I have taught a lot of Medical Students and PA students over the years and dread the requirement that they purchase a direct ophthalmoscope for their studies--it is expensive and not very handy instrument that doesnt lead to many "Dr House" style moments in their lives. The otoscope is another matter, but for an eye exam a couple things become obvious very quickly--you cannot see much of anything through a undilated pupil and when you dilate what you see is of little importance. But the requirement for physical examination must be honored. (The new scopes from welch-allen with the bellows do give great views by the way...but the price...!) So I have devised a cheap alternative that gives great video views with your old iphone. Cheap meaning about 10 bucks. It wont work through undilated pupils just like the real thing but works great with a little Tropicamide and Phenylephrine drops just like the real thing. The trick with using the iphone is to get the LED, normally a few millimeters lateral to the lens, to align with the lens through a fiberoptic light guide. This allows the light to become coaxial with the view through the pupil. It also works well as an indirect ophthalmoscope too.