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What is a counter flow wort chiller? In homebrewing, after you've boiled your wort (pre-beer, malty sugar water) for a while you want to cool it down as quickly as possible while also being completely sanitary in order to reduce the risk of contaminating your beer. There are a number of different tools at a homebrewer's disposal to accomplish this task ranging from simple to complex, and cheap to expensive. In this instructable I'm going to show you how I built an all-copper counter flow wort chiller. This particular model allows for thorough cleaning and visual inspection unlike most conventional spiraled versions, while costing about half as much as a store bought model.

How does it work? My version of a wort chiller is know as a counter-flow chiller (CFC) which runs the wort through straight 1/2" copper pipe that is encased by straight 3/4" pipe. The cold water runs through the 3/4" pipe and cools the wort down on its journey through the many sections. One advantage to this design is the 1/2" diameter of the tubing. This size makes it almost impossible to clog with hop debris and cold break unlike traditional plate chillers and smaller diameter CFCs. Another advantage is the ability to partially break down the chiller by removing the silicone on the ends. This allows for a visual inspection to ensure no potentially bacteria-harboring trub is stuck to the sides. Additionally, because the tubing is straight, it is easy to send a small pipe brush through each section unlike a traditional spiraled CFC. Lastly, the unit is fully submersible which allows the brewer to keep it in an ice-bath if desired to further increase cooling potential along with recirculating water for a greater higher water efficiency. The draw back is the price and the size. This unit will cost around $100 to build whereas a traditional round CFC can be built for about half as much. In addition to that my version is big, as it is close to 3 feet long. This model however is heavy duty, capable of cooling large batches quickly, and if properly cared for it will last a lifetime.

Step 1: Parts List and Cost

The actual material cost for this build was less than I had initially expected. It's still not cheap, but it is a lot less than a comparable store-bought chiller! I've included links to the exact items I purchased and used below. The final project may cost more or less for you depending on what you already have on hand.

Material:

-2x 10' 3/4" type m copper pipes $24
http://www.homedepot.com/p/Cerro-3-4-in-x-10-ft-Co...

-2x 10' 1/2" type m copper pipes $16
http://www.homedepot.com/p/Cerro-1-2-in-x-10-ft-Co...

-1x 3/4" x 1/2" x 3/4" pack of 10 copper tees $18
http://www.midlandhardware.com/232298-bulk.html

-6x 3/4" x 1/2" x 3/4" individual tees $12 + $6 shipping for all the tees
http://www.midlandhardware.com/232298.html

-2x 90 degree 3/4" copper elbow $6
http://www.homedepot.com/p/3-4-in-Copper-Pressure-...

-2x hose clamps $2
http://www.homedepot.com/p/Everbilt-1-2-1-1-4-in-H...

-solder 9$

http://www.homedepot.com/p/Forney-1-8-in-1-4-lb-Le...

-flux 5$
http://www.amazon.com/Rectorseal-14000-1-7-Ounce-N...

-garden hose (a free scrap hose is fine. You just need the ends.)

- six feet of silicone tubing $12
http://labelpeelers.com/1-2-high-temperature-silic...

Total ~$110

Tools Used:

-measuring tape

-pipe cutter (much easier and cleaner than a hack saw)

-blow torch

-sand paper

-deburring tool (optional)

-dremel

Step 2: Cutting the Pipe

Once you have amassed your collection of pipe and fittings it's time to get cutting! Using a pipe cutter (or similar tool) cut the pipe to the lengths listed below. You can make the chiller shorter while using the same amount of copper pipe, however you'll need more tee fittings (and silicone tubing), and you'll want to make sure the length of the inner pipe is evenly divisible by 10' to maximize your copper usage. For example, you could shorten the 1/2" pipe to 24" rather than 30" and have 10 sections rather than 8. This will then require another 2 tees and you'll need to adjust the 3/4" pipe to match the new size. I will list the measurements I went with.

-8x sections of 1/2" pipe, 30" long.

Since each pipe is 10' you'll get 4x sections from each piece.

-8x sections of 3/4" pipe, 23" long.

-7x sections of 3/4" pipe, 6" long.

