Introduction: FHDR Photography + Stitching

Hello there! This instructable will allow you to use your camera and create amazing looking landscapes that are usually achieved with expensive high-end cameras.

You will need :
1. A camera with RAW capture. (JPEGs are less effective, but still usable if you do not have RAW)
2. Photoshop CS5 and above, and a little bit of experience with the program
3. A nice scenery for you to do this project with.

To be more exact on the outcome, you will be creating a high-dynamic range image (HDRI) panorama using a series of photographs that are taken in quick succession.

As oppose to using a wide angle lens to take the usual panoramic shots, you will be using a normal or telephoto lens to create a more compressed field of view. This method, although more tedious (with more shots), is more effective in creating the sense-of-place; putting the viewer of the photograph into the scene.

It is highly recommended to use a focal length of 28-85mm for the purpose of this project.

This instructable is created with a 50mm normal lens and a Nikon D600 DSLR camera.

Step 1: Taking the Shots

The idea is to start from a corner of your desired panorama, taking each shot in a systematic fashion. With your camera, frame your scene in portrait when shooting your panorama. If you're doing this handheld, do use a high enough shutter speed (1/60s or more) to reduce motion blur. 

In this example, the first photo starts from the top left corner, and a second successive shot is taken with a 20% overlap with the first one. 12 photos were taken in order to fill up the entire panorama!

Repeat until the entire panorama is captured. 


*Camera Settings tip: Use the lowest ISO setting (etc. ISO 200) to get the best dynamic range achievable by your camera model. 

Step 2: Loading Up Your Images

Transfer your photos to your computer, and boot up Adobe Bridge.

Navigate to your photo folder, select all the photos taken in the panorama, and double-click to boot up Photoshop Camera Raw. 

This will load up all the photos together inside Camera Raw. 

Step 3: Adjusting and Synchronizing Exposures

Using the histogram at the top right corner, move the exposure slider to the left to remove highlights, or to the right to increase the black region. 

In this extreme example, sunsets usually cause your pictures to be incorrectly exposed. As such, increase the exposure / shadows to bring out all the details hidden in the darker parts of your photograph. Shift the highlight slider to the left to recover the "blown out" parts of the shot. 

Once you're done with the adjustments of a photo, select all the photos on the left window. Click on "Select Rated" and "Synchronise" at the top to quickly apply the same settings to selected photos. 

Step 4: Colour Toning

While selecting all the photos, click on the Basic tab and use the Temperature slider to make your picture more neutral. This is to bring out more detail and to prepare your file for split toning. 

Click on the split toning tab to bring out the colour sliders. Move the Highlight towards a blueish-cyan hue, and the Shadows towards the orange-yellow hue. Add 15 - 20 saturation to both sliders. You can play around with each hue in Highlights and Shadows to create your desired feel to the photo. 

When you're done, click Save Image at the bottom left corner of the window.

Step 5: Saving to JPEG for Photomerge

With the Save Options window prompt, select first a folder in which the JPEGs will be saved to. Click Save, and give the programme some time to save down your work. 

To use the Photomerge option, open up the main Photoshop window and click on File -> Automate -> Photomerge. 
Browse for the JPEGs that you've saved in the previous stage and add them as part of the series of Photos for the Photomerge function. 
Remember to check Blend image Together, and the Geometric Distortion Correction check-box before clicking Ok.

Photoshop will now automatically analyse all the photos you've added to the Photomerge command, and attempt to align them into a combined panorama. Depending on the photo resolution and speed of your computer, this automated process will take between 2-10 minutes. 



Step 6: Smart Object Layer

Hopefully, the previous step wasn't too long of a wait...

There's a couple things that you may see at this step.
1. You have a really nice distorted panorama
2. You have separated bits of panorama in different corners of your canvas, in which Photoshop isn't clever enough to blend and stitch your photographs. 
3. A really distorted fish-eye lens effect. (This happens if you're using an ultra-wide angle lens to begin with, simply )

If you have a pretty decent distortion as with this instructable's example, the next step is to select all the layers at your layer panel (Hold Shift + Left Click) and convert these layers together as a Smart Object layer (Right click layer, Convert to Smart Object). 

If not, you will be unable to move on from here. Identify the problematic parts of the panorama (unable to stitch properly due to blurring / hand movements) and repeat Step 5 again without these parts. Move to the next step!

Step 7: Adaptive Wide Angle Filter

This is a feature available only in Photoshop CS5 and above. It is an extremely powerful tool to straighten horizons, and gives you more of a "landscape" photo. 

Click on the Constraint Tool in the corner of the panel. Then, identify the horizon line and draw a line using the tool. You will notice that your line is smart enough to align itself to the distortion. This will straighten your image, but your picture might still have it's horizon slanted to one side. 

Right click on the blue line that you've drawn, and Select Horizontal. This will align the entire image magically accordingly. 

In this panorama example, you will notice that the skyscraper on the right is curving upwards to the centre. Let's fix that!

Again, using the Constraint Tool, click on two points that you might feel is the absolute vertical straight line from the ground towards the sky. Right Click and Select Vertical.

In this example, the same method was used for the smaller buildings on the right and adjusted vertically. Also, do add more reference horizontal lines to straighten the image even better. 

Use the check boxes at the bottom of the panel to Preview changes you done, and do a quick comparison of before and after. 

Once you're done, click Ok. 

Step 8: Cropping

Your panorama will have weird edges sticking out of places; it's not a perfect rectangle.

