Introduction: Garbage Can Turkey Smoker

How to build a reusable BBQ smoker from a garbage can and an electric hot plate, and then use that to smoke a whole turkey.

Step 1: Build a Grating Support Inside the Garbage Can

First, get a garbage can and a circular grill grating (usually sold as an accessory to a weber grill). Larger is generally better for both, but the only real requirement is that the can is larger in diameter than the circular grating you will use to put the turkey on, at a level low enough to fit the turkey.

Next, you need to build supports for the grating. Using a 3/8" drill bit, drill three holes approximately 8" below the top of the garbage can, equidistantly placed around the circumference of the can. Then slide three 3" x 3/8" bolts through those holes and secure with a corresponding washer and nut. This will be used to hold the grating up while allowing the grating to be easily removed.

Step 2: Add Support for a Drippings Pan / Shield

Underneath the grating where the turkey will go, you want something to catch the drippings and prevent them from falling onto the wood chips below. Additionally, this pan will function as a shield to protect the turkey from radiation from the heat source, keeping the smoke from the wood chips as the main cooking agent.

For a pan, we simply used a disposable turkey pan which we folded slightly to fit snugly in the garbage can. You want the pan to rest about 7" below the grating, but to have ample room on the sides for smoke to pass from below.

To support the pan, we used two 3/8" threaded rods running parallel across the can. It's important that these be close enough together to support the pan (which could have a fair amount of turkey fat in it), but still far enough apart to allow you to move your wood chip pan through them without much tilting. We bought the threaded rod as a single 4' piece for a couple of dollars, and cut it to size with a saw. You want enough slack to stick out of the can slightly for support and to allow room for fasteners.

Drill 4 3/8" holes about 7" below the grating bolts and slide the rods through. Secure the rods on the outside with appropriate washers and nuts. It's not necessary to secure them on the inside, and that will make it more difficult to remove in the event that you need to when it is full of hot smoke.

Step 3: Add Heating Element

For our heat source, we used a $10 electric hotplate. We cut a small hole on the side of the can near the bottom for the cord and access to the heat-adjustment knob. Then, we added two "smoke rocks" to prevent the wood chip pan from falling off of the hotplate and to add overall stability to the smoker. These were just rocks from our front yard. If you have bricks, you might consider using those instead.

To actually turn the knob, we constructed a simple extension to the knob by gluing the plastic knob covering to a hole drilled in the end of a dowell. However, it turned out that we always wanted the heat all the way up, so this was never used during the actual cooking, once we calibrated the device.

You might consider putting the hot plate more in the center to have better heat shielding from the pan and more even smoke release, but I don't think it really matters. We were prevented from doing that by the geometry of our smoke rocks, but with bricks you could swing it.

Feed the cord through the hole at the bottom and attach to a properly rated extension cord.

Step 4: Add Thermometer to Lid


Proper temperature monitoring and maintenance is the key to good smoking, so you will want a BBQ thermometer to measure the ambient temperature inside the garbage can without opening the lid.

We bought a $20 BBQ thermometer from a hardware store that was designed for mounting. We didn't have a large enough drill bit available, so we drilled a small hole and enlarged it with tin snips until it fit, and then threaded the nut on securely.

Step 5: Prepare Wood Chips and Get Ready to Smoke


Actually finding enough woodchips might be tricky. For a turkey, we recommend applewood (or pecan, if you can find it), but oak and hickory would work in a pinch.

You want to soak the chips for at least 20 minutes prior to smoking, but there is no real upper limit. Get a pan that you don't mind destroying that's small enough to fit between your two threaded rods, about the size of the hotplate, and at least a couple inches deep.

Fill the pan with chips and move the can to a safe location, far from any buildings, but shielded from the wind if it's cold out. Obviously, the smoker will generate a lot of smoke, so you might want to keep it away from open windows/doors as well.

You should also have appropriate safety equipment ready, namely heat-resistant fingered gloves and a fire extinguisher. Still, the ambient temperature you are generally shooting for is around 230F, so the risk of fire is very low.

Step 6: Prepare the Turkey

The rule of thumb for turkey smoking is 30-40 minutes per pound, so you should probably get a relatively small turkey unless you are prepared to get up early and eat late. We opted for a 13 pounder, and it took approximately 10 hours to get the thigh meat up above 165 degrees.

