Explaining Lithium-ion Batteries (18650 Cell for Diy Projects)

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Introduction: Explaining Lithium-ion Batteries (18650 Cell for Diy Projects)

About: If you can't make it simple,you don't have right to make it...

For an in-depth tutorial of lithium batteries go for my FULL VIDEO TUTORIAL

in short "LI-ION BATTERIES ARE AWESOME"

lets know how...

Step 1: WHY WE NEED BATTERIES

to make our electronics portable.

but it does not hold till their batteries provide us a very efficient way of storing electricity and pumping out when required.

most consumer electronics use the lithium battery due to it benefits over the short term investment of a higher cost

Step 2: TYPES OF BATTERIES

Alkaline battery (zinc manganese oxide, carbon)Aluminium–air batteryAtomic batteryBetavoltaicsOptoelectric nuclear batteryNuclear micro-batteryBunsen cellChromic acid cell (Poggendorff cell)Clark cellDaniell cellDry cellEarth batteryFrog batteryGalvanic cellGrove cellLeclanché cellLemon/potato batteryLithium batteryLithium air batteryMagnesium batteryMercury batteryMolten salt batteryNickel oxyhydroxide batteryOxyride batteryOrganic radical batteryPaper batteryPulvermacher's chainSilver-oxide batterySolid-state batteryVoltaic pilePenny batteryTrough batteryWater-activated batteryWeston cellZinc–air batteryZinc–carbon batteryZinc chloride batteryAluminium-ion batteryFlow batteryVanadium redox batteryZinc–bromine batteryZinc–cerium batteryLead–acid batteryDeep cycle batteryVRLA batteryAGM batteryGel batteryGlass batteryLithium air batteryLithium-ion batteryLithium ion lithium cobalt oxide battery (ICR)Lithium ion manganese oxide battery (IMR)Lithium ion polymer batteryLithium iron phosphate batteryLithium–sulfur batteryLithium–titanate batteryThin film lithium-ion batteryMagnesium-ion batteryMolten salt batteryNickel–cadmium batteryNickel–cadmium battery vented cell typeNickel hydrogen batteryNickel–iron batteryNickel metal hydride batteryLow self-discharge NiMH batteryNickel–zinc batteryOrganic radical batteryPolymer-based batteryPolysulfide bromide batteryPotassium-ion batteryRechargeable alkaline batteryRechargeable fuel batterySilicon air batterySilver-zinc batterySilver calcium batterySodium-ion batterySodium–sulfur batterySugar batterySuper iron batteryUltraBatteryZinc ion batteryAutomotive batteryBackup batteryBattery (vacuum tube)Battery packBattery roomBiobatteryButton cellCMOS batteryCommon batteryCommodity cellElectric vehicle batteryFlow batteryInverter batteryLantern batteryNanobatteriesNanowire batteryLocal batteryPolapulse batteryPhotoflash batteryReserve batterySmart battery systemWatch batteryWater-activated batteryWet cellZamboni pile

MEANS THERE ARE A LOT OF BATTERIES TO CHOOSE FROM BUT THE WINNER CAN ONLY BE ONE

HERE LI-ION WINS THE RACE BY HAVING THE PERFECT COMBINATION OF

1.ENERGY DENSITY

2.AVAILABILITY

3.ECONOMY

4.STABILITY

5.SAFETY

6.LIFECYCLE

7.CURRENT DISCHARGE(C RATING)

8.WEIGHT

9.CHARGING

10. EASE OF MANUFACTURING

Step 3: SIZE COMPARISION(18650)

They hold a huge amount of energy density in such a small package(18650 cells)

size bigger than AA alkaline batteries but capacity upto 9 times

volumetric equivalene to a 9v battery but still 3 times longer runtime

Step 4: APPLICATIONS

Lithium batteries are used every where from your iPhone to your mac-book

but 18650 cells are hugely popular amongst the power bank,laptop battery and electric vehicle manufacturers

because of there greater stability and the formation of cylindrical cell type which makes cooling them easier and have good amount of packing efficiency of 93%.

hardshell casing makes them almost puff up proof.

Step 5: WHICH CELL TO BUY

lithium battery market is full of various cells but the most difficult confusion is which to buy and which not.

ALL 18650 cells are divided into 3 categories for easy rate and application process

LOWEST QUALITY-$1-$3----all the non branded chinese cells

MODERATE QUALITY-$3-$4---samsung sdi cells

TOP QUALITY-$5----LG CHEM cells,panasonic cells

ULTRA LEGENDARY-----TESLA 2170 or TESLA 18650------not available for general public easily

Step 6: CHARGING PROCESS

OPTION 1--specially designed 18650 cell AC chargers---cost--$5 for a 2 cell charger

OPTION 2--5 v safe charging circuits--cost--$2

OPTION 3--put a diode(1n4007) in between a 5v charger and the battery to get a perfect voltage of 4.2 v across the battery.(well tested and cheapest for all diy projects)----cost---almost free

Step 7: SAFETY and HANDLING

LI-ION batteries are like knifes,they are although very useful but works best when worked upon with care and precaution,

although out of my 2018 projects none of them seemed to show a error of li ion battery and none of my battery exploded(undesirably) in my diy projects.

thus to conclude if you handle them with love and care they will give it back.

NEVER PHYSICALLY DAMAGE THEM

DON'T OVERCHARGE OR OVER DISCHARGE THEM

FULL CHARGE THRESHOLD--4.2V

IDLE ZERO PERCENTAGE--3.6V

WITH LOAD LOW VOLTAGE---2.8-3.2V(depends on load)

Step 8: SAFETY VENTS and CURRENT LIMITING CIRCUIT

These 18650's will never explode thanks to the vents that will let out all the hot gases in case of any mishap.

unlike li-po they have these vents to save them from anything bad that can happen to a battery.

ANOTHER SAFETY FEATURE

most cells have a built in current limiting circuit that will make it almost impossible to harm the cells in any non physical way.

Thus i provide 18650 a 5/5 on safety standards.

Step 9: TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

FULL CHARGE THRESHOLD--4.2V

IDLE ZERO PERCENTAGE--3.6V

WITH LOAD LOW VOLTAGE---2.8-3.2V(depends on load)

DATASHEET FOR IN DEPTH VIEW

GRAPH SAYS IT ALL

Step 10: ENERGY DENSITY

293 wh/kg for 18650 cells

the maximum available

1kg li-ion=5kg lead acid

2170 cells used in tesla model 3

Step 11: LI-POLYMER and Other Lithium Batteries

li-po's are usually used in high current draw application--the only one place where li-ions lack

rc planes rc boats rc quads and all hobby rc stuff uses li-po as they need a burst of power instead of a constant

steady power output.

SEVERAL OTHER LITHIUM BATTERY CHEMISTRY ARE AVAILABLE

the most promising in the future seems the

graphene battery and the lithium air battery.

Step 12: CHECK IT OUT...

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