Step 6: Reflections With Cat Vader

Okay, so far we've covered 5 topics;

1. The Atom
2.  The Atomic Charge
3.  The Atomic Shell
4.  Ions and Isotopes
5.  Conductors, Semi-conductors, and Insulators

Important things to remember for an aspiring Electronics Tech;

1.  Electronics is concerned with the manipulation of electrons.
2.  Atoms are made up of sub-particles: Electron, Proton, and Neutron.
3.  Electrons have negative charge, Proton is positive and Neutron is neutral or no charge.
4.  A conductor has 3 or less electrons in its outermost atomic shell.
5.  A semi-conductor has have 4 electrons in its outermost atomic shell.
6.  An insulator has 5 or more electrons in its outermost atomic shell.
7.  Conductors allow the flow of electrons with ease.
8.  Semi-conductors produce resistance to electrons, which controls how much electrons can flow through them.
9.  Insulators do not allow electrons to flow.

More is to come, may the fur be with you.
Your definition of 'isotope' is incorrect.<br> Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) are called isotopes, if they have different number of neutrons (compared against each other - not against the number of protons), they are called isotopes.<br> Example:<br> - Hydrogen: 1 proton, no neutrons<br> - Deuterium: 1 proton, 1 neutron<br> - Tritium: 1 proton, 2 neutrons<br> All of them are isotopes of hydrogen.<br> <br> Btw: Hiding information behind the yellow squares makes a nice game of hide and show, but makes it hard to use your i'ble on devices with small screens and impossible to print or export it to PDF to read later or file it.
Maybe I need to word it differently. But I fail to find the conflict you mentioned.<br><br>what makes an isotope is the difference in the number of neutron between two atoms which have the same number of protons.<br><br>Plainly speaking, when the neutron is not the same number as the proton, then that atom is an isotope.<br><br>For example, here are the 3 kinds of carbon atoms.<br><br>.......................................protons/ neutrons/ mass number<br>carbon-12 ..........................6 ............. 6............... 12<br>carbon-13.......................... 6.............. 7.............. .13<br>carbon-14.......................... 6.............. 8.............. .14<br><br>Isotopes are atoms which have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. They have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
&gt; what makes an isotope is the difference in the number of neutron between<br> &gt; two atoms which have the same number of protons.<br> Correct!<br> It is the difference in the number of neutrons between the atoms that counts and not a difference in the number of neutrons and protons of a single atom.<br> <br> &gt; Plainly speaking, when the neutron is not the same number as the proton,<br> &gt; then that atom is an isotope.<br> No! The relation between the number protons and neutrons has nothing to do with isotopes. For the heavier atoms, you will not have any (stable) one with the same number of protons and neutrons.<br> <br> &gt; .......................................protons/ neutrons/ mass number<br> &gt; carbon-12 ..........................6 ............. 6............... 12<br> &gt; carbon-13.......................... 6.............. 7.............. .13<br> &gt; carbon-14.......................... 6.............. 8.............. .14<br> <br> In the bottom right square in step 1, you say 'When neutrons are not the same number as the protons they are called isotopes'.<br> For carbon-12, the number of protons is the same as the number of neutrons, but is IS an isotope of carbon.<br> <br> <br> <br>
I agree that carbon 12 is an isotope. This would also mean that all elements are isotopes. <br><br>Why are all elements isotopes?<br><br> Yes two atoms are compared, but ultimately what is being compared inside them are the number of protons and neutrons. So the differences between the number of protons and neutrons does help identify the isotope. <br><br>I understand that you're saying that the relationship between the sub particles of those two atoms is what defines an isotope. However it is apparent that an atom alone can be found an isotope based on its sub atomic information.<br><br>
Elements are not isotopes. An isotope is a special manifestation of an element.<br> <br> An atom with a certain nucleus (core) - a certain combination of protons and neutrons - is an isotope of one special element. Which element is defined by the number of protons and nothing else.<br> <br> Any two atoms with the same number of protons in their nuclei (cores) are isotopes of the same element (e.g. both are Carbon). If they have the same number of neutrons too, they are the same isotope (e.g. C-12). If the have different numbers of neutrons, the are different isotopes of the same element (e.g. C-12 and C-14).<br> <br> Any two atoms with different numbers of protons are also isotopes - not of each other but just of their respective elements. E.g. N-14 and C-14 are isotopes of Nitrogen and Carbon resp. but not isotopes of each others.<br> <br> At no point in all this is the number of protons compared against the number of neutrons. Look at the number of protons to find the element, then look at the number of neutrons to find the isotope of the element. The ratio, equality or non-equality of protons and neutrons is completely meaningless.<br> <br> Yes, for some elements like carbon, oxygen, sodium... the most common isotope has a ratio of 1 for protons:neutrons, but that is just an interesting fact.<br>
verence, everything you said in your last comment is absolutely right. I will make the necessary adjustment to my definition of the isotope.
<p>After reading all comments I'd have to agree with Verence. His explanation is precise and exact, where as with elektrobot, your explanation is generalised, vague and more vague.</p>
<p>a lovable site !</p>
