Introduction: Walnut Wood (triathlon) Bicycle Frame

Picture of Walnut Wood (triathlon) Bicycle Frame

As an income-less college student, it can be difficult to get into the sport of triathlon. Swimming and running are fairly cheap sports, but outfitting a bicycle that is competitive can be daunting. I bought a road bike from a bike swap for $600 a couple years ago, but it wasn't great for triathlons and I recently got a dent in the top tube that worried me. Luckily, as a part of my engineering curriculum I learned what I needed to build my own frame out of locally sourced black walnut wood.

While this was a fairly intensive 5-month project (I only had time to work on it occasionally because of school), I'll do my best to give a good outline of the steps involved. Prerequisites are a good understanding of bicycle design (which I attained mostly by reading on the internet) and access to some wood working tools and a vacuum bag.

Step 1: Materials and Tools

Picture of Materials and Tools

This list is not exhaustive but it provides an overview of the most important tools and materials needed.


7-10 board feet of black walnut (other hardwoods may be suitable)

Titebond III wood glue

Locktite Epoxy (see image)

appropriate bicycle tubing for the head tube and seat tube

Bottom bracket insert

flexible metal tubing for cable routing

3/4" plywood

and all associated bike parts except for the frame. Like I said, I used all the parts from my previously owned road bike.



Vacuum bag and pump

band saw/ miter saw/ table saw

Assorted drill bit sizes

Router and necessary bits

hand drill

drill press

Step 2: Bicycle Design Stage

Picture of Bicycle Design Stage

Before any building can occur, you must have a well developed design. The great part about a wood bicycle is that you can cater the bike frame exactly to your fit and your needs. I used solidworks as a design platform to draw and model my frame. I essentially started with the geometry of my road bike, because I knew that it fit me, and then adjusted it to have the triathlon qualities I was looking for. Notable adjustments I made were increasing the seat tube angle, adding an airfoil shape to the down-tube and seat-post, lowering my seat-stay attachment, and adding a profile for the back wheel.

It is important during this step to keep in mind the components that you will be using for the build. The wheels, seat post, steerer, and bottom bracket insert are all sizes that are especially important to get right.

The computer model should have the ares of the tubes that will be hollowed out to save weight. I left about 6mm walls in all of the tubes.

Finally, you should get the outline for the main triangle printed on a 1:1 scale. I was able to get an engineering-printing company to print me two copies for about $5.

The bike will be made by laminating thin plies of the wood together. By doing this, you can take advantage of grain direction in key parts of the bike to improve strength in multiple directions. My bike is made up of 8 layers of plies. Because it is symmetrical, I made 4 plans of ply orientations that would be mirrored across the center of the bike. Above is a picture of how I planned these layers on solidworks for another bike I made. For the head tube (which encounters a lot of stress) I made sure to include + and - 45 degree angles from the steerer axis for 4 of the layers and longitudinal with respect to the top tube and down tube for the other 4 layers. For the joints of the down-tube/seat-tube and top-tube/seat-tube, I made sure that the plies coming in overlapped every other ply so that the joints would be well integrated.

Step 3: Laminating Layers

Picture of Laminating Layers

This step takes a lot of time and care. It can be difficult because the end product seems far off, but doing this correctly is important to the integrity of the bike.

The first step is to create the plies. I used plies that were everywhere from 2x10" to 5x40". My ply-orientation layout from the last step told me how many plies I needed of what sizes. Essentially I picked parts from my walnut boards that didn't have a lot of knots and assigned them, piece by piece, areas on the bicycle frame. Then I used the table saw to cut them roughly to size at about a 10mm thickness (pictured above), planed them down to 6mm thickness, and used a miter-saw to cut the angles I needed for them to fit into my layout.

I used the paper copies of my design and the 3/4" plywood to make templates for my bike frame. One of the printouts became the outside profile and one of them became the inside profile (for routing out the hollow portions). I used the outside profile template to begin laminating the layers of plies together. At my school's woodshop we built a vacuum table for this specific purpose, but you could use a vacuum bag and two boards to do it on too. Essentially just laminate the two halves of the bike together one layer at a time so that you end up with 2 four-layered blocks of wood with all of the grain going in the directions that you designed.

After this process if over, the bike begins to take shape and it is a lot of fun! Unfortunately I didn't get pictures of the lamination process, but you can see an idea of what it turned out like on the next step.

Step 4: Routing and Shaping

Picture of Routing and Shaping

After the lamination, you essentially have two big bulky blocks of laminated wood, and your bike frame is hidden inside. This step brings it out.


