Introduction: FPGA Alarm System

Picture of FPGA Alarm System

For the final project for the course ECE 2220 Digital Logic at the University of Manitoba, Team Caffeine has decided to implement a security system. This security system will utilize an Altera FPGA board, an IR break beam sensor, and a LilyPad Buzzer. The FPGA board will indicate if the alarm is armed and if the light from the sensor is interrupted with a LED. If both cases are true (ie, the alarm is armed and the light is interrupted), the alarm will give off a sound through the buzzer.. The FPGA board will also display the status of the alarm ('off' or 'on') on the seven segment display.

Step 1: Equipment/Programs Required

Picture of Equipment/Programs Required
  1. A computer that is able to handle the processing
  2. Quartus II web edition
  3. Altera FPGA Board DEs-115 Cyclone IV series (first picture of this section)
  4. IR Beam Break Sensor (second picture of this section)
  5. Arduino LilyPad Buzzer (third picture of this section)
  6. User Manual (a link is provided in the references section)
  7. Breadboard
  8. Wires
  9. One pull up resistor; 10K ohms
  10. Patience; the Verilog code is not always easy to do

Step 2: Block Diagram and Module Break Down

See the attached PDF at the bottom of this section for the block diagram.

The alarm system is comprised of three modules; the main module, the display module, and the sound module. There are three states the system can be in: armed, disarmed and triggered.

The main module watches the inputs and changes the values of the state variables. The inputs for the armed and disarmed states are switches. The input for the triggered state is the break beam sensor. If the light beam is hitting the sensor, the input will be 1. In contrast, if the light beam is interrupted and no light hits the sensor, than the input will be 0 and the triggered state is changed to 1.

The display module will be given the values of the armed and disarmed states from the main module. If the armed input goes high (1) then the armed state will be changed to 1, and the word 'on' which will be shown in the seven segment display (SSD), which is located above the slide switches on the FPGA board. If the input goes low (0), the disarmed state will be changed to 1 and the SSD will show the word 'off'.

The sound module will also be given the values of the armed, disarmed and triggered states from the main module. If the armed state is 1 and the triggered state is 1, the alarm will sound. The sound will only turn off if the disarm state is changed to 1.

Step 3: Display Module

Picture of Display Module

The display module will use the SSD to display if the alarm is 'ON' or 'OFF'. This used the values of the armed and disarmed state variables. Depending on the input, the module will light up certain segments of the display. Refer to the second picture of this section to know which segments will be lit. Refer to the first picture of this section to see what the SSDs look like when the segments are lit.

When the armed state is on (input is 1), two displays will be used, one for each letter of the word 'on'. The first display, all segments but number 6 will be lit. The second display will have segments 0, 1, 2, 4, and 5 lit (could also use segments 2, 4, and 6).

When the disarmed state is on (input is 1), three displays will be used; one for each letter of the word 'off'. The first display will be the same as the first display for when the system is on. The second and third displays will both have segments 0, 4, 5, 6 will be lit.

The SSD are low level sensitive, meaning they light up when they are 0. The labels in the second picture tell you the position in which the 0's should be placed to form the shape you want. For example, to make the letter 'n', segments 0, 1, 2, 4, and 5 must be lit, meaning all of those positions will be zero. The other positions, in this case positions 3 and 6, will be 1. Therefore to make the letter 'n' the 7 bit binary that will be fed to the pins is 0001001. Since each board is different, you may have to reserve the numbers in your board specifically, however this is how they're all supposed to work.

The pins needed for this project can be found on pages 36 to 38 of the Altera DE2-115 user manual. Notice that the SSD pins have 7 pins per display, such as HEX0[0] to HEX0[6]. Each position of the 7 bit binary number will each get one of these 7 pins. However, though the 7 bit binary number will go from position 0 to position 6, to get the right order of pins, they must count down.

HEX0[6] will be position 0, HEX0[5] will be position 1, etc.

