Physics project for the High Striker carnival game.
Step 1: Create the Base and Lever
Connect a 1 meter 2x4 to a fulcrum raised 0.2 meters off the ground. Offset the fulcrum so the side to which force is applied is 0.6 meters in length and the other 0.4 meters.
Explanation: Torque is the measure of how much a force causes an object to rotate. Torque is found by multiplying the applied force by the radius (T = F1 * R1). The torque for one side of the lever is equal to the torque of the other side (F1 * R1 = F2 * R2). Shortening the radius of the side contacting the puck, creates a greater force exerted on the puck. This increases the initial velocity of the puck. Raising the lever 0.2 meters off the ground, increases the Force of Impact. It does this by increasing the distance traveled by the lever after impact.
Step 2: Create the Puck and Shaft
Attach a 2.7 meter pole to a 3 meter 2x4. Place a base on the shaft so the bottom of the pole lines up with the top of the lever when the lever is parallel to the ground. There should be a 0.1 meter gap between the top of the pole and shaft for the bell. Once the bell is attached right above the pole, place the 0.01 kg puck at the bottom of the pole so it rests on the lever.
Explanation: While the puck travels up and down the pull, it has two different forms of energy: Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and depends on the mass of the puck and velocity. It is found by taking ½ * Mass * Velocity^2. Potential Energy is the energy of position and is found by taking Mass * Gravity * Height. At the top of the pole the puck would have 0 kinetic energy because it is not moving, but it would have a maximum potential energy due to a maximum height. Right before the puck stops at the bottom, it would have a maximum kinetic energy due to a maximum speed, and it would have a potential energy of 0 due to a height of 0. The sum of these two energies is always equal due to the Conservation of Energy. Using a puck of a very small mass (0.01 kg) allows for a greater velocity of the puck. The whole process of this step can be defined as Work. Work is done when a force is exerted on an object and it causes displacement. Work is done on the lever when the force of the bean bag displaces the lever or on the puck when the force of the lever displaces the puck.
Step 3: Create Force
Gather or create bean bags that have different masses of 1 kg, 1.5 kg and 2 kg.
Explanation: The different bean bags have a different Potential Energy because the masses are different. The bean bag with the heaviest mass with have the greatest potential energy. The Kinetic Energy of the resting bean bags would be zero because they have no velocity. As the bean bags travel downward, their kinetic energy will increase because of the increasing velocity, whereas their potential energy would decrease because of the decreasing height. The sum of the potential and kinetic energy will remain the same due to the Conservation of Energy, stating energy can not be created or destroyed. This means the potential energy of the bean bag at it max height will be equal to the kinetic energy of the bean bag right before impact with the lever. Changing the masses of the bean bags affect the Force of Impact. The equation for force if impact is (½ * mass of beanbag * velocity^2)/(distance the lever drops) The heavier the beanbag, the greater the force of impact will be. By increasing the force of impact, the force exerted on the lever is greater which increases the force exerted on the puck increasing the distance that the puck travels. Instead of increasing the height that the bean bag is dropped to make the puck go higher, increasing the mass will do the same thing.