Introduction: GUIDE TO LED PROJECTS

INTRO.

I had to do this project for many of my young friends who are interested in LED’s but do not know how to go about it.

I also had the same problem but was fortunate enough to get HELP from my friends at www.Instructables.com.

This is not about any calculation or study but a set of proven rules to follow and get results,

which anybody can do if he has the mind to.

Here I have shown you many types of power supply which can be used to glow a LED.

I have also shown here how different types LED's can be made to glow and use it in you project.

Step 1: KNOW YOUR LED

A 15 mm LED has two legs, the long one is the Positive and the short one is the Negative.

It consumes 15 milli Ampere of current and can glow on 3 Volts DC Current, or a 3 volt battery.

LED’s are Diodes and the current can only pass through the POSITIVE side.

Always remember to maintain the POLARITY of the LED, that is (plus to plus) and (minus to minus) otherwise it will not work.

LED is a one way street. Now you know how to connect an LED in your circuit.

Step 2: KNOW YOUR LED

If you are interested, here you can see the different parts on an LED.

Step 3: RESESTORS TO BE USED WITH LED's

This set of rules will help to build a Project, follow them.

Here I have shown the Resistors to be used with 6 volts, 9 volts and 12 volts DC.

You can go on adding any numbers of LED's.

Remember that the first line of LED should be in series and  the second line onwards should be in Parallel.

Step 4: USING LED's WITH AC TRANSFORMERS.

LED can be run on AC or DC current.

If you want to run it on DC that is Battery Then you must use Resistors.

If you want to run it on AC then use a Step down AC Transformer. (220VAC to 12 VAC)

Here we will deal with AC Transformer

Now what is the load the AC Transformer will take? For that you will have to measure the output voltage of the AC Transformer with a Multimeter, say it comes to 14volts.

The subject transformer was 14VAC 500mA output without load.

First, we have to be aware that the 14V rating is known as the RMS voltage, and is the effective average power of the sine wave. The maximum voltage, which we will subject our LED’s to, is about 1.4 times higher.

So we should expect a peak voltage of 1.4 x 14v =19.6

So, we will be using 19.6 volt as the basis of our calculations.

We know that most white and blue LED’s range between 3 and 3.6 volts. So by dividing our PEAK voltage by an average LED voltage, we get an idea of the number of LED’s our transformer can support:

19.6 / 3.5 = 5.6, which we round up to 6 LED’s.

But remember, that AC has an identical NEGATIVE cycle! Which means we can add a mirror circuit that work on alternate phases,

that is 6+6. The advantage of using voltages to start our calculations is that, as long as we stay with similar LED’s, and stay within

its operating voltages, the current will stay within safe limits. So, by adjusting the number of LED’s in use, we can handle most AC

transformer outputs. We can multiply the light output up to 15 times just by adding chains of 6+6 LED’s arranged the same way

across the supply! 15 times means 90+90=180 LED’s
.

Step 5: LED's CAN GLOW DIRECT ON 220volts or 120 Volts AC MAINS.

You can use LED’s directly on 220 volt or 110volt AC.

Same principal applies, one line opposite to the other while using AC.

The value of the Condenser and Resistors are given in the diagram for 220 volts and 110 volts.

The condensers must be non-polar.

You can use 30 + 30 LED's on a string, after that if you start adding more LED's the light starts to get dimmer.

 

Step 6: USING 1 WATT LED’s

Here you can see the various types of 1 watt LED’s.

Their polarity are marked on the legs or body.

They glow on 3 volt and consume 350mA of current,

so you must calculate the power source to be used with this LED.

Step 7: USING 1 WATT LED WITH BATTERY.

Every thing is explained in this Diagram.

Step 8: RESISRORS TO BE USED WITH 1 WATT LED.

You can use different types voltage and resistors with this LED as shown in the Diagram.