Cut 4x 23" sections from each 10' 3/4" pipe. Cut 4x 6" sections from one 3/4" pipe and 3x 6" sections from the other. This will leave you with 1 extra 4" section and 1 extra 10" section. Use the 4" section for the final 2 pieces listed below.

-2x sections of 3/4" pipe, 2" long. These will be for the connection between the first and last tees, and the 90 degree elbow fittings for the water inlet and outlet.

At the end of all the cutting you should be left with the one extra 10" section of 3/4" pipe as a spare piece.

By this point you should have all of your copper tubing cut and ready to do a dry-fit test! It was at this time that I found my first problem. My tee fittings (and most others by the sounds of it) have a tiny ridge or collar on the inside which prevent the 1/2 copper tubing from sliding completely through the fitting. Next I'll explain how I got around that problem...

Step 3: Prepping and Threading the Pipe Through the Tees

Once I had all my pipe cut to the right lengths, it was time to prepare it for soldering. First, I used what is called a deburring tool which scrapes the inner lip away from the copper to make a nice smooth interior. I only did this on the inside of the 1/2" copper pipe where the wort would be flowing through. It is optional, but a good idea to prevent potential trub buildup inside the pipe. You can do the same thing with a dremel tool or a step bit. Once that was done I needed to prep the solder connections. To do this I needed to sand down every surface which needed to be soldered. This cleans the surface and allows for an good adhesion of the solder to the copper in the joints. I used 100 grit sandpaper and sanded the ends of each pipe and the insides of each fitting. There are tools commercially available to do this much easier and faster for about $10, but I didn't have one on hand and sandpaper works just fine.

After all the solder points were prepped I could begin assembling. This step was supposed to be one of the easier steps of the process. I assumed that I would be assembling the unit by threading the 1/2" pipe all the way through the tee and the 3/4" pipe around it. This turned out to be one of the more difficult tasks of the build... As I mentioned, the tees have a lip inside which prevent the tubing from going further than the intended coupling which unfortunately is the exact thing we want them to do. To remedy this I tried a number of different tactics. I tried a swaging tool which I couldn't get to work with the fitting. I tried a tapered metal rod but of course I couldn't find one the correct diameter. I tried brute force which began to work but since I'd need to disassemble, add flux, then do it all over again I knew this was not an option... I settled on simply using a dremel tool with a sanding bit which was just a hair smaller than the inner diameter of the copper tee. By running the sander over the lip in the tee, I was able to grind it down enough to the point where the tube was finally able to thread completely through the tee. I have also been told that a drill press would work nicely for this as well if you have the correct size bit.

Once you grind down the ridges in your tee fittings, do another dry fit to make sure the 1/2" pipes slide through all the fittings properly. Once you're sure everything fits together nicely you can disassemble it and prepare for soldering!

Step 4: Soldering and Assembly

Soldering copper pipe was completely new to me. I had never done it before and I was a little nervous to try a new technique on my expensive pile of copper. Fortunately by taking my time, reading a few tutorials, and not getting too anxious I was able to solder the whole chiller in just a few hours. There are 16 fittings with 3 joints each which meant a total of 48 solder points. I learned a few things through all of this which helped me out quite a bit and I hope it will help you as well.

I soldered the chiller as I would have assembled it, by starting with the bottom pipes and working my way up. Since The whole joint heats up when you are soldering a single connection, I fount it to be most economical to solder all 3 connections of each fitting at once. This meant adding flux to the inside of each fitting and each pipe end, then sliding the pipe into the tee. The 1/2" pipe should stick out 1.5 inches from the outside of the tee fitting, and the 3/4" pipe should fit snug until it hits the stop on the inside of each fitting. Once assembled, heat the joint with the blow torch using a decent sized flame. Trying to do it with a smaller flame takes forever and does not get the fitting hot enough to melt the solder. Once the fitting is nice and hot, test it by touching the solder to the connection point between the pipe and fitting. You're looking for the pipe to melt the solder, not the flame. If you put the solder directly into the flame this will just melt the solder and not let it enter the joint. If the joint is hot enough the solder will melt and capillary action assisted by the flux will draw the solder deep into the joint. I found it easiest to touch the solder to the top of the joint and let it flow down and get drawn into one side, then the other. Add solder until it begins to build up at the base of the joint. This means the joint is full of solder and you can move on. Double check all parts of the connection to ensure there is solder in the joint. Once you've completed the first two straight sections and the one connection pipe between the two, you'll be soldering a tee which is directly over the first one you did. As you heat the new fitting, you don't want your first fitting heating up and loosening, so I found it best to lay a damp cloth over the set joint and wedging a small piece of wood between the pipes to keep the tees apart just a little bit. Continue in this manner until all of your joints are soldered and your chiller is assembled!

