Step 1: Section 1 - Building the Regulated 5 Volt Power Supply !

Okay now before i start, something about my notes for my step-by-step PICTURE instructables that i Love to create:

"i used to label all my pictures within my instructables but it seems instructables.com doesn't show all the notes attached onto pictures with certain web-browsers so i will be only making a few notes Directly onto the Pictures but have the main instructions here in this typed section but for those of you that dont see any notes on the pictures either download and install another web-browser (i Use Opera and have Never had a Problem Seeing Notes on Pictures!) or just look at the notes in this typed-section of the Instructable Guide i have made !!

Observe the pictures carefully and take special note on the exact holes that the wire links & components go into, failure to follow the exact holes will result in this not working, i have painstakingly taken the highest resolution pictures as i could so there shouldn't be any problem viewing the pictures and if a component or wire link is being blocked by another component then i will have supplied a few pictures taken at different angles to show exactly where the placements of the components or wire links should be (this is something that wasnt on ANY of the websites i researched, darn it! lol) so look out for the different angles of pictures as they will be following each other, in organised fashion (im using different angled pictures so that anyone will be able to CLEARLY SEE what goes where!)

"ALSO i do explain every step in DETAIL so if you dont want to read too much just skip the reading and follow the picture instructions but i have included alot of info here - gathered from a great many different websites so reading this guide once fully wouldn't hurt but if you know what your doing please dont see this guide as an insult to your intelligence as ive put this together so that complete beginners like myself can easily follow these instructions !"

  • Now, start by chopping up some single-core wire into the different lengths(or just chop them as-you-go!) so that your breadboard adventure for this project will go a little quicker and i have included a few pictures with a ruler to show all the wire links i used so you can roughly see what kind of lengths are needed but i dont get my wire links perfect 1st-time and it takes a few tries to get the right length but this is a good thing because it just means that with the colours of the wire links youve made whilst making them for this project means you can use them in many other projects as well in the future so it wont be a waste to try a few times to make the wire links!

After you have your wire links, its time to start !

The Power Supply:

NOTE: its VERY-Good practice to leave the 'Power' colours of the wire links as BLACK for the Negative (-) and RED for Positive (+) as it just makes life Soooooooo-Much easier later on to clearly & easily see which sections of the breadboard are specific to Power (Either battery or mains power!) !!!

Also i used a bit of Green Single-Core wire  & its not in the first 3 pictures but you will easily spot it when its used (For the Tactile MicroSwitch!)

The Bottom-LEFT picture (Picture 1) is showing that you cut your wire lengths a little bit longer on both ends so that when you strip them you'll have enough bare wire to slot into the breadboard holes, The Bottom-MIDDLE picture (Picture 2) will show what im barking on about, lol, & the Bottom-RIGHT picture (Picture 3) is simply showing how to have the bends in the pieces of wire!

Now we finally start the Power Supply, lol !

NOTE:ALWAYS COPY THE RED & BLACK WIRE-COLOURS EXACTLY - You may Use any other colours for the rest or the wire-links as you please!

Start by looking at the picture below (Picture 4), and copy the wires exactly - NOTE: the Blue-Negative-Power-Line on the breadboard is at the TOP.

Here You have a Choice of Either Using: 
  • The SMALL Low-Power {300mA} TO-92 Type 5v Voltage Regulator or
  • Another SMALL Low Power {300mA} TO-92 Type 3.3v Voltage Regulator
  • The Bigger TO-220 Type {1Amp to 1.5Amp} 5v Voltage Regulator.

Voltage Regulators Used - Please Look At their DATASHEETS to make sure you get the pins in the right holes for connecting !!

L7805CV - 5v @ 1.5 Amps (1500mA)

KIA78L05 - 5v @ 0.15A (150mA) - This is NOW DISCONTINUED,
Download Replacement 5v Low Power Datasheet below:

MCP1702-5002E - This is Now being used for all the Battery-Powered Kits, 5v @ 250mA

L4931CZ33-AP - 3.3v @ 0.25A (250mA) This is for special 3.3v Kits, carefully check the Datasheet so you know which pins are INPUT, GND & OUTPUT !