I actually used a hand router and a template to do most of the hollow spaces you can see in the first picture. For my down tube, since I had the airfoil shape, I used the milling machine pictures to get the tapering effect.


I also used my other template to table route (with a straight bit) the profile on both of the halves. At this point, you have a squarish looking bike frame, but it is starting to take shape.


I used a table router to curve the edges of the tube-like portions of the bike and an orbital sander to make my airfoil shapes on the down tube and seat tube

Note: There is a chance, depending on the laminating and on warping, that the two halves wont fit together flush. In that case you need a router and a sled or a milling machine of some kind to flatten both surfaces.

Step 5: Metal Inserts

Picture of Metal Inserts

The two metal inserts need to be prepared.

The bottom bracket is brazed or welded to a seat tube to allow for the bottom bracket and seat post to fit into the frame. It takes some work to get the piece to fit perfectly between the two halves of the frame.

The head tube just needs to be cut to the correct length.

Then both of the metal inserts are "swiss-cheesed" to save a little weight (because they aren't strength members) and sandblasted so that the epoxy will adhere better.

Step 6: Combining the Main Triangle Halves

Picture of Combining the Main Triangle Halves

This piece, if all the previous steps are done well, is not too difficult.

The metal inserts are included (along with the spaces for the internal cable routing tubes) and the halves are made to fit together with the inserts included.

Not pictured is a space for a pin to go through perpendicular to the frame for the back brake to mount in. The space can be dremmeled out before the halves are put together.

When everything is correct, then wood glue is placed on the surfaces between the two halves and epoxy is spread out around where the metal inserts are. The two halves are put together and pressed together in the vacuum bag or table. The above picture of the vacuum set up is the same I used for the initial laminations.

Step 7: Stays (chain Stays and Seat Stays)

Picture of Stays (chain Stays and Seat Stays)

For the stays, I made 1/8" plies and laminated 5 together using a plywood mold with 6 bolts. It was a separate mold for the chain stays and the seat stays, allowing the expansion from the width of the front triangle to the width of the rear hub.

Using a normal bike making fixture, I held the frame and stays in place to get a close shape for all of the stays. Then it was a matter of drilling holes that would screw the stays into the steel drops and making sure the half inch pin that the back brake bolts onto fit together.

Using the epoxy between the stays and the frame as well as all around the bolts that attach to the drops, I clamped it all together with the back wheel in. By having the actual back wheel in I could be sure that the wheel lined up straight with the frame.

Step 8: Finishing Up

Picture of Finishing Up

Next I used a gunstock finish on the whole frame (with a whole lot of sanding) to get a protective and good looking finish. After that, I started working on getting the components to work. I had to paint my front fork black so that it wouldn't clash with the frame as much.

I had to mount a bracket for the front derailleur. I dremmelled out a place on the seat tube and epoxied in a braze-on bracket to do the trick.

Besides that, most of the components fit because I designed them to the correct sizes. With that it was just finishing touches and then I was ready to ride!

Step 9: Riding!

Picture of Riding!

Above is a picture from my first ride. I was so excited to finally get it on the road after 150+ hours of working in the shop on it. I was a little worried because there are a lot of unknowns involved in the process. Luckily everything turned out great and the handling and tracking of the bike was nearly perfect for me. The fit is even better than my road bike was, and the wood removes a lot of the road vibrations so my butt-soreness has also gone down.

I got a friend to take some professional pictures of the bike, check them out!

Update: I just started a blog to write about my bike from time to time. I will likely add more information there in the future about builds and maybe discuss interesting rides or triathlons. The link is


rpotts2 (author)2014-05-22

That should be in a modern art display. You mentioned that buying a frame was expensive. what would you say is the comparison? half? 3/4?

JMYilla (author)rpotts22014-05-22

Thanks! Buying a triathlon frame varies depending on the brand and quality, but they range anywhere from $500 to $5,000. The materials it took me to build this totaled less than $200, so really the only big investment was time. Also, I had all the tooling accessible through my school, so I didn't need to pay for that.

OffBeatSocker (author)JMYilla2014-07-23

When you say school? Your still in a High School or University? Because in my High School we probably have the tools to make this but I'm not sure if we can even make a project like this during school hours.

JMYilla (author)OffBeatSocker2014-08-15

When I say school I mean University. The construction of this bicycle related to a project I was working on, so I was able to use the equiptment.

sgsax (author)2014-05-25

Looks beautiful. You've mentioned the weight. How does that compare to other bikes in this category? Hardwoods like walnut are nice for strength and rigidty, but come at the cost of weight. Have you had a chance to race it yet? How does it feel for that?

