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Picture of Free Air Conditioning
Technically it should be called a heat exchanger, we lovingly call it the water cooler, but it has been providing us with free cold air for more than 20 years now so it definitely does work.
Shortly after moving here (Montana) I noticed that the water from our well is really cold, under 50 degrees. I built this heat exchanger to take advantage of that cold source for use in the house in the summer and as a byproduct it heats up the water going to the garden a bit before it goes on the plants since the plants didn't seem to care to much for the super cold water. Good benefits all the way around and since I would be pumping the water to water outside anyway the only actual cost is the power to run the box fan that moves the air through the copper piping.
How well does it work? We hit a high temperature in July of 112F, hottest that I can remember. The temperature inside was 76F with the cooler running all the time. I almost didn't want to go out to move the sprinkler.
The disadvantages? Well, you have to move the sprinkler a lot, but it does keep the grass green. Also if the humidity gets high, water will condense on the exchanger the same as on a glass of cold water. So I keep towels underneath it to soak up the moisture. If it gets really muggy I have to change the towels several times a day. I just hang the wet set outside in the heat to dry and rotate the dry ones back under the cooler.
It will take some skill to put it together but once done it is maintenance free, except for the time I left it outside before putting it away for the winter and it froze some leftover water in a pipe and broke it. Make sure to get the water out of it and store it where its above freezing.
Another disadvantage, it isn't pretty, but it is unique and truly "green".
 
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Step 1: Check your water temp

Picture of check your water temp
For this to work at all you need to have cold incoming water. The colder the better. Get a standard waterproof thermometer and run your outside water for a while and find out what temp it is. This probably will not work in places where you have a municipal water supply unless its from a cold source. Also you need to have enough ground to water so you don't water log your garden and lawn. It will probably work best in rural areas.
With the fan turned off and the water running outside the temp of my copper pipe is 48F (Infrared non contact thermometer reading)

Step 2: Materials

Picture of materials
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For my heat exchanger I used copper pipe with aluminum fins. This is the same stuff that is used for hot water baseboard heating systems. I got mine a long time ago so I don't know if the same stuff is still around but there should be something similar on the market.
In addition I got mine for free. I found it in a pile at the local landfill apparently discarded by a contractor as scraps from a heating job. (I used to get all my firewood at the landfill from trees people in town cut down, that has all since changed with all the new laws. Now I am not allowed to remove wood from the landfill, instead they bury it, go figure.)
I doubt that they throw anything like this away today with recycle prices so high but you should check with a local contractor to see if he has anything. He probably would rather sell it to you cheap instead of hassling with recycling it. If you can't get scraps then you will need to by new.
To fit a standard box fan the sections need to be about 21 inches long. Stacked one on top of the other it took 7 pieces to reach the top of the fan. This will vary if your fins are smaller.
You will also need elbows to connect the sections together and lots of little pipe pieces. Scrap works great here too rather than cutting up a full length of pipe.
Originally I started with one layer of pipe but after seeing how good it worked I added 2 more so mine has 3 layers of heat fins. This seams to be a good number. Anymore and it would get difficult to move around and would take up to much room. Any less and the air doesn't get enough contact to cool down enough. Finish the ends with fittings that can connect to a hose. You can use the special connecting hoses for washing machines but I just cut up sections from a regular garden hose. The bigger the diameter of the hose the better, you will restrict the water flow to the outside if you use small hoses and pipes. All of this hardware is available at any local hardware store. Shop around for the best prices. I used 42 elbows to put mine together.

