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Me ha sucedido repetidas veces que necesito empalmar un caño con otro, ya sea para agua, aire, combustible, gas, etc. 

En cualquier ferretería se venden T de diversos tamaños. Pero en este caso yo necesité 3, y cuando averigüé el precio decidí que era preferible hacerlas yo mismo.

Siguiendo algunos sencillos pasos, es posible hacerlas lo suficientemente robustas como para el uso habitual, con poco trabajo y a un costo realmente muy bajo. Detallo a continuación cómo hacer una pequeña T de caño de cobre, pero el procedimiento es escalable y aplicable a otros materiales.

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It has happened several times that I need connect a pipe to another, whether for water, air, fuel, gas, etc.

In any hardware store they sold T of various sizes. But in this case I needed three, and when I found out the price I decided it was better to make them myself.

By following a few simple steps, you can make them robust enough for routine use, with little work and at really low cost. Below I detail how to make a small T of copper pipe, but the procedure is scalable and applicable to other materials.

Step 1: La Barra Superior (crossbar)

Obviamente, hay que tener el caño de cobre de la medida correcta. En mi caso el diámetro exterior es de 8 mm, y el interior de 6 mm. El primer paso es cortar la parte superior de la T. Las dimensiones usted las adecuará a sus necesidades.

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Obviously, you must have the copper pipe of the correct size. In my case the outer diameter is 8 mm and 6 mm inside. The first step is to cut the top of the T. The dimensions you will adapt to your needs.

Step 2: El Tronco (the Trunk)

La tentación que surge es cortar ahora el "tronco" de la T, pero yo he hecho otras veces eso y luego tuve problemas para ensamblar todo. Lo que corresponde es preparar antes el empalme, para lo cual hay que empezar por hacer al caño de cobre un agujero de un diámetro aproximadamente igual al del interior del tubo, a media pulgada del extremo, más o menos.

Previamente conviene marcar la zona con una lima redonda, y hacer un agujero "piloto" o "buzo" de menor diámetro. Eso facilita mucho centrar el agujero en su lugar. Luego se completa con la mecha del diámetro definitivo.

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The temptation arises now to cut the "stem" of the T, but I've done it before and then had trouble assembling everything. It is better before to prepare the splicing, for which we must begin making to the copper tube a hole with a diameter approximately equal to the inside of the tube, at a half inch or so from its end.

Previously you should mark the area with a round file, and make a "pilot" or "diver"
hole,  smaller diameter. This greatly facilitates centering the hole. Made the little hole, you enlarge it with the final diameter drill bit.

Step 3: La "abrazadora" (the "embracer")

Una vez hecho el agujero grande, se corta longitudinalmente el caño desde el extremo hasta el agujero. De esa manera quedan formadas dos aletas enfrentadas, que hay que aplanar y amoldar al travesaño que cortamos en el paso 1. Para facilitar esta tarea es conveniente usar una mecha de diámetro similar al del exterior del caño. Las fotos explican mejor que las palabras.

Una vez amoldados entre sí el tronco y el travesaño, cortando el excedente se completa la unión con la pinza.

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Done the big hole, the pipe is cut longitudinally from the tip to the hole. Thus are formed two opposing wings, you have to flatten and shape to the beam we cut in step 1. To facilitate this task, it is convenient to use a drill bit of similar diameter to the outside of the pipe. The pictures explain better than words.

Once molded together trunk and crossbar, cutting the surplus you can complete union with pliers.

Step 4: Soldando (soldering)

Antes de soldar ambas partes, conviene limpiar lo mejor posible el cobre con un trozo de papel de lija y aplicar decapante. Yo usé un decapante comercial formulado para soldar con estaño, pero podría haber utilizado el cloruro de zinc que preparé en el paso 3 de este otro instructable.

Para soldar en este caso es más fácil calentar toda la pieza sobre la llama del gas, que usar el soldador. El estaño se calienta también ligeramente, y apoyándolo sobre el cobre caliente se puede apreciar que en un momento dado se funde, y si la pieza está limpia y tratada con el decapante, el estaño se distribuye introduciéndose en las uniones y haciendo una soldadura hermética. Se puede usar estaño con núcleo de decapante (el usado para electrónica) o sin él.

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Before soldering both parts you should best clean the copper with a piece of sandpaper and apply flux. I used a commercial flux formulated for tin soldering, but could have used zinc chloride prepared in step 3 of this other instructable.

For soldering in this case is easier to heat the entire piece over the gas flame, than use the welder. Tin is also heated slightly, and resting it on the hot copper you can see that at a given moment it melts, and if the parts are cleaned and treated with the flux, tin is distributed and introduced at the junctions making a hermetic seal. You can use flux cored tin (the one used for electronics) or without it.

Step 5: Probando La Hermeticidad (testing the Tightness)

Dado que mi T va a trabajar con bajas presiones (gas natural de tubería doméstica), la hermeticidad se puede probar simplemente intentando hacer pasar aire a presión con la boca. Si llegara a haber una fuga, es muy fácil cubrir la grieta con estaño repitiendo el paso anterior.

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Since my T will work at low pressure (domestic natural gas pipeline), the seal can be tested simply trying to draw air pressure with the mouth. If there be a leak, it is very easy to cover the crack with tin repeating the previous step.