We brined our turkey before smoking it. This is optional, but we strongly recommend it; the primary purpose of brining is to make the turkey juicier, and smoking a turkey for 10 hours tends to dry it out a little more than some other cooking techniques. We used a brine consisting of 2 gallons of water, 1 cup of sugar, and 1 cup of salt. This was just enough brine to cover the turkey in its 5 gallon paint bucket. We brined the bird overnight, for about 9 hours.

Because the cooking in a smoker is done by convective heat transfer from the smoke, we wanted to maximize smoke flow through the turkey in order to minimize cooking time and to cook the bird as evenly as possible. To improve the gas flow dynamics of the turkey's surface, we removed the excess flaps of skin and fat that obscured the openings of the turkey, and we widened the passage between the neck cavity and the main body cavity, the idea being to allow the smoke to flow freely through the interior of the bird. We also left the turkey entirely untrussed, and as spread out as possible, to increase its effective surface area.

We didn't even consider stuffing the turkey, as this would have destroyed smoke flow, added several hours to cooking time, exacerbated cooking unevenness in different parts of the turkey, and, in all likelihood, produced acrid black stuffing. We cooked our stuffing in the oven instead.

Then, we rubbed the outside of the turkey down with olive oil and salt in an attempt to keep the skin from drying out.

Step 7: Smoke That Turkey Out

First, put the woodchips on top of the heating element. Make sure the heating element is all the way up and plugged in. Put the turkey drippings pan in, on top of the threaded rods. Put the turkey on the grating inside the smoker. Close the lid, and start the waiting game.

You want to maintain a temperature of about 230F, for around 30-40 minutes per pound of turkey. You will need to change out the wood chips every hour or two, but don't sweat the exact timing. Changing the wood chips will require you to remove the grill, the drippings pan, and then the wood chip pan, so you will probably want two people, both with gloves. The garbage can lid will be quite hot once the temperature reaches peak, which on the first cycle can take quite a while.

Unforuntately, changing out the wood chips evacuates all of the smoke and hot air from the inside of the can, which basically drops the temperature most of the way back to ambient. In our case, this was exacerbated by cold temperatures and stiff winds, so much so that we had to add an insulator to our garbage can: a cardboard box. We folded the sides of the boxes evenly to make it octaganal, so it would fit more snugly.

The one modification we highly suggest would be a door for changing out the wood chips. Since the door would be at the bottom of the smoker, you would not lose much heat or smoke in the process of changing out the chips, and the whole process would go faster and smoother. Once we get around to it, we'll post another instructable with the modification.

Step 8: Enjoy Turkey

You are shooting for an internal temperature of 165F in the deepest part of the turkey, which you can check with a meat thermometer. Don't check too often, or you will interfere with the cooking process. The 30 minutes per pound rule is really a minimum, at which point you should start checking the temperature.

If you have trouble reaching the appropriate temperature and are running out of time, you could finish it off in the oven as you would a standard turkey. This will still keep most of the flavor, but should be avoided if possible.

Once it has reached the appropriate temperature, take it out and unplug the hot plate.

Then, dig in. But try to save some - this smoked turkey made some of the tastiest turkey sandwiches we've ever had.

Comments

author
indyguy (author)2006-11-29

It looks like you stole this idea from the Food Network guy Alton Brown. He has had this idea for quite a awhile. He uses the hot plate and everything. I have to say though the trash can is a better idea; he uses a cardboard box! Nice instructable over all.

author
bigcat (author)indyguy2008-07-06

I've done this when I was in the Boy Scouts, 20 years ago, so did Alton originally steal this from them?? There are so many ways of cooking using everyday materials, some are bound to make their way onto television. You could even wrap food in aluminum foil, and place it on your hot car engine to cook food, which was featured in "Home Improvement" one time!! This is a good idea, one alternative is to use a long stick, mount the turkey on it that way, then flip the can over it. There's no need for a grate, or lid, as the ground acts as the lid.

author
Volkivich (author)bigcat2017-01-09

I have actually used the aluminium foil wrapped food on the engine method several times. It really works! ☺

The most memorable time was when working offshore on a fishing boat as first mate. Our auxillary motor which supplied all the electrical power for the boat broke down, which meant we had no power for the electric stove in the galley, until we could get back to port & fix it.