Step 3: Tools

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Not much is need in the way of tools. A pipe cutter is essential, Measuring tape and marker, Flux and solid core solder and rags to wipe off the pipes. The pliers are for holding the pipe as you solder, the sections are short so the whole thing gets really hot. You should also have some fine sandpaper or emery cloth to sand the fittings. It helps the solder to hold better. If you haven't done soldering before this will be great practice. Remember, do it outside or in a garage with lots of ventilation. Give yourself lots of space and watch for anything combustible. If you drop the torch make sure its not going to set anything on fire. Simple things for sure but people actually do manage to set things on fire a lot. Make sure the solder fills the joints completely. If you take your time and do it right you will have no leaks when you finish. Remember, hot liquid metal runs downhill and does drip. Don't hold it in your lap.
Assemble the sections separately then solder then sections together after they are finished. Make sure that the connectors for the hose are on the bottom, if you use 3 layers you will have to run a pipe from top to bottom to get both connectors on the bottom. You can see it in the picture of mine. One nice thing about using copper, if it doesn't fit right you can take apart the joints and do them over again.

Step 4: Reinforce it (tie it together)

Picture of reinforce it (tie it together)
The soldered joints are not strong enough by themselves to hold this all together, especially after it is filled with water. I used plastic twine to tie mine all together because at the time that is what I had and it worked good. Today I would probably use nylon wire ties along with the twine. Just zip it all together. Whatever you use make sure that its tightly pulled together so the joints aren't stressed. It helps too to add some kind of handle so you can pick it up easily.
Notice in the picture the hose connector on the bottom and the long pipe to change from the top to the bottom.
One step I forgot to mention, PRESSURE TEST IT for leaks outside before you bring it into the house. Run water through it until all the air is out and then leave it sit under pressure and check for any wet spots.

Step 5: Connect to the water supply

Picture of Connect to the water supply
I added a feeder pipe coming off my pressure tank and piped it under the house directly to a connecting box in the floor. I added valves, one on the incoming and one on the outgoing and a bypass valve. Then continued the feed pipe to the outside. Yes, if someone were to turn the valve on without the cooler attached it would spray water all over. But nobody ever has so far. The only time I ever had a leak was when I tried using snap on hose connectors. They are convenient but they leak. So they work great outside but don't use them for this application.
I should have used ball valves for the connectors, they restrict the water flow less and are faster to turn on and off. I may swap out the ones I have now to ball valves in the future.

Step 6: Turn on the water

Picture of Turn on the water
Place towels under the exchanger, check the hoses, turn on the water. You can hear the gurgling as the air moves through the pipes. Turn the sprinkler on outside. Turn the fan on behind the exchanger and thats pretty much it. Free Cold air.
Depending on what you can find, the initial parts could cost you a bit, especially since copper has gone up in price. And it is a bit labor intensive to put it all together. But once done its maintenance free unless it springs a leak.
And its totally green, using cold that would normally just go to wast.
Ours works so good that it sometimes gets too cold and we have to open a window. Other times when I need to water but don't need the cooling I have to put it on bypass.
I have to admit that I did get an air conditioner though. Its at the opposite end of the house and I run it when the humidity gets really high. Its mostly just for dehumidifying. The water cooler does most of the cooling.

Step 7: Answers to questions

Due to the number of comments I thought it best to add an extra page to address some of them and to answer some of the questions and clarify a few things.