You will need: Both 47uF Electrolytic Capacitors & The 5v Voltage Regulator  {Im showing the insertion of the Low-Power Voltage Regulator first (The KIA78L05) and this one is the SMALL TO-92 Type} Shown below (Picture 5), CAREFULLY Observe the Capacitor Legs going into the correct holes, the SHORTER LEG is the MINUS (-) and must slot into the NEGATIVE ( - ) Power Rail on the breadboard ! As for the 5v Regulator make sure the ROUNDED part is facing you and the flat side is NOT facing you, as shown by the Picture's View from above ! The picture Below_RIGHT (Picture 6) is showing the above installed parts from an angle to better see which holes the legs have been inserted into...

Looking at the Voltage Regulator in the above two pictures, from LEFT to Right the PIN-Labels are:


                   INPUT Voltage   >   GROUND   >   OUTPUT Voltage
                     (RED Wire)         (BLACK Wire)         (RED Wire)

Now i will show you how i use the BIGGER TO-220 Type Voltage Regulators with breadboards without damaging the holes and causing intermittent connection problems that these bigger type Regulators cause within the holes as their LEGS are very thick and not designed for breadboard prototyping so to prevent enlarging your breadboard holes this is what i do:

The 1st Thing i do is solder some short pieces of single-core wire onto the legs of the TO-220 Type Voltage Regulators (Assuming that you will always use this Voltage Regulator for prototyping purposes only and not be soldered into a permanent Arduino Project so its always Dab-Handy to have a few of these in your inventory of components!) and after soldering i use heat-shrink to cover up all the exposed bare-metal and wires that i do not want creating short-circuits when using these in my breadboards...

The pictures Below are showing the process of soldering the wires to the legs of the Voltage Regulators and i use RED wires for the INPUT and OUTPUT leg and BLACK Wire for the GROUND leg:

If you do this as well then you wont ever have the problem of having 'Enlarged Holes' in your breadboards and it will save you time and effort taking apart your breadboard to affect-repairs! Also as i had a few things to solder i usually keep a box specially for things that need soldering and wait until either i need them soldered or when there are more than 5 different items needing to be soldered so im not continuously getting my soldering kit out like a Yo-yo, lol

On with the instructable! lol

Next, bend ONLY ONE of the 0.1uF (100nF) Capacitors as shown in the small picture Below-LEFT (Picture 7) and insert it any way you like into the holes shown in the 2nd picture Below-RIGHT (Picture 8) but..... When a component can be inserted any way i always prefer to have the side that has the writing-on showing & facing me, thats only due to personal preference, its completely upto you !

Grab the 1N4004 Diode and bend it just like shown in the small picture Below (Picture 9) but Pay SPECIAL Attention to the Grey STRIPE and what side its on !!! This is added for Reverse Polarity Protection! Also grab one 1K Resistor (Colours: Brown,Black,Red,GOLD) and bend it like shown in the 2nd small picture Below (Picture 10), and Grab the GREEN LED and Closely Observe it has a FLAT-NOTCH on one side of it as shown in the 3rd small picture Below (Picture 11), This is the Cathode Side or MINUS ( - ) Side (NEGATIVE) and the LONGER Leg is theAnode PLUS ( + ) side , bend this as shown in the 4th small picture Below (Picture 12)... (Now if you want to keep the Parts-Count as Low as Possible you can choose NOT to use the LED or 1K Resistor in this step)

Once These 3 components have been prepared,insert as shown Below: (Picture 13)

Picture 14 is showing the newly completed section which is shown just after the heading, The Power Supply above!

DONE !!! - Take a little break as you've just Completed The Power-Supply Section of This Guide !! But Wait !!!!

Before Proceeding ANY FURTHER You must test this section and make sure it works before continuing and BEFORE ADDING anymore components just in case a mistake was made, and if a mistake was made it would be better to correct it here and now with no harm coming to the precious ATMEGA328P-PU  Microcontroller as its not been installed yet, after-all when you've installed the ATMEGA chip you really dont want to blow it up by putting too much voltage through it do you ??? No. Didnt think so, lol !

Remember this Microcontroller Has a MAX Voltage INPUT of only 5.5 VOLTS (a range from 1.8v to 5.5v ONLY) so when your using a Voltage Regulator you'd be using anything from a 9 Volt to a 12 Volts for the INPUT Power Supply whether it be from the mains or a battery Pack and THIS would INSTANTLY KILL the Precious ATMEGA328P-PU  Microcontroller that has the Arduino UNO Bootloader Loaded onto it leaving your Breduino Without a functioning Brain ! So...