Click on the Crop Tool and find the best fit crop of your panorama. At this point, it's ok to have some empty area with no pixels, there's a fix for that in the next step. 

In this example, the Rule of Third is applied, separating the sky as the bigger portion, and the focus of this panorama. The little bit of sea at the lower left corner is missing, and can be added back later on. 

Step 9: Content-Aware Fill

Duplicate your current layer with the adaptive wide angle filter by right clicking on the layer in the layer panel.

Create a new layer by pressing SHIFT + CTRL + Click. Then, make merge down your newly created layer and the Duplicated layer using CTRL + E or, Right Click the layer and select Merge Layer.


Select the Magic Wand icon, click on the empty areas while holding down the Shift key. This will add up all the individual areas together. 

Click on Edit -> Fill. Select Content-Aware and click Ok. This will fill up the empty areas by analysing the other parts of the photograph to create a somewhat seamless patch of pixels. 

It's not perfect, and Content-Aware Fill will not work on overly complex and "untilable" areas. However, elements like sky, water, or grass works exceptionally well. 

Step 10: Final Save

Go to File -> Save As and save the file down to a format of your choice. 

At this stage, you can take it even further by applying further effects to enhance the colours and contrast!

You're done!

Comments

author
nodnodwinkwink made it!(author)2013-09-27

I'm not familiar with photomerge but it looks like its prone to mistakes. I've been using a program called Hugin with great results. Theres a free version of the software available and its well worth a try.

author
trgz made it!(author)2013-09-27

I've only got a Olympus EP-1, but I am curious as to why you didn't use the bracketing of the Nikon D600 and try for a real HDR panorama? I've not tried HDR stitched panorama's but I have tried the effects individually, but this has inspired me to give it a go and maybe find a free alternative to Photoshop's Adaptive Wide Filter at the same time.

author
dwarrenku made it!(author)2013-09-26

If you don't have the $600 for Photoshop CS6 (and you shouldn't steal it) you can use Hugin.
It's an open source panorama stitching software that can stitch multiple exposures into a raw HDR tiff file for processing in HDR software or lightroom, or it can blend the exposures to a 16bit tiff file or jpg.

I made this image nearly 4 years ago using Hugin from 24 images of -2/0/+2 bracketed exposures.
https://secure.flickr.com/photos/dwarren/5060682773/

author
trgz made it!(author)2013-09-27

Thanks

author
iconns made it!(author)2013-09-26

Nice basic explanation. I feel it is missing a few important details.

RAM requirements. Jamming 12 RAW photos through this process is going to require at least 4 gigs of RAM with no background applications.

There should certainly be information (in the title) regarding the details of true HDR photography.

Nice end result though.

Maybe some more hyperlinks throughout the entire post, ei. to more detailed explanations of any of the details like basic composition or rule of thirds.

Love,
Alexgaynorphoto.com

author
avo42 made it!(author)2013-09-26

This is a good explanation thank you... but what i would do for real HDR and sticking is use two types of software one to create the HDR images and the other to stitch..

(this is just my opinion but this is how i do it)

1st - get photomatix pro (only £60.00) and create (minimum 3 images with different EV i.e -1 0 +1 or if you camera as HDR function use it) use this software and create the HDR image. (you will need to do this for all the shots of the panoramic image)

2nd - get hugin (free) this will stick all your HDR images or none HDR image to make a panoramic image..

Hope this helps anyone.. Have fun,

author
andrea+biffi made it!(author)2013-09-24

Thanks, that's very good explained! I also love the result very much!
I only have to debate about the HDR part ;-)

Real HDR technique requires you to take a serie of three or more pictures of the same area, each one with different exposure. Also HDR panoramas as your are possible, with a wide overlapping between pictures, but to do that you have to leave the camera on a semi-automatic or full-automatic mode, so that each area is exposed different in each picture.
It seems to me that you took your serie of photos in manual mode, so with fixed exposure. Photomerge in this case probably produces an fHDR image from the informations contained in RAW files.
Tell me if I could be right... 

Said that, I love fHDR (fake HDR) photos, because dynamic range contained in a good RAW file is usually enough to make a beautiful effect.

author
Le+Corbeau made it!(author)2013-09-26

Typical montages require a fixed exposure across all images, and HDR requires bracketed exposures.

author
kaiwashere made it!(author)2013-09-24

Hello there! Yes you are right, this is a fake HDR effect instructable and have corrected the introduction on the front. Thanks for the encouragement and feedback!

author
andrea+biffi made it!(author)2013-09-26

Hi, can you check the corrections? It seems nothing changed.. Thanks!
I'll look forward for more great photo instructables!

(I cleared the cache, so I think it's not a local problem...)

author
samalert made it!(author)2013-09-24

I am stuck on Constraint Tool where do i find it. CS6 Version How does it even look as icon.

author
kaiwashere made it!(author)2013-09-24

I've added in an annotation in Step 7 to make it easier to find the Constraint tool! It's in the top left corner of the Adaptive Wide Angle filter panel.

author
OrkhanS made it!(author)2015-08-05

author
kfong-1 made it!(author)2013-10-04

Hey, thanks for the tutorial. The only thing that I want to point out is the Adaptive Wide Angle Filter is not available on CS5. Only CS6

author
Jan+van+Dijk made it!(author)2013-09-26

Awesome! Can you please share the photo so I can use it as my wallpaper? Thanks a lot! Really nice photo!

About This Instructable

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Bio: Hey there! I'm an industrial design graduate from the National University of Singapore, and I love taking photos! More tips over at my blog!
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