In regards to using car radiators - although at first this appears to be a good idea I would not recommend it for many reasons, some are as follows:
First - you would find it very difficult to connect up the water lines in a way that would hold the pressure. You would need to find adapters to somehow go from radiator size hoses down to regular water pipes. Even though it might be possible to do so, it is highly likely that you would end up with leaks.
Second - High water pressure would probably cause leaks. Car cooling systems are designed for relatively low PSI. Radiator caps are designed to open and vent at about 12 to 15 PSI if I remember correctly. Your normal house water supply runs between 30 and 70 PSI. My pump is set to cycle between 30 and 50 PSI (30 on, 50 off). This kind of pressure would likely rupture a radiator or cause the cap to pop open and vent. So, while you are outside moving the sprinkler and you turn off the water, inside a fountain erupts in the living room. Not so fun.
That's why I used standard water pipes - they are designed specifically to hold the higher pressure.
Third - Many older radiators leak to begin with. In order to keep them in service, many are plugged up with stop leak. But as soon as you start running lots of fresh water through them all of the stop leak and other assorted crud will be flushed out and they will probably end up leaking. And there goes your fountain again.
Fourth - Radiators are going to be difficult to get clean. Most of them are full of bug leftovers and oil and other assorted things from the engine compartment. Even if you do get them clean they will probably continue to put off a nasty smell.
Fifth - The ability to use the outside water in a normal way, and by this I mean that you can turn off the water at the hose, run sprinklers or even wash your car without any fear of fountains in the living room, is something you probably could not achieve using radiators. With my cooler there is no need to just let the hose drain on the ground because it can be pressurized - it is not just a drain. In addition because it is made to hold the water pressure and not leak you can locate the cooler anywhere in the house where you need the cooling. I actually considered building a unit to fit into the heat ducts and use the furnace fan to drive the air through it so that it would become a whole house unit, but I decided that it was too much work and too complicated for my needs. Keep it simple and you will have fewer problems.
If you are planning on using this for your garage or shop I could see using radiators. Water spills wouldn't be near the problem that they would be inside your house but I would not recommend using radiators for in-house use.
Next - If you mount one in a window and pull in air from outside you will defeat part of the cooling effect. The outside air is far warmer and has much more heat in it than the inside air. By setting this up completely inside and circulating the air inside through it you get more cooling because the air going through it is already more moderate. Use outside air only if you need the ventilation.
{{{
What would be really great is for some enterprising company to manufacture a specific unit for this purpose. A heat exchanger/radiator that is designed for the standard water pressure built into a plastic housing for catching the condensation and with a fan mounted inside. An all in one unit. Just attach the hoses and plug the fan in. But it's unlikely that anyone will because the market is not large enough. Of course, that being said, some Chinese company will probably market this in the future and totally screw me out of any share of the profits.
}}}
I did a Google search on the internet and there is baseboard heating pipe available, even some for salvage prices. Somebody in Texas had 200 feet that he had just taken out and didn't want to throw away because it was in œlike new shape. My cooler used about 40 feet of the pipe. So that's around the amount that you will need to make a similar unit.
The water I use is directly from my pressure tank. It's untreated and is intended for outside watering. Our ground water here is pretty nasty. It's very alkali and has lots of rust in it. Just to be able to use it for the house I run it through a sediment filter, then a rust filter and finally a water softener which uses rust removing salt. And after all of that we still don't drink it. So the inside water and outside water are kept completely separate.
I want to emphasize this---- I don't waste the water by just dumping it on the ground. It is used for watering the garden, grass and trees. It hasn't rained here for 8 weeks now. With temperatures in the 80's and above everything dies if it's not watered. So the water is not being wasted. I try to keep a band of green around the house as a fire preventative. In 1999 we had a grass fire / fire storm sweep through the area and 3 neighbors houses burnt to the ground along with 4 out buildings/garages and the UPS shipping depot. Only the houses with green grass around them were spared. So having a green belt is a pretty good idea. So again I emphasize, I would be watering anyway, I am just taking advantage of something that would normally be thrown away. (The cooling properties of the water). Also this doesn't need tremendous amounts of water to work. Even at a trickle there is still a lot of heat absorbed by the water.
"bricko" described this as œa poor mans water source heat pump". He is pretty correct in that. Regular heat pumps don't work here because the winter air temperatures are too low, as much as 40 bellow zero and often 10 below for weeks at a time. So they developed what are called ground source heat pumps that both heat and cool using the ground for the moderate temperatures that a heat pump needs. My cooler is actually only half a system in that it's not for heating, but for cooling only. A full Ground Source Heat Pump system is very expensive and uses a lot of power year round. In addition the laws concerning them have changed recently. In Montana you are no longer allowed to return water back to the water table by using a well. There were too many instances of people contaminating the water table by returning dirty water to a well. So any new heat pump system has to be contained or sealed. You can run a fluid through underground heat exchangers but the inside fluid cannot come into direct contact with the ground water, thus it's a sealed loop system. I have avoided all of this by simply using the water for both watering plants and cooling the house. It's not sophisticated, there's no compressor, no thermostat, it's manually regulated, this is what makes it cheap and green. This is also in keeping with the whole concept of the going green contest. Yes there are more sophisticated systems available. But that's not the intent of the contest, at least as I understand it. (Or so I thought until I saw the contest results)
I do have a plan for a wind powered/compressed air/water pump that I would love to adapt to this system and make a totally self contained system. But I have never had the funds to develop it or the kind of shop tools I would need to build it. Maybe someday----.
Finally for those of you who have asked, I run the coldest water through the outermost layer so the air to leave hits the coldest water as it departs. The temperature drop between the incoming and outgoing water depends on the flow rate. Running full open the water temp only drops a few degrees. But running only one sprinkler and so reducing the flow, the temp difference can be as much as 15 degrees. The inlet hose will be wet with condensation but the out hose will be completely dry. Interestingly the fan speed doesn't appear to have to much affect on the difference in the water temp, but it does have an effect on the air temp. The lower the fan speed the colder the air coming out of the cooler. That's because the air spends a little longer moving over the fins and gets a chance to shed more heat. However the cold air doesn't circulate around as much because there isn't much air movement, so I usually run the fan on high or medium.
Also in case anyone is wondering or interested, my well is around 70 feet deep with a submersible pump at the bottom and a pitiless connector about 10 feet down. Because our ground freezes down to 8 feet on occasions all underground pipes need to be at least that deep if not deeper to prevent them from freezing. So this is a sealed well, the top of the casing is closed to prevent any contamination from getting into it. Our water table is around 20 feet down so the pump is well below the table. This allows for it to draw down a lot before it starts sucking air.