Grab your trusty DMM (Digital Multi Meter) and test the GROUND and OUTPUT LEG of the voltage regulator to make sure it is indeed producing upto the 5v that we need ! You will need to connect up either a battery pack or a mains adapter (aka Wall-Wart, lol) to your breadboard Power BUT NOT AS YOU NORMALLY WOULD - Observe the Picture Below (Picture 15) and Notice WHERE PLUS ( + ) {RED WIRE} is being plugged into !! - NOT the red power line of the breadboard !!!

As you can See on the Picture Below (Picture 16) i am using a battery pack comprised of 8 rechargeable Energizer Batteries (1.35 Volts per Battery Fully Charged, approx, so 10.8 Volts Battery Pack being used - well within a recommended tolerance for the Voltage Regulator so that it does NOT lose alot of efficiency due to being overheated because if a higher voltage is being pumped in, the more-voltage being fed to these things - the less efficient they get but not to say they dont do thier job correctly of supplying 5 volts, no no no, its just that they would waste energy in the form of HEAT, Higher Voltage = More Heat produced by these things = power wasted as heat and a quicker drain on a battery pack !)

Also You can see in the Picture Below (Picture 17) that ive added a SPST Slide Switch to my Battery Pack because i like to insert the cables into my breadboards and have it not supply ANY Power to my components until i've Tripple-Checked Everything ive done so far because...

i have been told by the most well-knowledgeable of Electronics Experts that have PHD's and over 20 YEARS worth of education & Experience in Electronics that they also sometimes Get Simple things wrong by not taking the proper precautions and Double-Checking & Even TRIPLE CHECKING their work before Powering Up any Circuits so thats why the switch is on all my battery packs so i can connect it all up & check all my connections like:
  • MAKE SURE that the Electrolytic Capacitors Polarity IS Correct ?
  • MAKE SURE that the 1N4004 Protection Diode's Stripe IS Correct ?
  • MAKE SURE that the LED Cathode ( - ) IS Correctly Placed in the ( - ) IS Correctly Placed in the ( - ) Breadboard power Rail ?
  • MAKE SURE that the Voltage Regulator IS Sitting Correctly ?
And if the answers to those component checks isYES YES YES YES , then i flip the switch on my battery-pack and.... YAY !!! Check out the Picture Below (Picture 18) To see the GREEN LED come to life and tell you that the 1st Section of this Guide is complete !

Okay so a fellow instructables member, abqlewis, gently reminded me that in my magnitude of explanations and thoroughness that i had forgot to add a wire link that connects the top positive power rail of the breadboard with the lower positive rail of the breadboard, without this wire any current would travel through the microcontroller to get to any components that you would hook upto the Atmega Pins but with this wire link in place any components would get their power from the shared power from the rails on the breadboard and not rely on getting the power from through the microcontroller, this would have been fine for light to medium projects like LED projects and low power projects but anything heavy-duty would have put a strain on the chip...

 Below, the Left picture below is where this page of the instructable finished and the picture on the right is the Red Positive wire link in place to connect both the top and bottom power rails (Many thanks for the catch abqlewis !!!)