Once you're all done soldering then you're almost done. Clean off the extra flux with a damp cloth and some soapy water. Take your silicone tubing and cut it into 7x 10" sections. This will connect each straight section of 1/2" tube to the next. They will stay very firmly in place with nothing more than friction, so there is no need to further secure these. Last but not least, take your garden hose, chop off the two ends, put the hose clamp onto each section of hose end and work it onto the ends of the 90 degree elbows. You want the water inlet to be on the bottom and the outlet to be on the top. The hot wort will enter on top thorugh the tee with the water outlet and the wort will exit on the bottom with the water inlet tee. Once the hoses are on, secure them to the copper with the hose clamps.

Step 5: Final Product and Future Plans

This is my finished product! I hooked it up to the sink with another section of hose and ran water through the chiller to test for leaks. I put it under pressure as well and didn't find a single drop of water from any of the joints. I put it to the test and by running my water at about 1/3 pressure I am able to bring a 5 gallon batch of boiling wort down to ale pitching temps in a single pass which took about 7 minutes with the pump throttled back a little bit. The wort inlet and outlet sections are hooked up with a different section of silicone hose and a camlock attachment at the opposite end which connect to the rest of my system at the pump and the recirculation arm in my boil kettle. If I could do it all over again I wouldn't change a thing, but there are some adjustments I plan to make in the future. The garden hose attachments aren't quite as "sexy" as the rest of the chiller, and I plan to add proper brass male and female GHT (garden hose thread) sections to the chiller at some point, but this is good enough for now. Additionally, I plan on weaving some copper wire back and forth between the pipes to shore it up and make sure it is nice and straight, but it is plenty strong enough as it is to stay together just by the solder connections alone. This has been my favorite homebrewing build yet and I hope it inspires you enough to make your own!