The rest of the crew thought I was mad & laughed at me when I started preparing a meal this way to place on the boats main engine.

They stopped laughing when I tucked into a hot meal & made a rush for the foil ? (we call it alfoil over here btw). They had been eating cold leftovers & tinned food! ?

author
Poppa Chubby (author)indyguy2008-04-23

Alton Brown is just the latest in a long line of people to use this, or a similar, idea. People have been using garbage cans, 50 gallon drums, old water heater tanks, propane tanks, and hot plates for years and years. The best I saw was 30+ years ago using a large and a small can, connected by a pipe, and the whole thing buried in a small hill.

author
jess (author)indyguy2006-12-01

Cardboard box smokers are really more appropriate for cold smoking (like fish or cheese) - and although when I built one I felt much indebted to Alton's instructions, I also found that a few modifications (like a second box for the woodchips, and a dryer hose to connect them) really helped. One of these days I'll write that instructable.

author
drEel (author)indyguy2006-11-29

For sure, there are many different approaches to building a smoker, and most of them mention Alton Brown (though I have never seen the show). I believe he's done two shows on the subject, one with a cardboard box and one with two unglazed terracotta planters. To be honest, the idea of using a trash can also comes from another website after extensive research, but we made a number of modifications in order to suit turkey smoking and to handle the situation where your grating doesn't exactly match your trash can. The professionals (in my book, this means South Texas) use a horizontal setup with the fire on one side and the meat on the other. Then, using a series of vents they can fine tune from the outside, they can precisely control temperature and adjust for changes in the wind and the heat of the fire. The next step in home smoker construction is to do something like that. That design also has the benefit of being able to monitor and change the smoke production conditions without directly affecting the meat, something our design has serious problems with.

author
buildandsewandstuff (author)2015-06-28

Using a galvanized container to cook in is very dangerous. As noted by spinach_dip below, anything galvanized, such as tubs or trash cans, is treated with zinc, which creates fumes when heated that are harmful to breathe. The bad health effects are cumulative, which means you don't heal up from them in between exposures, it just keeps adding up in your body (zinc is a heavy metal, as are mercury and lead, which also have cumulative health impacts). And since the fumes dissipate in the air, anyone nearby is exposed, even if they have no part in your ill-advised cookery.

author

In order for zinc to become toxic it would have to reach over 1100 degrees F. A typical smoker on the hottest run would never get above 300 degrees F. There is quite a bit of safety margin involved. Besides that once you run the first load, which should be without food, to season the inside of the can there really isn't any exposed zinc there. Remember they are smoldering wood chips inside a separate container not lighting a bonfire inside the can.

author

Dang, I hadn't thought of that. Thank you for the added info. I was actually seriously considering this! YIKES!

author
bloman (author)2013-11-26

I wonder if you could make a smoker out of a wooden barrel. There are a few local wineries and distilleries here that use wooden barrels, I bet they occasionally sell their barrels...

author
KateinNH (author)2011-09-03

With old grills, from the classic round Weber to old gas grills available at just about every other yard sale or junk shop, or on Craigslist, I don't think there's any need to risk your health "making" a smoker out of something not intended for food preparation.

Not only that, but there really is nothing sustainable about going to the local HD and buying a brand new garbage can to make a homey-style smoker. The idea is kind of neat, but the fact is that these inventions came out of poverty, not because someone said, "Hey cool! Let's go buy a garbage can make a smoker!"

I've got two Weber grills and I didn't pay more than ten bucks for either one. One is a medium sized one and the other is a classic red extra-large one enough for a party. Any container can be converted into a smoker, but why not start with something made to withstand high heat and that has some ventilation holes and go from there?

