Theoretically and Logically, the first Mars base would actually be built on one of the 2 moons orbiting Mars .So the first Mars base would be on either the moon Phabos or the moon Deimos or both . Doing this would set the foundations for a future Mars settlement . If no moon settlement was established orbiting Mars , then an orbiting space station would be the other alternative .The reason for this, is because it is in the reach of existing technology that has been proved working satisfactory for an Earth return vehicle . A space vehicle would be too large to escape Mars at this particular time .

The Old space craft design they used for the moon landing is not suitable for a Mars landing because the design would not accommodate enough fuel to escape Mars atmosphere . The space craft would have to be built larger . The old moon landing technology can be used to land on the moons Phobos or Deimos that orbit Mars .

If a space craft was going to land on Mars with astronauts, the best place to land would be on top of Olympus Mons . This is because the volcano is 16 miles high giving an Earth return space vehicle a head start in escaping Mars gravity to fly back into space . If Olympus Mons is unsuitable there is other very high volcanos which are extinct that present themselves as good landing points for Earth return ( this plan is best tested without astronauts ).

It would be best to use a space station as a space vehicle to fly astronauts to Mars . The space station would have to be built like a giant wheel and rotated to provide artificial gravity . This space craft ( built like a giant space station ) would provide the necessary comfort for astronauts for a successful journey to Mars . The only problem to define, is how fast would it be traveling and how long would it take for something the size of a space station to reach Mars .The accommodation at the center of the space station wheel would best be used as a green house to produce food, recycle waste and reprocess breathable air back in the system . .The rest of the station used for normal accommodation and operations .

escape pods could be used to fly down to Mars to land on Mars Olympus Mons and then return to the space station .

Interact on a Space Station on the Next Page.

Step 1: View This 3D Photo Gallery on the Space Station

System Requirements

Adobe Shockwave Player ( free download )

Computer Processor: 600 MHz Intel Pentium III or AthlonXP, or better
Computer Memory: 512 MB or more.
Screen Resolution: 800x600 pixels or higher.
Graphics Card for XP/2000:
NVIDIA GeForce 2 or better.
OR ATI Radeon 8500 or better
OR Intel Extreme Graphics.
Graphics Card for Vista (requires latest drivers):
NVIDIA GeForce 6600 or better.
OR ATI Radeon 9500 or better.
OR Intel Extreme Graphics.

To go direct to the Space Station Gallery click on the website below:


Step 2: Video of Moon Walk

Video of Moon Walk:


Centrifugal force: Unlike real gravity which pulls towards a center, this pseudo-force that appears in rotating reference frames gives a rotational 'gravity' that pushes away from the axis of rotation. Artificial gravity levels vary proportionately with the distance from the centre of rotation. With a small radius of rotation, the amount of gravity felt at one's head would be significantly different from the amount felt at one's feet. This could make movement and changing body position awkward. Again, slower rotations or larger rotational radii should not lead to such a problem.
The Coriolis effect gives an apparent force that acts on objects that move. This force tends to curve the motion in the opposite sense to the habitat's spin. Effects produced by the coriolis effect act on the inner ear and can cause dizziness, nausea and disorientation. Experiments have shown that slower rates of rotation reduce the Coriolis forces and its effects. It is generally believed that at 2 rpm or less no adverse effects from the Coriolis forces will occur, at higher rates some people can become accustomed to it and some do not, but at rates above 7 rpm few if any can become accustomed. It is not yet known if very long exposures to high levels of Coriolis forces can increase the likelihood of becoming accustomed. The nausea-inducing effects of Coriolis forces can also be mitigated by restraining movement of the head. Head restraints are perhaps practical for exercising in artificial gravity (an artificial gravity gym), but not for much else.
This form of artificial gravity gives additional system issues:

The size and speeds and period of different radii of space stationThe engineering challenges of creating a rotating spacecraft are comparatively modest to

Kinetic energy: Spinning up parts or all of the habitat requires energy. This would require a propulsion system and propellant of some kind to spin up (or spin down) or a motor and counterweight of some kind (possibly in the form of another living area) to spin in the opposite direction.
If parts of the structure are intentionally not spinning, friction and similar torques will cause the rates of spin to converge (as well as causing the otherwise-stationary parts to spin), requiring motors and power to be used to compensate for the losses due to friction.
Angular inertia can complicate spacecraft propulsion and altitude control particularly when no counterweight is employed.