Step 9: USING STRIP LED IN YOUR PROJECTS

Everything is clearly explained in the Diagram and it is very easy to use strip LED's.

Now you can make your own LED projects.

Comments

author
DumindaP2 (author)2017-07-26

I have an 1w x 7 light. I,m set this lights serios system. Then can i connect a 12v ups battery without any cercuit? Sir, please exlain me.

author
alastair.stewart.7146 (author)2017-07-15

Brilliant, thanks so much!

author
AndrewK85 (author)2017-01-19

Hi Sir, I got a led project that I assume is similar to your "step 4" the ac transformer.

I have a power supply that step down to 9VAC and 200ma. I am using the 1 watt LED, which is exactly the one you have on your step 7.

My question is: I assume I can put minimum 8? : 4 in series ( 9 x 1.4= 12.6v) and 4 more on the negative cycle.

My second question is: What is the max number I can put them? I assume is 15 x 8, so 120?

Thank you for your time and the help

20170119_141219[1].jpg20170119_141238[1].jpg
author
MichaelW653 (author)AndrewK852017-04-12

i might not be your good sir ,but i know i can learn,witch is that what you have there is ether a rectified transformer or a smps (switch mode power supply) witch are both dc not ac in outer words half of your led's wont light up

to make it easier to understand just treat that transformer as a battery follow step 8 and you should be good

author
Aditya sharma 11 (author)2017-01-11

Sir can you tell me the ampere rating of the step down transformer required to glow a single 1 watt LED light from a 220v source?

author
Misorang (author)2016-11-16

Hello I want to connect 20 1W LED. which one should I use power supply?

My Prof recommend me to use 3V-20W but I cannot find it. what is another option to do it? I can divide 10/10 so 2 groups. this project is killing me.

author
Dipankar (author)Misorang2016-11-17

Use this circuit it is easy and reliable...

1 watt LED's.jpg
author
JakubB10 (author)2016-11-16

Hello, i have a question about connecting 1W, 350mA leds to a power bank.
I was wondering if i could connect 7 1W, 350mA 3.2-3.6V Leds to this powerbank,
http://files.xiaomi-mi.com/files/power_bank_20000/...
and what would be the best way to do it?
I think i should connect them parallel, and add resistor, but i dont know which DC output i need to consider for this? It says it is 5.1V, 2.1A(3.6A max), but battery is 3.6V.
7x350 is 2,450, but if i connect them either way, each led will get 300mA and should work just fine but dimmer?
But i need help with figuring out the voltage, and what resistor if any to use.

author
Dipankar (author)JakubB102016-11-16

OK try it....

author
thomthumb5 (author)2016-10-15

sir is it possible to hook up a 12v 30w led chip directly to a 12v
battery w/out driver. I've seen a company selling a unit for
floundering, and it's just a heat sink with a led attached and wires coming from
it

author
Dipankar (author)thomthumb52016-10-15

Could you please add the Image.......

author
thomthumb5 (author)Dipankar2016-10-15

like this

led.jpgled1.jpg
author
Dipankar made it! (author)thomthumb52016-10-16

Use a 30 watt LED Driver as shown in the Image....

30 watt LED.jpg
author
thomthumb5 (author)Dipankar2016-10-25

What size battery and how long should it last......

author
thomthumb5 (author)Dipankar2016-10-16

Thanks.. yeah I was just trying to figure out how they are getting away from using the driver. The company said its a direct hook up to a battery without a driver. I'm not using their light, but making my own. I guess their setup will not be as stable?

author
Startrek_breen (author)2016-09-30

Hi Dipankar,

This is my first project. I have a 30w led I would like to power from a wall outlet with as few components as possible. I found an led driver made by Introcircuit with an output "DC 12v, 2.5a, 30w". It has 110 power outlet plug coming out of one end of the driver and a red (+)and black (-) wire coming out of the other end.

Do I need anything else for this to work?

