"A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate." is the definition as stated in Wikipedia and it indeed is true.

After prototyping a circuit on a breadboard or dot board it is always better to make a PCB for added stability and compactness.

 PCB fabrication can be fit into any one of the following 2 categories,

* Non Chemical methods such as milling ( CNC )
    The copper clad sheet is fed to the CNC which engraves the required tracks as fed to it by a computer .It is as simple as that and you get your PCB done.
* Chemical Methods
    The parts of the copper clad sheet where tracks or signal traces need to be present are covered through either toner, permanent marker ink or sticker sheet etc (This transfer of toner or ink in most cases is done through heat ) .Then the copper sheet is dipped into etching solution ( combo of H2O2 and HCl or combo of FeCl3 and HCl) by which the uncovered portion gets etched into the solution. Now the toner or marker present on the tracks can be removed by abrasion and the PCB is ready to be drilled and used.

The chemical methods are suitable for hobbyists as it is cheap but it needs work to do. In this instructable i give you 2 different methods of PCB fabrication i generally use,
# Method of Toner Transfer
# Method of Stickers
The former is common and is a well tested method which can be used at home with very little expense and requires less resources.
The latter is a way i found out recently and it has proven to be both effective and simple but it requires a sticker cutting machine ( which is used in the sticker shops) .


Step 1: EAGLE CAD Tutorial and an Intro to EagleUp

EAGLE (Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor) is a schematic capture and PCB layout tool for hobbyists and DIY enthusiasts. EAGLE is a popular choice as it is an easy to use, powerful and affordable schematic capture and printed circuit board design package.
With this tool you will be able to create the Schematic and Board File for your PCB Which needs to be printed out for Toner Transfer method.
See the attached pdf file for the detailed process of creation. It is a tutorial written by our department's technical club.
I have also attached a pdf on Introduction to PCB, written by the Electrical Research Fraternity of our college.

Now, EagleUp

In case you would like to visualize the PCB that you have just designed there is a very good plugin for eagle termed  EagleUp . This plugin along with the 3d modeling software, Sketchup can turn your design into a 3d model helping you visually ensure the PCB you have just designed is worth proceeding.
The steps for installing and running the plugin in Eagle Cad is mentioned with sufficient clarity in the website of EagleUp.Following the steps and if the paths are configured properly the plugin would work without a glitch.

# Owing to the lack of all the components in the database of EagleUp some of the components might not show up in the created 3d model , But these missing components can be found in the 3D Warehouse of Sketchup; These can be downloaded into the models folder of EagleUp ( but the names of the downloaded components should match with those names of it in eaglecad ) and reopening the plugin would fill up the missing components.

I have used EagleUp and Sketchup combo for many of my projects and it has proved to be of great help to me, some of my projects can be seen here.

<p>How pure must the hydrogen peroxide be? I can only get my hands on a 3% and a 35% one, will it work?</p>
<p>did u use a normal paper for this purose?</p><p>Any way its great!</p>
For toner transfer method a normal paper is good enough .. though a magazine paper might be better

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