After prototyping a circuit on a breadboard or dot board it is always better to make a PCB for added stability and compactness.
PCB fabrication can be fit into any one of the following 2 categories,
* Non Chemical methods such as milling ( CNC )
The copper clad sheet is fed to the CNC which engraves the required tracks as fed to it by a computer .It is as simple as that and you get your PCB done.
* Chemical Methods
The parts of the copper clad sheet where tracks or signal traces need to be present are covered through either toner, permanent marker ink or sticker sheet etc (This transfer of toner or ink in most cases is done through heat ) .Then the copper sheet is dipped into etching solution ( combo of H2O2 and HCl or combo of FeCl3 and HCl) by which the uncovered portion gets etched into the solution. Now the toner or marker present on the tracks can be removed by abrasion and the PCB is ready to be drilled and used.
The chemical methods are suitable for hobbyists as it is cheap but it needs work to do. In this instructable i give you 2 different methods of PCB fabrication i generally use,
# Method of Toner Transfer
# Method of Stickers
The former is common and is a well tested method which can be used at home with very little expense and requires less resources.
The latter is a way i found out recently and it has proven to be both effective and simple but it requires a sticker cutting machine ( which is used in the sticker shops) .