The engineering challenges of creating a rotating spacecraft are comparatively modest to any other proposed approach. Theoretical spacecraft designs using artificial gravity have a great number of variants with intrinsic problems and advantages. To reduce Coriolis forces to livable levels, a rate of spin of 2 rpm or less would be needed. To produce 1g, the radius of rotation would have to be 224 m (735 ft) or greater, which would make for a very large spaceship. To reduce mass, the support along the diameter could consist of nothing but a cable connecting two sections of the spaceship, possibly a habitat module and a counterweight consisting of every other part of the spacecraft. It is not yet known if exposure to high gravity for short periods of time is as beneficial to health as continuous exposure to normal gravity. It is also not known how effective low levels of gravity would be to countering the adverse effects on health of weightlessness. Artificial gravity at 0.1g would require a radius of only 22 m (74 ft). Likewise, at a radius of 10 m, about 10 rpm would be required to produce Earth gravity (at the hips; gravity would be 11% higher at the feet), or 14 rpm to produce 2g. If brief exposure to high gravity can negate the health effects of weightlessness, then a small centrifuge could be used as an exercise area.

The Gemini 11 mission attempted to produce artificial gravity by rotating the capsule around the Agena Target Vehicle which it was attached to by a 36-meter tether. The resultant force was too small to be felt by either astronaut, but objects were observed moving towards the "floor" of the capsule.

Step 3: Plants Generating Artificial Evolution of the Atmosphere ?

Plants are able to grow well in the carbon-dioxide rich atmosphere of Mars and can steadily remove carbon dioxide to produce oxygen. Ammonia is able to to react with the oxygen to release Nitrogen . Nitrogen can also be produced by living organisms such as denitrifying bacteria .If the amount of oxygen could increase then the ozone layer can develop to filter out harmful ultraviolet UV radiation from the sun. This will enable new and more complex organisms to develop on Mars . The ideal main gas in the atmosphere should be nitrogen and then oxygen second to be developed on Mars .

I was thinking that I could react water already on Mars into Oxygen and Hydrogen producing the required fuel for lift off for a space pod to return to the space station.

Station looks like an early version of ring from halo! cooll...<br />
This question was answered <a rel="nofollow" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Direct">quite some time ago</a>, but NASA ignored it.<br/>
With existing Technology astronauts can land on the moon called Ganeymede which has a thin Oxygen atmosphere . Water ICE surface . A saltwater Ocean is believed to exist 200km below the surface . Orbits Jupiter . Found at this website below.<br/><br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganymede_(moon)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganymede_(moon)</a><br/>
I thought that the idea was to travel to Mars and back, Jupiter is a little out of the way if you are only planning on traveling to Mars.
The Escape velocity for Mars is going to be far greater than escaping from the Moon . The ultimate solution would be to build a Large Rail Gun on Mars to fire the space vehicle back into space , ( that's already tested working on Earth and re-built on Mars ) or produce Oxygen and Hydron for Rocket fuel obtained from the Pola Ice caps of Mars ( again, the space craft might be larger than the one that arrived ).
Another idea is to set up a Base on one of the Moons of Mars , before setting up a base on Mars itself . These are the Moons of Mars , Phobos and Deimos .
According to the website you provide,"The Mars Semi-Direct architecture has been used as the basis of a number of studies, including the NASA Design Reference Missions." I would hardly call that ignoring the proposal. You must also realize that there are different solutions for the the same problem each using different approaches.
Mars Direct used existing machinery (the launch vehicles were mainly Saturn V) and proven technologies.<br/><br/>Following it, we could have been on Mars over ten years ago, instead of piddling around in LEO and treating a return to the Moon as a major step.<br/><br/>The budget for Mars Direct was <em>less</em> that the cost of the shuttle flights to ISS, never mind the ISS itself.<br/>
I just hope they hurry up and get to Mars. Once they do, hopefully they start sending more and more spaceships out. Therefore, the human race will unfortunately never die.

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