Now you can take a quick break

                               Carry on into:                                                                    Or
Section 2 - The ATMEGA328P-PU  Microcontroller !                            Go Back To Intro
<p>hello!!</p><p>thanks for sharing such a nice instructable.I uses this instructable to built an arduino uno and burned a basic led blink code on it with 1 sec delay in on and off of led. but problem is that it takes around 14 sec to on led and another 14 sec to off the led..</p><p>can you suggest where i am making a mistake.?</p>
<p>I follow this guide and got it to work using the PL2303 USB interface and a manual reset button. I have one quirk that it only gets a COM port assigned and can accept upload if one particular USB socket on my PC is used. And straight after the Arduino program finishes compiling I quickly press the reset button once, dont keep it pressed down. I am a noob at electronics and what I do is to help not frying my PC USB (I had 2 blue screen's of death in Windows 7 probably due to bad wiring) is to use two diodes on the +5V and +3.3 V voltage outputs on the PL2303.</p>
Dear Author, A really fantastic and superb INSTRUCTABLE. I searched the web for so many ways to upload the sketch but you MAN...Enlightened me with your knowledge....thank you ssssssoooooooo muchhhhhhhhhhhhh.........!!!!!!!!!!!!And by the same time can you send me schematic of the Instuctable my mail ID is mohamedabrez@gmail.com
waiting for ur replyyyyyyyyyy pls do reply sir......!!!!!!
Hello, my friend &quot;AshleyLad&quot; bought me this kit and had it sent to me in Swansea, I have a couple of questions if that's cool, I'm want to run the program from the &quot;DIY FlySky RF module&quot; from rc gourps but not sure if I need to change any code to run (all components ) on 3v3 so I don't fry the XL7105 module etc, can you help?
sorry for solution 3. - what i mean by no voltage regulators needed is that no extra external voltage regulators are needed as there is a 3.3v 250mA voltage regulator included in this kit ;-)
Good morning to you DJ,<br> <br> hey thanks, not so bad now, some days are inherently worse than others but still in alot of pain sadly :-(<br> <br> Do you only have the XL7105 Module that needs the 3.3v to power it or do you also have other 3.3v modules that need to be powered ??<br> <br> Well i have a few solutions, going from the low to high price-wise;<br> <br> 1. You can use a 3.3v voltage regulator to take the native 5v that your kit provides to drop the voltage to the 3.3v that any modules need, would be a good idea to use a decoupling/filter capacitor on the output of the 3.3v voltage regulator ;-)<br> <br> 2. ive made a 3.3v voltage regulator board specially for these purposes, <a href="http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=321099116737&ssPageName=STRK:MESE:IT" rel="nofollow"><strong>you can see the details here</strong></a> and this will take the 5v and you will get a very regulated 3.3v output that can supply upto 1A output !&nbsp;;-)<br> <br> 3.&nbsp;Theres also a special 3.3v Kit that runs fully on 3.3v so no such voltage regulators are needed, just hookup any 3.3v devices to the kit as it supplies and runs with 3.3v as its native voltage, <strong><a href="http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=321071618487&ssPageName=STRK:MESE:IT" rel="nofollow">right here</a></strong>, but if you have a few devices, option 2 will be the better choice as it supplies upto 1A current !<br> <br> 4. If you want a full Arduino Based 3.3v board (DIY Soldering Kit), <strong><a href="http://cgi.ebay.co.uk/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=321161928017&ssPageName=STRK:MESE:IT" rel="nofollow">check this one out here</a></strong>, again this will only supply upto 250mA of current from the voltage regulator so if you need more devices to run at 3.3v, options 2 along with another option in conjunction would be the better choice !<br> <br> Few Notes:<br> <br> 3.3v Through-hole voltage regulators usually come in no bigger than 150mA, my ones supply upto 250mA of current and are the TO-92 shaped regulators (small) but if you want a 1A through-hole voltage regulator then they come in the TO-220 shape (large) but be careful in inserting this large version into breadboards as they can seriously and permanently enlarge breadboard holes and this causes connection problems when smaller leg components such as resistors enter the holes that a TO-220 voltage regulator once sat in !<br> <br> I would have suggested the cheapest method of all which is using a voltage divider, using a few resistors to drop the 5v down to 3.3v but as your circuit/s draws more current the voltage divider wont account for this so for example, with no load, the voltage divider can be showing 3.3v on the multimeter but as soon as you connect up your load (XL7105 module) then the voltage can drop anywhere from 1.5v to 2.5v !!! So this method would need some experimentation by yourself to sus out which resistor values are needed for supplying 3.3v output with the load attached but <strong>Exercise Caution</strong> when doing this method !<br> <br> hope this helps !
sorry for solution 3. - what i mean by no voltage regulators needed is that no extra external voltage regulators are needed as there is a 3.3v 250mA voltage regulator included in this kit ;-)
PS hope your feeling better.
i am using my arduino uno to upload the blink sketch
Aha !<br><br>Okay so try this test, disconnect all power to the UNO with your Atmega328P-PU in it (the one that doesnt have sketches upload to it) and look at the pin 13 LED on the UNO, it is simply named as &quot;L&quot; on the UNO...<br><br>Now, connect power and at the same time observe the pin13 LED - Does it Blink a few times when you 1st apply Power to it ???