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jjss3 days ago
jjss jjss3 days ago

15 years ago I did the same thing in Alaska, the outside temp was around 80 and humid( uncomfortable for me) . What I did was take a device called a modine heater ( shop heater that uses boiler water) and ran my 37 degree well water through it. The temp differential between the front of the machine to the back was over 10 degrees lower measured with digital lab thermometers. In alaska water is plentiful, I am not sure I would use this in california. I think you have a great homemade design. Look up Modine , I think you will like it.

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jjss3 days ago
jjss3 days ago
jgh591 month ago

I think a more efficient use of this cold water would be to cool the condenser coils on a traditional air conditioner. You could use much less water, possibly drawn from the well with a solar powered pump. Water source heat pumps are really efficient.

airexpress21 month ago

Hi, i hope no one gets mad at me for posting another climate control thread but im sort of lost and driving in winter with no defrost is killing me. My climate control seems to work fine but no air will come out of the vents. It sounds as though the motor is working at all speeds when i turn it on but pretty much no air comes out of any vents. I hear everything clicking on when i turn on the Air Conditioning system, and i know its not a clogged interior filter. It almost sounds as though it is trying to pull air through but isnt being allowed to because the motor seems to go up and down in rpms as if the intake for the air is clogged. Ive checked all fuses with a electrical tester so its not those. I guess it may be the FSU but i didnt think my case sounded like the others i read. It seems like a vent somewere isnt opening for the air to come in, any help?

sounds like a blend door. it could be the motor for the blend door or the linkage is broken also if its powered by vacuum check for leaks or disconnected lines.
you're talking about auto a/c if I'm not mistaken...might be a bad "blend door" motor. Google "blend door" issues.
OpticHash3 months ago

Or you can pump the water back in the well.....

elec.rk3 months ago

NICE

Forgott3nM5 months ago

I wouldn't use that old fan for it...... even though they work better they'll be just as good as those all metal ones from 1940's and 50's soon, I'd go to a thrift store and find a fan like it to use but newer...... Anyways I've ran my 12000 btu window a/c off of solar before, and captured the drips for my plants, worked really well :)