Also, buying used is the most sustainable and real way to "keep it local" and keep more things out of the waste stream and back into service.

author
javajunkie1976 (author)2011-08-29

Folks, give him a break. He may or may not be actually using it. He may have a similar smoker made from the proper materials nearby. I do this all the time. I make something from cheap materials as a test then make the real thing out of the correct materials once the design is worked out.

author
Makedo (author)2011-05-29

I see some people know metallurgy which is a good thing.

author
Hog1 (author)2008-12-19

You might want to pick up an electric fry pan they cost about $20 and you can put it in so the thermostat is on the outside of the can ,and you can put your chips rite in the pan,much cleaner look

author
dirtysteak (author)2008-04-17

Pictures (the add images wasn't working, so its just links for now):

my painted version

Bottom

Grates in the "smoker" position

author
cheesalicious (author)dirtysteak2008-06-16

Your smoker looks excellent! The door is a great addition. How did you cut through the garbage can material? It looks pretty sturdy.

author
srteach (author)2008-01-06

Mounting or placing the can on a flat metal plate (or with the edges turned up) in an inverted position would simplify the replacement of the chips. Build a rack for the turkey that fits under the inverted can. Make a handle for the top (inverted bottom), place the thermometer in the top (inverted bottom). Lifting the can will allow easier one person access, keep heat and smoke (don't have to remove the entire can body). Smoke flow can be increased with a 1/2 inch or smaller hole in the top (inverted bottom) of the can, and an even smaller hole by the chip plate/burner. A damper on the lower hole can be used to control heat loss. @radarguy... smoking ribs is the same process. Soaking the chips and brining is essential. You can add liquid smoke during brining, though I don't. Brining formula are available on the internet. You can brine quicker with a vacuum machine (3hrs vs. 9hrs).

author
SecondSun (author)2007-11-28

sweet.

author
laernmoer (author)2007-11-22

I'm curious about the brine soak - do you refrigerate it while soaking? you don't mention that. If not, is it because the salt will help prevent bacteria growth? It seems slightly unhealthy to me.

author
Phoghat (author)laernmoer2007-11-23

If it is cool outside (less than 50 F) you can leave the turkey in the brine with some sort of cover, out doors. YES it's safer to refrigerate the whole thing, but I saw something similar on Foodnetwork.com from Good Eats that explained the whole thing.

author
radarguy (author)2007-11-22

A very nice job! I enjoyed each and every step. I am looking forward to trying this. I think I would figure a removable window along side the chips tray so that I could pull out the tray to change the chips. It may take running the all-thread all the way across the can. Next can you tell us how to smoke ribs? Yummm!!!

author
juandela (author)2007-06-19

nice instructable..... i have a couple of questions: 1) where do you find a hot plate for $10? 2) is there a wattage that is ideal? 3) do you worry about the plastic chassis of the hot plate getting to hot or melting? how about the cord? i had thought about feeding the cord through a small amount of pipe which would exit through the whole in the side of the can. not sure if we're talking about enough heat to even worry. i lucked out and found a char-broil non-electric smoker on ebay for 17 bucks. i drove a half an hour to pick it up and now am contemplating adding the hot plate to make it electric. i'm a couple steps ahead because the side access door is already there as are all the racks, mounts and water/wood pan. i think i've seen the website that you based your instructable on but the beauty of what you've done here is that there's an open forum with which questions like these can be addressed. well done.

author
drEel (author)juandela2007-06-19

1. We got ours at a local Orchard Supply Hardware store. 2. Never really worried about that, I doubt you will have a problem with any hotplate. 3. We certainly didn't have any problem with the hotplate or cord, though in our case the cord is almost completely outside the smoker. I think you'll be fine. Consider that the target ambient temperature is only 230F or so. In our case, with a bunch of rocks grouped around the hotplate, it was almost certainly very hot right at the hotplate (hotter than it would be in your situation most likeley), and we had no problem with an all day smoke (two, actually). With a prebuilt smoker that has side access you're in great shape. The biggest problem we had was losing smoke and temperature when reloading the chips, an issue that a side door would address nicely. Good luck!

author
spinach_dip (author)2006-11-29

Wow, pretty cool.

The one thing that bothers me (as a welder) is that all the metal hardware used here except for the grill rack itself is zinc plated. I'm constantly on the lookout for zinc fume fever, but this may be OK here because you are not using actual fire, nor allowing the food to contact the sides.

