When rustic camping, overlanding or on an extended expedition a great way to cook efficiently using less fuel and reducing smoke in a free and sustainable, low-impact way is to build a mud stove.
Step 1: Mix Up Some Mud
We're doing this in the desert southwest so we have plenty of clay soil that makes a good stove. We first set to mixing some soil with water. You can do this by hand or have someone trample the mud with their feet. In locations that have termite mounds the clay that the termites build is especially good for mud stove construction. Some places may require mining of clay to add to the mix.