Tampaguy1 year ago

Sorry, blightcp - The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a traditional unit of energy equal to about 1055 joules. It is the amount of energy needed to cool or heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. A US liquid gallon of water weighs about 8.34 pounds - better recalculate!

blightcp1 year ago

If I remember right 1 btu is the energy to heat 1 gallon by 1 degree.

at 48F to 72F is a 24F change. 250 gallons of water an hour equals a 6000 Btu/h ac

So you need a 4.1 gallons a min flow rate to achieve the goal of 6K. That sounds about right for a well pump.

And
pulling that water up from a deep well takes a decent amount of
electricity from a well pump.

My 6000BTU window AC pulls about 450W. The well pump pulls more than that.

The only way this is cost effective is if you are already using the
water, as the poster is. Unless you recirculate the water back into the
well, there is an enormous amount of water needed for this to work.

But it does work and, it could also help a water heater use less energy also by pre-heating the input water. You could get a double savings there by both cooling the room and putting that heat into the water before the water heater.

nblender1 year ago

I've done this as well. My well is 10gpm and it comes out of the ground at 8 degrees C. I had a new furnace installed so I asked the installer to put in an evaporator coil while he was at it. It cost me an extra $180. I plumbed a 1/4" solenoid valve in line with the fresh water supply from the well. I insulated the water line leading to the furnace so the water going in is as close to the same temperature as groundwater as I can measure. I hooked the solenoid valve up to the A/C terminals on the furnace, so when the thermostat calls for cooling, it turns on the water and cools the house. The egress for the warm water is a faucet on the outside of the house which has long soaker hoses attached to water the flower beds. The flowers like warm water on a hot day over shockingly cold water anyway... The runoff just goes back into the ground.

The system works fairly well if I can control the solar load by closing curtains on sunny windows or putting out the awnings on the South view windows. If I set the temp to 66F in the morning on an anticipated 'hot day', I can keep the ambient temperatures in the house down to 75F by the time the outside temperature falls at the end of the day. It doesn't work as well as a true A/C system, but it's close enough to free that it pleases me. In preparation for fall/winter, I drain the evaporator coil and run some vinegar through it to clear out any mineralization... Hot air from heat during the winter would cause any solids to come out of solution I think, and eventually clog the evap coil.

The drawback to this system is the coil doesn't get cold enough to cause condensation to pool and run off so there's no net reduction in humidity within the house.

Anyway, that's my story. It was cheap to do and it's hidden from view...

lived there 6 years and I use this idea w an ice chest and a heater core for my work trk (which in CA w no a/c I'd bad bad bad) and it works well
balconio2 years ago
This is great- I conceived a similar system (not built yet- just in my head) using a heat exchanger and cheap box fan that took this a step further and used an insulated ducting system to deliver the chilled air to multiple rooms and a drip tray under the unit to collect condensate.
Have you thought of returning the water to the well instead of watering the lawn? I think the slight temp differential and the huge body of water in the aquifer would temper the return water back pretty quickly.
shortw5 years ago
You talked about this being a green concept? It is not really green, because you use quite a bit of water from the well. The green part would be to conserve water. Your well pump uses a lot of power. You would be able to run 2-3 5,000 btu air conditioners for the same power consumption as your well pump uses. You created a breeding ground for mosquitoes and fungus that has could have serious health or death issues, both could be deadly.
For Vyger its green because he's using the well pump for watering anyway. On the way he just takes some of the cold out of the water for his own comfort.
jcox242 years ago
I live in southern VA, and when storms knock out our power, the humidity and heat can be awful. I want to try this, only have it run from ice water in a cooler (pumped through a cooling coil), because I could run it on a car power inverter and have cool air in one room, even if I have to sacrifice another to run an extension cord through the window. I could have hand warmers in water in it during the winter, if a nor'easter knocks out the power.
samaddon2 years ago
mind blowing project i have also developed one similar to this it works ! bu i used good quality heatsinks and only one table fan but i am really surprised to see that it can also be made by some general household things!
awesome!
regards!
Samad Haque
brittonv3 years ago
Have you thought about connecting this to a traditional Air conditioner air handler and use a thermostat to trigger your well pump? Great Idea though, wish it work here in South Florida.