    The code is as follows:

    module armedStatusDisplay(armedState, SSD, SSD1, SSD2);

    input armedState;

    output reg [6:0]SSD, SSD1, SSD2;

    always @(armedState)

    begin

    SSD2 = 7'b0000001;

    if(armedState == 1)

    begin

    SSD = 7'b1111111;

    SSD1 = 7'b0001001;

    end

    else

    begin

    SSD = 7'b0111000;

    SSD1 = 7'b0111000;

    end

    end

    endmodule

    Step 4: Sound Module

    Picture of Sound Module

    The sound module utilizes the LilyPad Buzzer. It receives inputs from the main module, and if certain conditions are met, it sounds the alarm. The main module recognizes if the alarm is armed (armed state = 1) and if the light hitting the IR break beam sensor has been interrupted while the system was armed (triggered state = 1). If both are 1, then the alarm will sound.

    The code is as follows:

    // code in alarm module is taken from
    http://www.fpga4fun.com/MusicBox1.html and modified

    module alarmSound(speaker, clk, triggeredState);

    input clk;

    input triggeredState;

    output speaker;

    parameter clkdivider = 25000000/440/2;

    reg [23:0] tone;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    tone<= tone+1;

    reg [14:0] counter;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    begin

    if(counter==0)

    counter<= (tone[23] ? clkdivider-1 : clkdivider/2-1);

    else

    counter<= counter-1;

    end

    reg speaker;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    if(counter==0)

    speaker<= ~speaker;

    endmodule

    Step 5: Main Module

    Picture of Main Module

    This module pieces all of the other modules together to get the full alarm system. It receives information directly from the IR break beam sensor to determine the triggered state and recognizes whether or not the system is in an armed or disarmed state. The system is armed by slide switches on the bottom of the FPGA board; one pin to turn the system on, and one to turn the system off once it is set off. The pins for the switches can be found on pages 36 of the user manual.

    This module gives input to both of the other modules.

    The code is as follows:

    // Main module

    module finalproject(armedIn, beam, clk, disarmedIn, armedState, beamOut, disarmedState, speaker, SSD, SSD1, SSD2, triggeredState) ;

    input armedIn; // SW0

    input beam;

    input clk;

    input disarmedIn; // SW1

    output regarmedState = 0; //LEDR17

    output beamOut; //LEDG0

    output regdisarmedState = 1; //LEDR16

    output speaker;

    output [6:0]SSD, SSD1, SSD2;

    outputreg triggeredState = 0;

    parameter on = 1;

    parameter off = 0;

    assign beamOut = beam; // indicated on ledg0 if the beam is broken

    // watching all of the inputs

    always @(armedIn, disarmedIn, beam)

    begin

    if (armedIn)

    begin

    armedState<= on;

    disarmedState<= off;

    end

    if (disarmedIn)

    begin

    armedState<= off;

    disarmedState<= on;

    triggeredState<= off;

    end

    if ((beam == 0) && (armedState == 1) && (disarmedState == 0))

    triggeredState<= on;

    end

    armedStatusDisplay display1(armedState,SSD,SSD1,SSD2); // displays the current state of the alarm on SSD

    alarmSound alarm1(speaker, clk, triggeredState); // sound the alarm

    endmodule

    Step 6: Demonstration

    Please watch the attached video to see a demonstration of our alarm system.

    The full code is as follows:

    module finalproject(armedIn, beam, clk, disarmedIn, armedState, beamOut, disarmedState, speaker, SSD, SSD1, SSD2, triggeredState) ;

    input armedIn;

    input beam;

    input clk;

    input disarmedIn;

    output reg armedState = 0;

    output beamOut;

    output reg disarmedState = 1;

    output speaker;

    output [6:0]SSD, SSD1, SSD2;

    output reg triggeredState = 0;

    parameter on = 1;

    parameter off = 0;

    assign beamOut = beam; // indicated on ledg0 if the beam is broken

    // watching all of the inputs

    always @(armedIn, disarmedIn, beam)

    begin

    if (armedIn)

    begin

    armedState<= on;