The led (pic attached) I have doesn't have a (+) or (-) indicator on either connector. Does it matter which connector I solder the wires to?

Thank you for your help!

IMG_20160930_085906.jpg
author
Dipankar (author)Startrek_breen2016-09-30

Should have a (+) or (-) indicator on either connector. It Does matter because LED are Diodes and it should have a + and - poles.
Go to Google Image and find out.

author
Startrek_breen (author)Dipankar2016-10-01

The driver I listed above is constant voltage and if I am right I actually need constant current driver. I found a 30W CC driver on Ebay (https://goo.gl/Jiig10) but the output states it is DC 20 - 36V.

Will this driver do the job without blowing out the led?

Is there a better place to buy reliable drivers than Ebay?

author
Startrek_breen (author)Dipankar2016-09-30

I took the protective cover off and found the + and - poles. They can also be seen in the pic.

author
kansrao (author)2016-09-06

Excellent presentation;the use of "one line opposite to the other" while using AC.is a stroke of genius which i have not come across in many of the online texts i have read.i wish you had also given on how to use solar power for the one watt LED.

author
Dipankar (author)kansrao2016-09-07

Thanks...That will be my next project......

author
kansrao (author)Dipankar2016-09-07

i look forward to the solar powered one watt led.

author
JamieR10 (author)2016-08-10

Been running three 1 watt (cool white) bulbs in series for six hours straight with two dry cell D batteries using a diy joule thief circuit and they are still about as bright (full brightness) as they were 6 hours ago, plus they are barely warm without a heat sink. You can make your own joule thief circuit for an extremely low cost, but I got most of my parts from an old computer power supply; I'm totally amazed! Ran these for a few hours using two generic non alkaline dry cell AA batteries, although it wasn't quite as bright as with the Ds, but still very usable! Gonna be experimenting with 10 watt units soon. Bet I get a few hours out of them once I modify the circuit. You could probably get many days of good light from a car battery, but only with this device. Not really sure how long the two Ds will last since this is my first experiment using these bulbs, but I'm impressed with six hours and counting!

author
Shajahan985 (author)2016-07-26

Sir i have 10w 1 led i want to run in car please suggest me 12 volt 70A battery
Specifications:Item Type:LED Light (10 Watt) 8000k
Intensity: Typical 800~900 Lumen
Voltage: 9 to 12 Volt
Forward Current:1000mA max.
Beam Angle(°):120°
Average Life (hrs):Greater than 50000 HRS when used with proper heat sink on these
Color:White
Color Temperature:Cool White(6700-8000K)
Led Bulb Type:Spotlight Bulb

author
Dipankar (author)Shajahan9852016-07-31

It is better you search for the answer on Google...

author
jrbamberg (author)2016-06-06

Dipankar, I have purchased both 1w 3-3.2v led bulb, 300-350mA and 3w
leds and would like to make my own lamps for both indoor use and outdoor
use. I guess when I purchased I would be able to light them easily but
have many issues getting them to light. Can you help with what I need
to get them to light. I was able to get 5 of them in series to light
using a cheap Solar outdoor kit by removing the original light and
hooking the wires up to the leds. I was unsuccessful using a battery.
My ideas was to build custom outdoor lights to run on 12vac low-voltage
outdoor lighting but I'm unsure how to wire the leds to support a
transformer that converts the ac to dc and what size transformer I would
need. I purchased this from Amazon -

http://www.amazon.com/Outdoor-Waterproof-Landscape...

which
would allow me to hookup an LED strip light to outdoor lighting. Do
you think this would work or would it burn my LED or LEDs in series up?
I hope you can help, I have searched the internet for sometime trying
to solve my problem. Thank you.

1w leds -

http://www.amazon.com/uxcell-Terminal-3-3-2V-White...