I would think that the more efficient air handler with a blower would enable you to do the same thing using less water..

Awesome project!
This is a great idea! We happen to have a few old cooler consender and A/C coils (I guess also known as "heat exchangers"). I followed the setup here and it DOES work! Now, I have an old Everstar "portable air conditioner" that doesn't cool very well I figured it would look a lot more "asthetic" and it already has the fan built in. What I want to do is retrofit that into one of these coolers. Could anybody offer suggestions on how to do this if I put some pictures up? I also would need help with modifying the electronics - I just want to use BOTH exchangers withe the fans on at the same time.

Thanks!
spafford3 years ago
My question is ... How warm is the water when it reaches the garden? Is the hose laid on the ground after it leaves the cooler(which would make the water hotter)? I was just wondering the temp of the water that is coming out of the "cooler" as to determine if all the "coolness" is extracted from the water. I guess ideally you would only want the coldest air extracted but if the temp on exit is still the same more air flow and a larger "Radiator" could really make cold! Of course, flow rate is a major factor and I wanna couple this with drip irrigation and a large GARDEN :) This is an awesome idea! I had thought about it, but had not put it to work. Much praise 'ol mighty inventor, people such as yourself are the last line of defense in energy corruption.
Vyger (author)  spafford3 years ago
The rise in water temperature depends on a lot of factors. Even the air temperature plays a role. But the biggest factor is the flow rate of the water. If its running pretty slow, such as just a single sprinkler that is turned down, then the rise is pretty noticeable. You can tell the difference just by touching the in and out hoses. Also the out hose has very little condensation on it. If the flow rate is high then the temperature drop is pretty small.
There is about 150 feet of hose between the outlet and the garden. The water does get warmer just from the air while flowing through the hose. I have never checked the temperature at the garden end. The water is still cold, but not the bone chilling temperature that it is coming straight from the well.
garretttm Vyger3 years ago
Old i know, but just a thought...
If your water starts at 50F and you lose at most 15deg in the process, you should still be well under ambient temps and be able to reuse the same water (granted, at lower efficiency).
Times when you are only using 1 sprinkler and therefore have low flow you could have a recycle valve to loop the same water through several times before it is ultimately used.
Have you thought of/ experiment with this? It's hard to guess how effective it would be as there are so many variables, but it seems solid on paper
Vyger (author)  garretttm3 years ago
I could add extra heat exchangers in other places, and in fact have thought of doing that, but the main point of the project is not to get maximum efficiency out of it but to harness what usually just goes to waste. Outside watering is the priority, getting cool while you water is a fringe benefit. It just so happens that you usually need to water the most when its the hottest out.