<p>The Articles created a sovereign, national</p><p>government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own<br>diplomacy and foreign policy. However, this proved difficult to enforce, as the<br>national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its<br>own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed<br>territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb<br>Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation<br>government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government<br>continued to export to its former colonies.&lt;a href=&quot;http://www.axiomoptics.com&quot;&gt;http://www.axiomoptics.com&lt;/a&gt;</p>
<p>THanku so much for guid </p>
<p>Thanks, useful instructable</p>
<p>I know absolute zero about electronics....but I am enjoying reading your tutorials non the less......I know more now than I did an hour or so ago.... </p>
<p>thank you so much for taking the time to write this amazing guide!! it was so hard to find good and easy material to study</p>
<p>At the tender young age of 42, electronics is a new topic of study for me, and I am thankful that there are people who are both knowledgeable and willing to share with me.</p>
<p>I resemble that. 42 now, 43 this year, and just starting to learn this stuff. Thank you!!</p>
<p>Your diagram/example of how current flows is incorrect. The elements used for Battery terminals do not have less resistance on the positive side, nor do they have elements for more resistance on the negative side. Electrons flow in the opposite convention (-) towards (+). Current = I, does follow a path of least resistance however. Although, when configuring or calculating a schematic, one must follow convention while formulating a schematic or electrical diagram. This was due to electrical formulations being created to design electronic components before fully understanding how electrical current flows. </p>
<p>sun is not burning actually, nuclear reaction is going on there, 2 hydrogen atoms r combining to make 1 helium atom plus huge amount of heat energy and many many other rays like alpha,bete,gema,and x-rays etc coming out of it.</p>
<p>Where did the &quot;I&quot; come from in the formulas? If it is for current, why is it not an &quot;A&quot;?</p>
<p>ampere described it as the intensity of the flow current hence the I not the A</p>
<p>Cumbustion or flame requires oxygen as a fuel source for a chemical reaction. In space the compression of matter (normally hydrogen atoms) by gravity creates heat. Pressure and heat are proportional similar to what you explained. So, hydrogen under pressure is heated which emits electromagnetic radiation in the form of light and various other forms.</p><p>I'm not real sure about how the electrons travel from the sun to Earth but I would guess it is something like a garden hose. If it keeps making electromagnetic energy and leaks out constantly it will eventually get here. That's a very basic look at both concepts from my own perspective. There is a lot of credible material that may explain it better. </p><p><a href="http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=43366.0" rel="nofollow">http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?...</a></p><p>take a look at that.</p>
Great :)
<p>can you please name the book?</p>
<p>well taught thank you</p>
<p>mmh a bit left out</p>
<p>av all information in my brain upto this far thank you</p>
<p> isotopes are atoms with same atomic number but different mass number</p>
<p>nice to be here</p>
Great explanation! My mind was blown...
<p>thank you for your feedback.</p>
great, I lIke ..........
<p>thanks for the feedback</p>
Hey, Author. I Really Liked Your Instrucatble. That is Really great for beginners. And, In Topic-13 You share one question which is, <br>&quot;how do the electrons travel from the sun to earth?&quot; <br>I'll help you to find the answer(which may be the Reason behind). It's &quot;Interference Phenomenon Of Light&quot;. Young's Law Of Interference. Try to digg more into it. Thanx for your Sharing. It's indeed a worth Stuff to learn from.
<p>hi be-abee, </p><p>it's been a year since you posted your comment, but i thank you for your pointing me to a possible answer. you are awesome.</p>
I stumbled upon this tutorial by mistake but really glad I did. I began to understand things I thought I would never really understand. Great teaching technique and to the point. I'm watching them all. THANK YOU!
<p>hi, i'm glad you liked my instructable. the videos are not mine, it's just something i found on youtube and i thought might help others.</p>
hi electrobot! the first time i saw instructable, i knew it would help me to dig in my understanding about electronics. i'll definitely love these stuffs =)
<p>hey thanks for your comment. i hope you i helped you see electronics from a different perspective.</p>
This is one of the only conversations I've ever seen that didn't just end up being an all out trolling battle,well played both of you ^.^
<p>hey thanks, i try to argue from a philosophical point, i never argue for the sake of spiting others, at least not right now. arguments must both have a goal of arriving at the truth, otherwise it's just a waste of energy.</p>
Okay so I have to admit your profile picture caught my attention way before I looked at these great instructables. I'm hoping to actual get through them but I'm finding with two kids that comprehension lags. These are really great, and the people who are correcting you seem to have a very good understanding of the subject matter. Again thanks I'm learning a great deal.
<p>thanks for taking the time to comment and compliment. for me, coffee and a good setting improves comprehension. don't sweat the pic, it's not me. she's cute isn't she?</p>
&quot;in a neutrally charged atom, the number of protons are the same as the electrons.&quot; <br><br>That was written in the last box and its throwing me off. shouldn't it be neutrons instead of electrons in your statement?
sorry, i just now caught this question. yes you will absolutely right. I will make the correction.
Thank's for the lesson, now let's begin chapter 2 ^^
No prob.

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More by elektrobot:Chapter 4, Parallel Circuits Electronics for Absolute Beginners, Chapter 3 Electronics for Absolute Beginners, Chapter 2 
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