickstou2011-08-03

... um.. mr. math and safety dork (i am a bit of one myself)...

force = mass "X" acceleration...

maybe hop off your soapbox and check your formulas...

-CW

author
raju4love made it! (author)2012-01-12

hey its a good job done by you
i need some help from you because you are a expert
please do me some help
i want some knowledge about this so please contact me at my mail id please

raju4love1u@gmail.com


pls please do me this help please please

author
PTooTi made it! (author)2011-10-26

Wahhh! I used to have a Rebel hard to believe it was almost 25 years ago nice little bike and the conversion looks kool too how fast/far can you travel on it?

author
nepemex made it! (author)2011-09-27

great job i wish yo can put more instructions about how connect the controller and the engine, and whta happen with the Throttle?(how it will work ?)
as well as WHAT HAPPEN WITH THE BRAKES?
in resume :can you put a BLOG and a STEP by STEP method?
(under our own risk)
thanks! great job

author
deepsea5 made it! (author)2011-09-19

sparkyrust; thanks for posting this!

For those who have done this conversion: have you tried the Optima Blue Top battery; and converting headlamp/tail lamp/directional lamps to LED bulbs?

author
Bosun Rick made it! (author)2011-08-14

Has anyone considered using a HYDRAULIC (think Hydrostatic) drive with an Electric motor?

No drive alignment issues, just hoses, a pump and the Hydro motor

See www.hydraulicinnovations.com for details. Their unit is larger and heavier duty than this project would require, but the concept would be the same.

author
astonehouse made it! (author)2011-06-12

Hey guys here is just a little comment to think about. Hydrogen has been the "fuel of the future" for 45 years. And always will be. Forget your hydrogen powered whatever. There is no feasible way to, A; Compress the hydrogen enough to get a reasonable energy return per fill up, and B: no way to completely seal up any container of hydrogen. Tiny slippery little molecules just will not stay in the jar.And C: Anyone remember Lakehurst Field and the Hindenburg? A pleasant fantasy, a car the just makes water when you drive. Time to wake up now

author
LingCullen made it! (author)LingCullen2011-08-09

Hindenburg disaster was not caused by hydrogen. The myth that it was has been tackled and disproven many times over. It was a combination of the chemica treatment it got and the aluminium covering. If hydrogen was burning in the video, we would not have seen the flames and smoke that we did. The hydrogen can be seen burning after the fact, but that was long after the accelerated due to the chemical treatment on the blimp.

author
snelpiller made it! (author)snelpiller2011-07-01

Im wondering whatever happened to Hondas car Clarity that ran on hydrogen :P

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XOIIO made it! (author)2011-08-09

Man, you gotta psot a video going 0 to top speed, that bikle looks sick

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balun made it! (author)2011-06-11

great work....

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rc jedi made it! (author)2011-05-20

i fly r/c planes, the prices of lipo batteries has come down dramatically. I
get mine from china.
http://www.hobbyking.com/hobbyking/store/uh_listCategoriesAndProducts.asp?catname=20C+Discharge&idCategory=239&ParentCat=85
i fly 24 volt brushless motor setups, these batteries can offer much greater power to weight ratio. They do require special chargers and cannot be discharged below 3 volts per cell. but lead acid shouldn't be deep cycled either. just an option.
i always use paypal, especially overseas orders.

author
Hubiewan made it! (author)2010-01-23

Hubiewan asks:
Why not use the original gas tank to store the electronics, thus keeping it looking like a regular bike?

author
abadfart made it! (author)abadfart2010-11-22

i agree because then you could fit the other batteries up front and then you could have real side bags for runs to the store and could store the charging cord in the gas flap

author
VampiricPie made it! (author)VampiricPie2010-06-23

I want people to look at mine and say, "That's not a regular bike." Therefore, when I make my ebike, the design is going to be based on the components it uses, which is how the design of gasoline motorcycles arose.

author
anjimehra made it! (author)2010-04-03

Hi
Whatll be a good ratio for a bike weighing app. 120 kgs + a 70 kg rider?
Anji

author
bennelson made it! (author)2008-12-23
I built a similar project last summer. You can see my basic web page about it at Ben's Electric Motorcycle

Mine kept the gas tank for looks, and it works as a cover for the charger.


Great job on yours Sparkyrust!

author
vistal made it! (author)vistal2009-02-11

Heres the thing about electric.In the wrong hands it more dangerous to the environment. People will not recycle batterys but toss them in landfills. Electric is only good in the hands of private builders like you and me . People who know where to take them/use them and recharge them Right. It not worth the money to invest in electric bikes/cars till we get better Battery cells which can produce the power we need to make the vehicles run a longer distance at leat 250 miles.Hydrogen is the wave of the future.

author
sojakai made it! (author)sojakai2010-02-22

I have a friend who loves going to the landfills and getting the car batteries that people leave. Puts them on a desulfator and brings them back to life. He gets a truly dead battery from time to time, but its pretty rare.

author

Cool video. How much did it cost, and what is the range and charge time?

About This Instructable

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Bio: Marque Cornblatt was born in Baltimore, Maryland and now lives in San Francisco. He holds an MFA in Conceptual Arts from SFSU; has a diploma ... More »
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