3w leds -

http://www.amazon.com/Power-White-Emitters-170-190...

author
Dipankar (author)jrbamberg2016-06-06

Send me your e-mail id.....with the question.....

author
jrbamberg (author)Dipankar2016-06-07

Dipankar, I'm not sure what you mean, do you want me to email you privately or give you my email address here.  I sent you a private message with my email and question. 

author
Dipankar (author)jrbamberg2016-06-06

Send me your e-mail id.....with the question.....

author
MuhammadT72 (author)2016-06-05

Sir
I have three led 1wat+1wat+1wat. I want to glo them with 4.5 volt betry in parallel combinatio. Please send me the valu of rister and also guide me that risister shuld be in seres or parallel. What is beter way guide me with diagram

author
AdityaS179 (author)2016-06-01

please tell me we are using samsung modular led the 1.28 volt with 3 led bulbs what is the electricity consumption in per hours.Im using in Glow sign board with 23 modulars pls explain me per consumption for per hours

author
Dipankar (author)AdityaS1792016-06-01

Sorry I don't know......

author
MuhammadT72 (author)2016-06-01

Sir
I want to charge my 4 volt betry with my nokia charger with charging socket. Can i plug in charging pin into betry or i need any other ristor or diode to use plese guide me with dia gram

author
Dipankar (author)MuhammadT722016-06-01

You CANNOT charge a 4volts battery with a mobile charger.....

author
Shajahan985 (author)2016-02-05

Sir i have 10w 6 led i want to run in car please suggest me 12 volt battery

author
Dipankar (author)Shajahan9852016-02-07

What is the specifications of the 10 watt LED's?

author
Shajahan985 (author)Dipankar2016-03-09

Specifications:Item Type:LED Light (10 Watt) 8000k
Intensity: Typical 800~900 Lumen
Voltage: 9 to 12 Volt
Forward Current:1000mA max.
Beam Angle(°):120°
Average Life (hrs):Greater than 50000 HRS when used with proper heat sink on these
Color:White
Color Temperature:Cool White(6700-8000K)
Led Bulb Type:Spotlight Bulb

author
Dipankar (author)Shajahan9852016-03-09

10 watt LED, You can run it on 12 volts car battery

author
Shajahan985 (author)Dipankar2016-03-24

S

author
Shajahan985 (author)Dipankar2016-03-11

Sir i have 10w 6 led i want to run in car please suggest me 12 volt 70A battery
Specifications:Item Type:LED Light (10 Watt) 8000k
Intensity: Typical 800~900 Lumen
Voltage: 9 to 12 Volt
Forward Current:1000mA max.
Beam Angle(°):120°
Average Life (hrs):Greater than 50000 HRS when used with proper heat sink on these
Color:White
Color Temperature:Cool White(6700-8000K)
Led Bulb Type:Spotlight Bulb

author
Dipankar (author)Shajahan9852016-03-11

10 watt LED consumes 1 Amp current. 6x1=6 amps. Your car battery will be dead in one hour.

author
Shajahan985 (author)Dipankar2016-03-12

Any another way. Just use flash light

author
Khalid rumjan (author)2016-03-21

Hello.am planning to make an aquarium lighting using 6 10 watt square led for flood light. Also I will use a 450 watt pc power supply. How do I proceed with the wiring?

author
Shajahan985 (author)2016-03-13

This

IMG-20160217-WA0029.jpg
author
PatricioP7 (author)2016-03-12

And how about using h4 head car lamps to iluminate some specific palces of the house? ...My desk for example.

author
Dipankar (author)PatricioP72016-03-12

OK

author
augustinea1 (author)2016-03-07

1 watt = how much volt ?

author
Dipankar (author)augustinea12016-03-07

3.5volts DC......

author
augustinea1 (author)Dipankar2016-03-07

1 watt =3.5 volt. Is that right sir...!!!

author
Dipankar (author)augustinea12016-03-08

1 watt LED runs on 3.5volts DC

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Bio: Now I am a retired person, who enjoys life and making small things to pass the time keep myself busy.
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