Like many other instructables I start with "My story", or "Motivation for project", and next I will present real introduction.

I have small experience with circuits.io, but already like this service. I decide to start one mine digital electronics project. Unfortunately it seems impossible, since circuits.io is under development. There is no integrated circuits, which can be simulated in breadboard. I decide to no wait implementation of such functionality, since I can give some ideas on development of circuits.io.


Aim of this project is to control 8 LEDs with Arduino, but only use 6 output wires. Using logic integrated circuits we can memorize states of some LEDs. Good solution is shift register like 100341. In this case instead of 6 can use only 2 output wires to controll all LEDs. First wire is for data, second is to apply shift step.

Unfortunately in circuits.io there is no integrated circuits, which can be used in breadboard simulation. That is why we shall implement simple integrated circuits, using transistors. We shall implement a 4 RS latch, and something like 4 AND gates.

Step 1: Implement and/or gate.

What to use? Nmos (pmos) transistors, or usual pnp (or npn) TTL type? Our choice is npn, since nmos and pmos transistors are not implemented (you can put them on breadboard, but can not apply simulation - not implemented yet). Easier way is to find solution with transistor gates circuits to implement AND gate (Url of previous link is: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/trangate.html).

We shall demonstrate implementation of NOR gate circuit on our breadboard, when implement RS latch (next step).

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