Anyway, here's an case of do-it-youself zinc fume fever, although an extreme one. Keep in mind that exposure is clumative.

http://www.anvilfire.com/iForge/tutor/safety3/index.htm

author
CementTruck (author)spinach_dip2006-11-29

Good instructable, but I had the same fears. I think a "BRAND NEW" (not used) metal 50 gallon drum would work best.

author
jess (author)CementTruck2006-12-01

The person who's made my past barrel smokers has also used former corn syrup barrels. Great, if you can find 'em - the first smoke is AWESOME.

author
KayakJack (author)jess2007-02-03

Jess, Your corn syrup barrel comment reminds me of a semi-related joke. A small town in Indiana couldn't afford a real fire engine, so they converted an old fuel delivery truck. The first two fires were real Doozies! While the size and shape of a garbage can is handy, its makeup is unnecessarily dangerous. Personally, I'd rather build a tall box out of plywood, drill holes through the side, and run wooden dowels through for racks, make air inlet and exhaust holes, and use an electric frying pan. Air flow can be adjusted by sliding a chuck of plywood back and forth over the exhaust hole in the box top. To each his own, ehh?

author
spinach_dip (author)CementTruck2006-11-29

"brand new" is still zinc plated

author
drEel (author)spinach_dip2006-11-29

Yeah, that possibility occurred to us, but the melting point of zinc is around 790F and we're shooting for an ambient temperature of 230F (which is even hard to reach itself). It will, of course, be significantly hotter at the electric hotplate, but the possibility of the production of zinc fume production seems pretty remote. Still, in general you want to avoid inhaling the wood chip smoke and for the vast majority of the time that the smoker is running you should keep a safe distance (but always someone watching it). Certainly if you are going to do any cutting or welding of the can (say, for adding a door which is the first modification we would propose), you should be very careful. The muriatic acid idea has wings...

author
fishbuster (author)drEel2006-12-13

Solution to the zinc coating inside. Start a small oak or other hardwood fire inside the can and let it burn the zinc off. If you do this a couple of times wiping it out it works well. You then coat the inside of the can with a light coating of vegetable oil and run it a while as a smoker w/o the woodchips just heat to "bake" in the oil so the inside does not rust. The other option is after burning it hold it over a fire and smoke the inside of the barrel for rust proofing. I know campers who bake turkeys using the same can as an oven and this is the way they avoid zinc poisoning and make sure the can is free of any other chemical contamination.

author
trebuchet03 (author)drEel2006-11-29

Water boils at 212F -- but it takes much less than that for water vapor to form ;)

Other than zinc, hexavalent chromium is sometimes used as an anti corrosion coating (another thing you don't want to eat :P). Not to mention, if there's a weld seam, you risk other potential nasties from that. You're best bet is to cook the crap out of the can before using it the first time to remove any coating ;) The general consensus is that you'll probably be okay - but who wants collateral damage from their holiday meal? Technically, fish from the Everglades is okay (except for high mercury levels o.0)


We used to do something similar when I was a little kid in boy scouts :P It's a whole lot of fun - probably because of the novelty factor :P

author
spinach_dip (author)spinach_dip2006-11-29

Someone on that page suggests soaking the metal in muriatic acid (paint department, at the hardware store) overnight (to remove the zinc) and then then rinsing with water. Once that was done prehaps you could coat it with BBQ grill paint?

author
Drackar (author)2006-12-12

Mmm. What composite metals is that trash can made out of? And do I see the shine of zink? enjoy your unsafe exsposures!

author
silliou (author)2006-11-29

This is just an idea, but with a small amount of wielding you could actually make the chip tray removable without having to pull the whole thing apart. if you cut a rectangle out of the side just above your heating element, wield in a slider (similar to a drawer), wield the chip pan to the rectangle you removed, add a handle and slide in and out.....

author
Tool Using Animal (author)2006-11-29

Good call on not stuffing the turkey, in fact, for anyone who tries this, NEVER stuff the turkey. Stuffing cooked for 5+ hours in a smoker would qualify as hazardous waste. Did you truss the bird? I think It'd benefit the final presentation

author
drEel (author)Tool Using Animal2006-11-29

I've added a note explaining our trussing decisions on the second picture in step 6. Essentially, we opted to truss the legs but not the wings in order to maximize surface area, while still easily fitting on the grating (and not touching the sides of the can). It's not clear that this was a good idea, but bird presentation was the least of our concerns this time around.

author
wyrm (author)2006-11-29

Very nice instructable! Let's see if I can remember this in about 11 months so that I can set up to try it myself.

author
turkey tek (author)2006-11-29

sweet! hey, is that two twobyfours?

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