<p>I see my mistake! I used a thinwall silicone tubing which is the problem.</p><p>I also want to note that you really need to use a pump with this design of this heat exchanger. </p><p>To get all of the wort out of the pump &amp; Heat Exchanger, I use the hot water discharge from this heat exchanger to &quot;push&quot; the wort through. I watch the tubing and when 2/3 of the wort is out, I stop transfefrring. I know for a fact that major breweries do it this way :)</p>
<p>Same technique I use myself. Cheers!</p>
<p>I made this- and it works AWESOME!! I</p><p>I do have one issue though. The silicone tubes tend to kink and restrict flow. How did you overcome this?!?! It is really a huge pain to get the unit started up. </p><p>Can you share the Id/OD of your tubing? Maybe my wall thickness is too thin.</p>
I'm glad you like it! I have zero problem with the tubing and the start up personally. I do have thicker walled silicone tubes which probably help prevent kinking. If the tubes are too short and don't have enough room to loop around to the next piece of copper, that could also be putting excess stress on the section of silicone against the copper inlet/outlet and causing it to kink. I also assume you do indeed have silicone and not vinyl. As i'm sure you know, vinyl does not do as well at higher temperatures like silicone does, and it would kink and probably slide off of the copper when it heats up. I've linked to the exact kind of tubing I use. It has an ID of 1/2&quot; and an OD of 3/4&quot; which makes the wall thickness of my silicone 1/8&quot; I hope this helps! <br>http://labelpeelers.com/1-2-high-temperature-silicon-tubing-1/
<p>what size batches have you used this with and how long did cooling take?</p>
I make 5 gallon batches usually but the design works the same for any sized batch really, the only difference will be the time it takes to run the whole batch through since it cools on a single pass (for me). I have ground water which is a constant 55f or so which helps a lot, so I can open the valve pretty wide and drain my kettle from boiling to 70 in about 7 minutes. The one time I used city water it was a bit warmer and it took closer to 15 minutes to get to temp but I was being conservative with water flow. <br>
<p>This is exactly the CFC design I was looking for. I never wanted to use one because I was worried about keeping it clean. I think I've found my next brewing project...</p>
This was exactly the same reason I set out to make it. Cheers!
<p>Very nice design! I was going to try an make something similar at one point, but ended up buying a cheap plate chiller for about $75. It chills exceptionally fast with minimal water, but I always worry about it clogging. Your instructable has re-inspired me to look at CFC again.</p>
<p>Also, did you consider spiral wrapping some wire around the inner pipe to increase efficiency by forcing the water along a longer route as well as increasing turbulance? </p>
<p>I did consider this but decided against it. Not for any reason in particular, I just didn't feel compelled to add another layer of complexity to the design. I think it would benefit from having some additional copper inside to facilitate increased turbulence but I don't know that the improvements would be very noticable. Cheers!</p>
<p>Nice instructable. I made a 80' CFC inside a garden hose, and in the winter/Spring it cools my wort to pitching temperature almost as fast as I can pump it; 5 minutes and I am done. I like your square design though. It'd work great in my planned brew sculpture. Nice and tidy!</p>
<p>If I understood correctly, you're just running cold tap water through to cool with, right? I've never brewed beer, so this might not be a significant amount of water, but what I thought of when I read this, was of using a water recycling pump, pulling from a pail of ice water or even adding salt to the ice water (makes it colder, salt water has a lower melting point than normal ice water...) Anyway, I've seen guys make their own water cooling systems for cool suits, for race car drivers, using boat sump pumps, like this one I bought from Amazon... http://www.amazon.com/Rule-24-Marine-360-GPH-12-Volt/dp/B000O8D8QG I haven't used mine yet, except for some quick testing, it pumps a crazy amount of water. Anyway, happy brewing, and enjoy the beer! Great write up :)</p>
<p>Hi, CarlinC1.</p><p>I also brew and was having this discussion with another brewer just last night - is it better to use recirculated ice water (which my friend does) or cold tap water (which I do)? Both work fine, and my friend prefers the ice method because he has a different style of chiller which is a little less efficient. The problem is that it can take a really surprisingly large amount of ice to chill a batch of beer. This isn't a problem in the winter when we can just use snow, but it can really add up if one is buying it. As the fellows below mention, it's great when I can use the chilling water for the garden!</p>
<p>Here in Houston, the water from the tap is too warm in the Summer to cool the wort to pitching temperature. I do get through the danger zone where off flavors happen, but the wort stays above 90F. This summer, I will try the recirculation method. And yes, the hot output water is used to clean my equipment.</p>
That brings up a really good point. We often worry about wasting water, but what about the power required to make the ice? You could easily spend a dollar trying to save a dime! Interesting discussion :)
Correct Carlin. I outlined the possibility of recirculating ice cold water to improve water efficiency and cooling potential in the instructable. It is a common practice for brewers looking to reduce water usage. Thanks for the comment!