Step 6: Limando Asperezas (filing Roughness)

A esta altura estamos en condiciones de limar y lijar cualquier aspereza que quede de los pasos anteriores

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At this point we are able to file and sand any roughness remains of the previous steps

Step 7: El Agujero Postrero (last Hole)

Lo único que resta es conectar el interior de ambas partes de la T. Esto se hace muy fácilmente con una mecha de diámetro igual o ligeramente menor al del interior del caño.

That is all, folks!

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The only thing left is to connect the inside of both parts of the T. This is done very easily with a drill bit wich diameter is equal to or slightly less than the inside of the pipe.

That is all, folks!
You sir, have contributed to my car project in a great way. Until this very moment, I've been looking to attach my car's 2 fuel tanks with the fittings below, which the previous owner had made by hand. Now, My lines will be clean looking. Great job... And simple too. Wrapping the tube makes all the difference.
Thanks, bfk! Glad to be useful.
Buen trabajo :)
Thanks, Lowriderpr.
Que bueno! <br> <br>You taught me at least two new concepts: <br>Use of &quot;la abrazadora&quot; (the &quot;embracer&quot;) to strengthen the connection; <br>Drilling the hole as the final step. <br> <br>La abrazadora: an interesting word. My MS Word translator told me it was Argentinian dialect, not common Castillian. &quot;Embracer&quot; describes it well. In English we would not likely use that word, sadly. A pipefitter might call it a &quot;doubler&quot; or &quot;reinforcer&quot;. <br> <br>Nice work.
Bill, your comment got me thinking about what word I would have used, I would most likely have used the word gusset but I have to say that embracer does have a much more poetic ring to it. <br> <br>Believe it or not, I never learned a word of Spanish at school but thanks to Rimar's fantastic posts I can now read and understand some very basic Spanish text. <br> <br>Hurrah for the internet.
Dr Qui, I am far from know English, but if you read my first instructables and comments, you could see I have improved a lot. Thanks, Web, THANKS, INSTRUCTABLES! <br> <br>My next step is the most difficult: hear and understands. That costs me much more.
Gracias por tu comentario, Bill. La palabra &quot;abrazadora&quot; es un par&oacute;nimo de &quot;abrazadera&quot;, y realmente no existe o no es usual en castellano, por eso la puse entre comillas. Porque <a href="https://www.google.com.ar/search?q=abrazadera&hl=es&client=firefox-beta&hs=uGB&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:es-ES:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=5aoBUdSwF4m09QTKhoDIDQ&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAA&biw=1366&bih=653" rel="nofollow">una abrazadera es algo parecido pero no igual</a>.<br> <br> Este enfoque constructivo es nuevo para m&iacute;. Antes, hac&iacute;a el agujero en el travesa&ntilde;o, adaptaba&nbsp; la forma del &quot;tronco&quot; y laboriosamente soldaba las dos piezas juntas. Rara vez quedaba bien, yo deb&iacute;a reforzar la uni&oacute;n para prever tensiones mec&aacute;nicas, y sellar las fugas con silicona o epoxi. Con este m&eacute;todo, todo esto no es necesario, es muy r&aacute;pido y f&aacute;cil.<br> <br> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br> <br> Thanks for your comment, Bill. The word &quot;abrazadora&quot; is a paronym of &quot;abrazadera&quot;, and really does not exist or is not usual in Castilian, so I put it in quotes. Because <a href="https://www.google.com.ar/search?q=abrazadera&hl=es&client=firefox-beta&hs=uGB&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:es-ES:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=5aoBUdSwF4m09QTKhoDIDQ&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAA&biw=1366&bih=653" rel="nofollow">an abrazadera is something similar but not equal</a>.<br> <br> This approach is new to me. Before, I made the hole in the crossbar, adapted the &quot;trunk&quot; end shape and painstakingly soldered both parts together. It rarely was good, I should strengthen the union to provide mechanical stresses, and seal the leaks with silicone or epoxy. With this method all this is not necessary, It is very fast and easy.
Very creative idea. I know i will use this some day. thanks.
Thanks for your comment. Yes, if you make habitually domestic works, surely a day you will need a T. Remember that the main steps are 2 and 7.
Tip top tinkering. <br> <br>Some of those small copper pipe fittings are very expensive indeed especially in the smaller hardware stores, I always check the bargain bins in the big stores for this type of stuff at really discount prices.
Thanks for your comment, Dr Qui. If you need more than one T, you could think to make them. Besides, IT IS FUNNY!
Again, Rimar, your ingenuity is inspiring. Of course it goes without saying that you clean out all the filings before hooking up you Tee :) Nice work.
Thanks, rncbme. This method saves time and money, and is safe enough for domestic applications.
It is interesting to see how you approached this task. It makes very good sense, but is quite different than I would have thought to do it. Very nice.
Thanks, Phil. <br> <br>This approach is new to me. Before, I made the hole in the crossbar, adapted the &quot;trunk&quot; end shape and painstakingly soldered both parts together. It rarely was good, I should strengthen the union to provide mechanical stresses, and seal the leaks with silicone or epoxy. With this method all this is not necessary, It is very fast and easy.
Lovely work. The fun of soldering and saving money........ priceless!
Thanks, onrust. ... And the pleasure of try a different approach.

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