There is also another factor involved and that is the more pipe you add the greater the resistance to the water flow so you drop the outside water pressure and flow amount. And of course the more pipe, the greater the chance of a leak.
Bonzoix5 years ago
For those without a well, couldn't we dig a field in the backyard to run lines through to recool the water to ground temp? Like a DIY geo-thermal A?C unit? Then we would need a pump or an impeller driven by the same motor as the fan... Love the instructable.
I think that is an excellent added addition! I think a key I would like to add is to make sure the water remained bacteria free.
they are saying run hoses underground not run water through dirt, would still be just as clean (or just as dirty i should say) as tap. also the radiator uses copper which inhibits bacteria and mold. also it is in an water tight radiator so even if there was bacteria you wouldn't come in contact with it.
sadly no. dirt doesn't have a great heat exchange so it wouldn't "cool" the water much. the only reason this system works is that it is a one way trip. the water doesn't get recycled so it doesn't need to cool back down. if you used a ground cooling method the water would not stay cool for more that a few hours because the radiator on the fad has a better heat exchange than the dirt (more heat is added than is taken away on each loop) good thought process though only about 1% of our ideas are good ones and yet humanity still moves forward, just goes to show how valuable it is to keep thinking.
tinker2343 years ago
wow could you use painters tarp for the water leaks in case
Vyger (author)  tinker2343 years ago
I haven't had any water leaks. There is condensation, just like on a glass of ice water in a warm room. But my climate is pretty arid and dry so condensation is usually only a problem a few times in the summer. If it was a constant problem I would look for better solution but I have been going on the "if it isn't broke, don't fix it" thinking for now.
If your wellhead is accessible, you could just run a hose back into the well. I'm sure the water temperature would still remain at 48.
That would be illegal in most states simply because of contamination risk
My great grand-dad (I only know from the stories of my grand-dad) had a large "sisturn" (that's how granddad says it) behind his house that collected rain water. Basically it was a big deep hole that was dug and then concreted and he pumped this water out and ran it through some 30's filtering system and actually had indoor water at a time where most people still were drinking out of the river (at least in TN). If someone had the land and equipment needed to do it, you could build a deep "sisturn" and pump water into it, and cover it with concrete. then build another one close by. They could run the water from one to another, and once one was dry the other would be cool enough to use.
eyerobot Funk_D5 years ago
The actual way we got our water in Kentucky, And Tennessee, Was to run large hoses uphill into small creeks, Where we created a small dam, And put screen filters on the end of the hose. The water ran down the large pipe, Into smaller pipes to build up pressure as the water approached our house. We then built a large cistern that was sealed on top by what resembled a submarine door, And this held in the pressure. On the bottom of the cistern was a hose smaller than the intake hoses which was filtered again with a sediment filter, And recieved a lot of pressure. So in an area where everyone had no water pressure, dirt, creatures, And god knows what else in their water, We had high pressure clean water. And it was always cold enough to turn your fingers blue. I just wish I had thought to use a radiator type system as a heat exchanger like this instructable. Great idea.
The water ran down the large pipe, Into smaller pipes to build up pressure as the water approached our house.

do people actually think that pipe size influences water pressure in that way? small pipes will reduce the pressure as they restrict the flow.

The way I understand it is that water pressure is determined by height of drop not pipe size.

just my two cents worth no big deal :P
@ josephlebold. eyrobot is correct. As a fluid [liquid or gas] flows through a pipe there is FRICTION between the flowing fluid and the pipe wall.

The longer a pipe run, the more "friction loss" and both flow rate and pressure are REDUCED.

To correct for this friction loss, piping systems are TAPERED smaller and smaller consistant with the length of the pipe run.

To SEE evidence of this phenomenon, the next time you are in a Wal-Mart, or any large building with EXPOSED ceiling FIRE SPRINKLER systems, "eyeball" the piping system and you'll see the "tapering down" of the plumbing. That way, ALL sprinkler heads receive the same amount and pressure of water, AND therefore provide a nearly identical spray pattern when in operation.
this is getting more complicated all the time.
I see I should build a system and check it out. lol
I'll supply the piping if you do the assembly. :P
Have you been to Kentucky?
Theres no such thing as flat ground there.

at our house, The water pipes came down hundreds of feet before reaching our house. So by the time you reduce the pipe size several times, You have all the weight of the water from the larger pipes pressing down. That's where you get your pressure from.

Yes placing smaller pipes in between the large hoses, And the house will reduce pressure, But blowing the faucets off the sink wasn't our plan. The large hoses can hold a lot of water, That would otherwise wash on down the creek, And during dry times, This can really come in handy.
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