<p>I do brew beer. Your idea works well. I am setting up a closed loop system similar to yours. Another idea, using less equipment, is to collect the warmed water and use it to water the garden, fill the sink for dishes, etc.</p>
Yeah that's what I did with mine that's how I know how much I collected! The first 20 gallons of warm water went to use with a load of laundry. Cheers!
<p>It's already been mentioned about using steel wool to clean up the fittings which is what I used to use when I was in the trade. Steel wool is great for the outside of copper/brass/stainless plumbing fittings but not so good for the inside. It does a great job but it also leaves your fingers very sore after the 3rd or 4th fitting. I now use a small wire brush that fits snugly into the fitting. It's quicker, less messy and so much easier on the old fingers :) They are cheap as chips too. Oh, by the way, excellent Instructable, well done.</p>
<p>It's already been mentioned about using steel wool to clean up the fittings which is what I used to use when I was in the trade. Steel wool is great for the outside of copper/brass/stainless plumbing fittings but not so good for the inside. It does a great job but it also leaves your fingers very sore after the 3rd or 4th fitting. I now use a small wire brush that fits snugly into the fitting. It's quicker, less messy and so much easier on the old fingers :) They are cheap as chips too. Oh, by the way, excellent Instructable, well done.</p>
<p>Cool design and nice instructable</p><p>I also used a CFC for over 10 years (the circular garden hose type), but switched to a stainless immersion cooler about 5 years ago. The beer quality stayed the same, but it's much easier to just boil it for sanitation.</p>
<p>Thanks for the comments. I agree about the sanitization, but I find that my cfc is just as easy to sanitize! I use a pump so I just turn the pump on 15 minutes before the end of the boil and recirculate boiling wort through all the lines and the chiller. 15 minutes at boiling does the trick for sanitizing! </p>
<p>Nice cooler, I particularly like the easy cleaning of the wort line. I would suggest the adventurous try sil-fos instead of solder. You would need MAP gas or hotter (acetylene), but the end result is lead-free and brazing with sil-fos is much easier to work with than soldering.</p>
<p>Cool project. I made a very similar counter flow heat exchanger using 1&quot; copper pipe inside 1 1/4&quot; copper pipe for my solar hot water system. Hot water from the solar panel flows through the inner 1&quot; pipe. And cold water to be heated up flows in the space between the pipes.</p><p>I solved the problem of the metal lip on the T fitting by putting the fitting into my metal lathe and using a 1 1/8&quot; counter bore to drill it out. It's exactly the same size as the inside of the fitting so there's no damage to the part that will solder onto the 1&quot; pipe. Use plenty of coolant to keep the copper from work hardening. Copper can be drilled easily if it's cold but becomes quite hard if it's heated past a certain temperature. I found that out the hard way. </p><p>For optimal exchange of heat turbulence in the flow of the outside pipe is your friend. Commercial heat exchangers built this way have grooves cut into the outside of the inner pipe. I approximated that by running a metal file over the outside of the 1&quot; pipe (except for where it was to be soldered) and roughing up the surface. </p>
I considered wrapping a copper ground cable around the inner pipe to facilitate turbulence but decided that it would probably be overkill. Lucky for you to have the right sized bit to drill out the tees. It was a pain in the butt getting them all ground down!
<p>Nice Job! <br> I built a counter flow heat exchanger using 3/8 tubing soldered side by side. The objective was to pasteurize water. The good feature was that I could get 50' of 3/8 tubing for $40, and it didn't need any joints - and water flow in = water flow out. The bad thing was that it had to be bent into a spriral, and who knows what would happen if it got clogged - and it was quite a solder fob! </p>
<p>Wow!...This has fast cooling and it's easy to clean and sanitize. Thanks!</p>
My pleasure!
<p>This post reminds me that it's beer:30. Gotta go!</p>
Isn't it always? Cheers!
<p>It's much easier to use medium coarse wire wool to clean the joints prior to soldering. You can also clean the joint removing excess solder using the same product. Wire wool polishes the copper rather than scratching the surface. It's much easier to clean the inner surface of the sockets prior to soldering. No plumber would use sand paper to do this job. Good instructable though.</p>
Yeah first time working with the material so it was a learning process. Thanks for the tip!
<p>care to build one for me??</p>
<p>I mean... it was fun, but I don't know if it was THAT fun... haha.</p>
Simple, fun build, nice design and probably a very effective solution too! This is something I would be interested in making myself. Thanks for detailed instructions!
<p>My pleasure. Thanks!</p>
<p>Quality work, happy brewing!</p>
<p>Thanks for checking it out! Cheers!</p>
<p>I like it. I'm thinking of building one of these. Your design is very good. I would think one nice addition would be a tee with a port for a thermometer at the end of the wort to see the final temp and adjust flow accordingly. just my 2 cents. Cheers!</p>
<p>Good suggestion. That would be a very simple modification. I have an in-line thermometer on the wort-out tube that I use to gauge the temperature, otherwise I would have likely included this as well. Thanks for the feedback!</p>
<p>This looks great. Very nicely done!</p>
<p>Thank you very much!</p>

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