This is not the easiest way to make lumber but it is is the cheapest I know of using the cheapest tools. You don't even need a chain saw. You can get a sledgehammer and wedges from garage sales for less than $10 or even make the wedges out of wood. the scrub plane can be made from an old hand plane. and that is all you need. to make this happen.
This is a comparatively wasteful method, but it will provide the highest quality of lumber possible as it is riven and quartered cut so it is extremely stable for furniture and whatever you want to make with it.
For the logs, you just need to go to Craigslist or Gumtree to find piles of logs for free listed as "free Firewood" Or "Fallen Tree" You want the log to be as straight grained as possible with few or no branches if possible. Sometimes you can even ask them to cut the logs to the length you want. I usually ask for 3-4' long unless I have a project in mind that needs longer.
Splitting Wedge - http://amzn.to/2r8ijVm
Sledge Hammer - http://amzn.to/2r8eQpM
Step 1: Split in Half
First, we want to split the log in half. you do not want to just use a splitting ax as that will not provide a smooth split.
Start by driving in a few wedges across one end of the log in a straight line. You want to make an even cut at the start that will follow all the way down the log. After driving all the wedges into full depth then come down the side of the log with the wedges to spread the crack straight down the tree. Eventually, it will crack in half.
The more you do it the better and smoother the cut becomes.
Step 2: Split in Quarters
Next, we want to do the exact thing again and cut it in quarters.
Start at one end then carry the crack down the side. this will give you 4 quarters you can start to pull boards from.
Step 3: Rive a Board
Next, we want to split off the first board start the same way with wedges in a line but put them parallel to one side of the quarter. but do not drive them in very far as the crack will naturally want to split off a wedge shape.
When they are in 3" or so then start putting in wedges along the inside of the log. not on the bark side. This will create a weakness that the log that the crack will follow. but again only drive them in 2-3" deep along the side.
Last go to the other end and draw the same line mirroring the first end, and drive wedges in there. now you can drive all wedges in evenly tell that board pops off and splits away.
Now you have a rough piece of lumber. continue pulling boards off the other quarter's telly ou have all you can get from the logs.
Step 4: Scrub and Dry
Now, if you want to dry them like this you can but they will dry faster if you remove the extra wood.
I put it in the vice on my bench and use a scrub plane to remove the waste that we do not want on both sides. It is easier to plane the wood when it is wet but I still like to leave the scrub marks and keep it rough sawn tell it is dried.
Last you need to seal the ends so that it dries evenly. I just use old latex paint that is in the basement. but AnchorSeal is the professional stuff for that.
Last, set them aside to dry usually 9 months to a year tell they are ready to use. or even faster if you have a kiln.
not only was this wood free but it is the highest possible qualtity, extremely stable!