    disarmedState<= off;

    end

    if (disarmedIn)

    begin

    armedState<= off;

    disarmedState<= on;

    triggeredState<= off;

    end

    if ((beam == 0) && (armedState == 1) && (disarmedState == 0))

    triggeredState<= on;

    end

    armedStatusDisplay display1(armedState,SSD,SSD1,SSD2); // displays the current state of the alarm on SSD

    alarmSound alarm1(speaker, clk, triggeredState); // sound the alarm

    endmodule

    // code in alarm module is taken from http://www.fpga4fun.com/MusicBox1.html and modified

    module alarmSound(speaker, clk, triggeredState);

    input clk;

    input triggeredState;

    output speaker;

    parameter clkdivider = 25000000/440/2;

    reg [23:0] tone;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    tone<= tone+1;

    reg [14:0] counter;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    begin

    if(counter==0)

    counter<= (tone[23] ? clkdivider-1 : clkdivider/2-1);

    else

    counter<= counter-1;

    end

    reg speaker;

    always @(posedge clk)

    if (triggeredState == 1)

    if(counter==0)

    speaker<= ~speaker;

    endmodule

    module armedStatusDisplay(armedState, SSD, SSD1, SSD2);

    input armedState;

    output reg [6:0]SSD, SSD1, SSD2;

    always @(armedState)

    begin

    SSD2 = 7'b0000001;

    if(armedState == 1)

    begin

    SSD = 7'b1111111;

    SSD1 = 7'b0001001;

    end

    else

    begin

    SSD = 7'b0111000;

    SSD1 = 7'b0111000;

    end

    end

    endmodule

    The full code in a .zip file is attached below.

    Step 7: References

    Picture of References

    Links for the IR break beam sensor picture:

    http://www.adafruit.com/images/1200x900/2168.02.jpg

    https://www.adafruit.com/products/2168

    Link to information explaining the use of the IR sensor. Code is included on this page for use with Arduino. None of this code was used but it informed our general understanding of the sensor and the need for a pullup resistor.

    https://learn.adafruit.com/ir-breakbeam-sensors

    Links for the FPGA board picture:

    http://www.terasic.com.tw/attachment/archive/502/image/image_88_thumb.jpg

    http://www.terasic.com.tw/cgi-bin/page/archive.pl?Language=English&CategoryNo=139&No=502

    Link for the FPGA user manual:

    ftp://ftp.altera.com/up/pub/Altera_Material/12.1/Boards/DE2-115/DE2_115_User_Manual.pdf

    Links for the original picture of our team logo:

    http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large-5/caffeine-molecule-kate-paulos.jpg

    http://fineartamerica.com/featured/caffeine-molecule-kate-paulos.html

    Link to Altera DE2 series datasheet for audio:

    ftp://ftp.altera.com/up/pub/Altera_Material/11.1/University_Program_IP_Cores/Audio_Video/Audio.pdf

    Link to code taken and modified from:

    http://www.fpga4fun.com/MusicBox1.html

    Sample sound codes:

    http://marsohod.org/index.php/play-pmv

    http://marsohod.org/index.php/notes-synt

    Links to pictures used in this Instructable (in order of appearance)

    1. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/zk7RlcGGkK8/maxresdefault.jpg
    2. http://www.johnloomis.org/altera/DE2/segments.jpg
    3. http://previews.123rf.com/images/wamsler/wamsler1412/wamsler141200025/34571756-noise-warning-sign-grungy-style-vector-illustration-Stock-Vector.jpg
    4. http://www.clker.com/cliparts/1/d/6/5/1375477225215864851On-Switch.svg.med.png
    5. http://www.photonics.com/images/Web/Articles/2014/1/7/IRLight.jpg

    Comments

    CameronC32 (author)2016-02-19

    Nice!

    Also, i like that fpga.

    I use the altera Max 10 and Cyclone 2, the others are WAY too powerfull!

    seamster (author)2015-11-30

    Cool project, thank you for sharing here on instructables! :)

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