Electrolysis is the decomposition of hydrogen and oxygen in water. In other words you break apart the molecules that make up water to restore the elements to their original state. In this case both hydrogen and oxygen exist in a gaseous state. In order to perform electrolysis you must run an electric current through water that contains an electrolyte. The electrolyte allows current to pass through the water because pure water, or even tap water for that matter, is not conductive enough to allow electricity to pass through it. The electrolyte I added in this experiment was salt, a common household item.
Step 1: Getting the Stuff
The materials you will need for this experiment are:
baking soda (it used to be salt but then I was informed that I may have been producing chlorine gas)
Hot water (enough to fill your container of choice)
a container preferably air-tight and definitely clear
a pair of screws (these will act as the electrodes you pass the
a battery (a nine volt will do nicely for your first try)
Space to work (I barely had any and that made it a lot tougher)
Materials you may want to have, but are not necessary:
a glue gun (to patch up any holes left by the electrodes)
a DC power source so you don't have to worry about the batteries
a container that can dispense the hydrogen and oxygen (see introduction)
Step 2: Build the Cell
Once you've gathered all of the materials you will want to start by drilling two holes at the bottom of your container. (I drilled them at the top) You'll want these holes to be just slightly smaller than the screws you'll be putting through them. You will want the two screws to be as close as possible to each other so as to get the maximum effect when electrolyzing the water. Once you have paced the screws in you may want to hot glue around them so as to create a seal.
Step 3: Baking Soda-water Mixture
Tos start this you will want to heat up enough water to fill your container the heat helps saturate the baking soda within the water. Once you have heated the water you will then need to pour baking soda into the water while stirring (don't be shy about this you can saturate a lot of baking soda in hot water.) Dont' let any baking soda gather on the bottom of the container it will effect conductivity.
Step 4: Setting Up the Cell
Once you have placed the screws in and mixed in the salt you'll want to get to the main event. Pour the water into the container and place the cap on. Then place the battery, or batteries if your ambitious on the two electrodes. This will create a stream of bubbles that emanate from the probe connected to the negative end of the battery.
Step 5: The Science of Electrolysis
What you will have just witnessed is the separation of hydrogen and oxygen. The negative probe will always produce hydrogen whereas the positive will always produce oxygen. The reason you see very few bubbles coming from the positive end is the result of there being less oxygen in water than there is hydrogen thus resulting in more bubbles of hydrogen than oxygen.
Step 6: Trouble Shooting
You may have encountered some of these probelms during the operation of the cell. The stream may have stopped flowing from the negative and positive end, this may be the result of an insuffiecient connection between the two probes so adjust the position of the battery and the flow will restart. The bubbles may have never been created and that would be the couse of either a dead battery which if your brave enough (unlike some people I know -*Cough*Gerid*cough*-) you can test on your tongue. This may also be the result of non-conductive probes. To fix the latter you will have to find new METAL screws.