JMYilla (author)sgsax2014-05-25

It is definitely heavier than a good quality aluminum or a carbon fiber bike, but unless you ride on very hilly courses, the weight is not a major concern. At 23 pounds it is probably 20% or 30% heavier than the road bike that I used the parts from. I haven't raced it yet, but I have done about 200 miles on it so far and loved every minute. I think the custom fit will help improve my speed.

mykiscool (author)JMYilla2014-05-28

Not bad for wood actually! My road bike is about 16 but my mountain bike weighs more than that and it's thin aluminum.

petebarchetta (author)2017-10-26

awesome build. Looking at building a similar setup I saw made by a chap at Ligneus bikes. Do you have the Cad models? Looking at an Oak birch Mix from local sources.

How did you line up the parts together?

MakeItWithJason (author)2016-09-22

Excellent work! I currently work for Renovo Hardwood Bicycles in Portland, Oregon, and this looks similar to our Hoodoo Triathlon model. Our frames designed by engineers and cut out with a cnc, but, as an engineering student yourself, you clearly have a great understanding of the engineering principles at work with wood. Good job! Did you win any triathlons with it?

RaymondA13 (author)2016-04-22

Competition racing cycles were once made from split cane bamboo, both frame, and wheels

Bhupal (author)2016-01-27

Is the rear bit just 4 solid lengths of wood bolted athe corners?

JMYilla (author)Bhupal2016-02-03

Sorry, I don't fully understand your question. The stays are four plys of wood, but it is epoxy that is holding them together mostly. There are bolts holding them onto the drop outs, but when the epoxy sets it creates more strength than the bolts.

Bhupal (author)2016-01-27

Where did you get the wheel drop outs from?

JMYilla (author)Bhupal2016-02-03

We ordered them custom from a laser-cutter shop, but the easy way is to cut them out with a band saw very carefully.

PatD21 (author)2016-02-03

how did you thread the bottom bracket insert.

JMYilla (author)PatD212016-02-03

Simply by using a tap, if you've never seen how that works, I found an instructable for it here:

Bhupal (author)2016-01-27

Is the rear bit just 4 solid lengths of wood bolted athe corners?

marcelt72 (author)2015-12-22

Hello, I love this bike and have decided to try and make one for my first ironman. Although I have no skills or tools as of yet but hey. a Couple of things I would like to know, is there access through the frame to the back of the rear brake nut? and how was the angle created for the stays, are the stays angled or maybe where they attach to the frame is angled? any help is much appreciated.

Fezder (author)2015-11-12

Quite personal frame, not every dude has same looking :) good thing you didn't paint it!

wellsprop (author)2015-11-05

This is absolutely amazing, Fantastic work!

Bhupal (author)2015-10-26

I would like to build this for a school project and i have quite a few questions. It would help very much if you could answer them.

Clawson33 (author)2015-10-12

I'm a high school teacher in Indiana, and I have a student who is extremely interested in making a bike like this. Would you be able to provide us with the dimensions or CAD file (s) for this project? Thanks

WilliamG26 (author)2015-08-23

Wonderful! Thanks for sharing. A quick question:

Where do you get the metal part which is hold the rear wheel from stays?

AndreaB21 (author)2015-08-08

one word; amazing!!

Mirko_meister (author)2015-08-08

Thank you very much for the wonderful instructable love it :-) excellent comments currently working on a similar project (e bike) and I will take into account hints and tips that you have all mentioned thanks to all

Adyhatton (author)2015-06-29

Hi love your bicycle could you help with providing the files for the plans? Would love to build one cheers

JMYilla (author)Adyhatton2015-08-07

Sorry for the delay. I don't have the solidworks files anymore because I created them on my school's network. However, the beautiful things is that you should be able to create your own plans in order to customize a bike to exactly your specifications. The great thing about wood is that you can make the bike however you want.

olipool (author)Adyhatton2015-07-21

i too would love these plans

underground carpenter (author)2015-06-28

Fantastic. As a professional woodworker, I've been pondering the wooden bicycle concept for a while and I will definitely incorporate parts of this design into my own one day.

But unless they taught you something in engineering that contradicts traditional woodworking technique (which is quite possible - engineering has debunked some traditional "wisdom"), 9 plies would be more dimensionally stable than 8, as they would more equally counteract the stresses of grain movement from the opposing ply. I understand why you engineered it this way, because of the hollowing you did through the center - 9 plies would have made one "half" thicker than the other and the routing would have had to take that into account, meaning two separate height set-ups. However, if you applied veneer to both sides with the same grain orientation, when you glued the two sides together, the two veneers would form the center ply.

Additionally, it means that your two halves are also odd numbers of plies. Albeit the exterior plies are not the same thickness, they would still counteract movement better than an even number of plies until you can get them glued up.

Lastly, I'd recommend fabricating two clamping cauls from MDF or Melamine (waxed so glue won't stick to them) cut to the rough profile of the bike frame. Use these when gluing-up the frame halves. The cauls help to distribute clamping pressure more evenly and provide flat surfaces to register the parts against while the glue sets up. If you also clamp the two halves together in the cauls while you are not working on them, it may help with controlling wood movement as well. The cauls won't guarantee that the two halves will mate together perfectly when it comes time to glue them, but it increases the likelihood enough to warrant the effort.

If the central plies, i.e. the ones that will be in the centre when the two halves are glued up, have the grain running in the same direction then the total number of plies will be odd @ 15 plies, the central one being thicker. So that rule is met. As the grain is predominantly running in the same direction for each laminated segment, they're not strictly plies anyway - more of a glue laminated beam. The important thing would be to take care with the endgrain orientation - concave or convex - to avoid building in unequal stresses.

Thanks for the comment. As an absolutely novice woodworker, I've never heard of the odd-number-ply rule of thumb. I don't doubt its credibility, but from an engineering perspective I'm not sure I understand the benefit. Symmetry between the two halves seems to be the more important goal to me. Though I suppose since symmetry means the middle two plys will match in grain direction, maybe your thought about veneers joining to make the center ply is actually already happening.

Haven't had any problems with wood stability so far (1+ year) and my professor has bikes up to 5 years old with no problems (using similar technique)


mig3 (author)2015-06-04

How did you connect the seat and chain stays to the rest of the frame?

JMYilla (author)mig32015-06-08

Hello! The stays were connected to the frame using locktite epoxy, shown in the photos on the instructable. Of course, the bottom bracket provides shear strength for the chain stays and there is a 1/2" aluminum dowel providing shear strength for the seat stays as well as mounting the rear brake.

mig3 (author)2015-04-22

Where did you get the drop outs for the seat stays?

JMYilla (author)mig32015-04-22

Had them machined. They could be done with a drill press and good band saw though.

bcorcora (author)2014-05-22

This is amazing. Can I ask what school you did this at?

wmuntz1 (author)bcorcora2015-04-13

Cedarville University

maros.feher.9 (author)2015-02-06

....interesting project man...nice job!

swaldo (author)2015-01-19

that's awesome

baird.sills (author)2015-01-14

where did you get the dropouts from?

Jarheadicus (author)2014-11-25

I am thinking of making a frame for a 29"er, would that impact the amount of wood I'd need?

Ninjarooster (author)2014-11-07

Sir, that's an amazing piece of perfection!

OffBeatSocker (author)2014-07-23

It looks absolutely awesome! I was just wondering, what if your brake cable/derailleur cable breaks inside the tubing? How would you replace it? It would seem awfully difficult to get the wires through the frame or would it not?

JMYilla (author)OffBeatSocker2014-08-15

There is 3/8" aluminum tubes going from the inlet to outlet points for the internal routing, so I would just feed new cables through. It woudln't be a problem to replace.

travderose (author)2014-07-15

This thing is beautiful! I love the wood

ContraptionMaker (author)2014-07-12

Truly a green machine. Congrats on being a finalist!

TrollFaceTheMan (author)2014-07-11

Very nice looking!

veeguy (author)2014-06-20

This is a beautiful piece of functional art! I especially love Black Walnut's rich appearance. While I do a *lot* of woodworking, I never thought in terms of making a bike frame! Good stuff.

The only thing that would give me pause is the possibility of being impaled bywood splinters in case of an accident. This is the reason cars are no longer made with wooden dash panels or steering wheels. The NHTSA has all but banned it's use in automotive manufacture. This is one of the main reason Morgan cars are not able to be sold in the USA, their wood frames.

No_Limits (author)2014-06-08

This is a work of art. Wish I had the ability to make something this amazing. Great job!

victorvector (author)2014-06-06

Exceptional effort and result.

Art meets custom manufacturing.

One issue I have with this is that Titebond III wood glue can after prolonged loading suffer from " creep " over time , so is not recommended for structural purposes .

Fantastic job.

About This Instructable




Bio: I love to make anything I can!
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