Though I'm not sure if that's your mistake or I'm missing something important here but you can see it on the last two pictures on the second page. Pin 2 on Atmel328p-pu (RX) is connected through a resistor with the pin-headers rightmost pin. On the side of the board you have marked it as TX. Same thing with the third pin (TX). The USB serial thing is connected correctly according to the markings on the side, but the mistake is made on the board. <br> <br>Interestingly enough you say it worked so maybe it doesn't matter :D Though &quot;doesn't matter&quot; is a rude word when it comes to any kind of engineering. :) <br> <br>I hope you manage to sort it out!
Sorry for the delay in responding, i had to check this all out, double check it and then tripple check just to make sure i know what im talking about - lol x 2 !!! <br> <br>Okay it does seem to be correct the way the pictures show but this maybe because i am using a PL2303 USB TTL to Serial converter, i dont know for sure but the way things are, this is the way things are setup: <br> <br>PL2303 Module Breduino (Breadboard Arduino, lol !) <br> <br> TX to 10K Resistor to Pin 2 of Atmega328P-PU ( RX ) <br> RX to Pin 3 of Atmega328P-PU ( TX ) <br> <br>&amp; i have uploaded the Blink-Sketch to the breadboard setup exactly as shown in the picture you refer-to and it uploads perfectly each time with no errors at all !!! <br> <br>Even with myself saying that these 'Transmit' ( TX ) &amp; 'Receive' ( RX ) pins should be connected like-for-like, apparently my overlooked mistake turns out to be correct ! <br> <br>I do also have a USB BUBII but cant find it to test this out with a different USB TTL to Serial Converter but will definitely test that out again as soon as i find it lol !!! <br> <br>Are you interested in making this breadboard setup yourself, or have you done so already ??!?? <br> <br>Anyways, thanks for pointing this out as i will make amendments to say that these pins are not connected like-for-like - it kinda makes sense to be connecting it via TX to RX and RX to TX because one is a 'Transmit Line' and the other is a 'Receive Line' but i am only a beginner/intermediary in the great world of Anything Arduino so im learning as i go along and also this set of instructions is from my actual breadboard setup which i have not taken off of the breadboard since i built it many many months ago (at the time of posting this instructable, lol !) so i can say for sure that this all works as described in the photo's ! <br> <br>If at all curious, breadboard it up yourself for some testing using the same gear in this instructable, would be great to see someone elses results, perhaps even with a different USB TTL to Serial Converter, the links to the ones im using for this instructable are in the end page ! <br> <br>Anyhoo, thanks once again for getting this into the limelight, i will endeavour to put it right asap ! <br> <br>Also lol @ &quot;doesn't matter&quot; !
A nice tutorial overall, but I found it to be strange that you connect the *ino RX pin with TX on PL2303HX and TX pin with RX. Is this right? I'm a beginner myself and this little thing has got me all confused. <br> <br>I would have also appreciated seeing the corresponding schematic. :)
Oops ! <br> <br>Thats definitely a slight mistake, i should have been saying that those pins should be connected like-for-like, TX to TX, RX to RX etc, please could you tel me at which point (or where abouts!) you saw me explaining that the TX should be connected to RX ?!? <br> <br>Although its like for like connections with this microcontroller, my next up and coming instructable is the Mighty Atmega1284P-PU (Total of 32 I/O Pins !) and that is TX to RX etc but for this humble Atmega328P-PU (or Atmega328-PU !) its like for like ! <br> <br>Many thanks in advance !
Hiya there, <br> I absolutely LOVED your instructable about the arduino breadboard. I am just like you in the way you talk and the humor you put into everything! I have always wanted to make an UBER awesome instructable like the one you just made, but i could never find time or energy to do it. :(. <br> <br> <br> Anyways, I also had a question. Actually I am following your instructable through, and you keep mentioning the auto-reset button thingy, so I was wondering, how do I do the manual reset/upload sketches manually? I am asking this because, my cable to connect my PC to my arduino board is a serial ttl to usb female cable(Yes, I do have a separate male to male usb cable). I got this cable from an old computer I took apart. It was actually from one of the usb ports :D. So, it has 4 pin slots, and there are the 4 wires going from the slots. I am almost positive that the 4 wires represent Ground, Rx, Tx, and 3.3v, and I believe I have correctly identified them. But, unfortunately it does not have a pin for reset, so I can't use an auto reset button(right?). Also, I had another question in mind. Since my cable is from the inside of a computer, it is supposed to get power from the serial end, not from the usb end, because you are supposed to plug in usb devices into it, lol. So, I was wondering, how would I be able to use this cable in this situation? Could I possibly just attach the 3.3v pin to the 5v male header on my arduino, and have the arduino supply power? I am not sure how do deal with this situation, but I really want to be able to use this cable, even if I have to supply power from my power source while the arduino is connected to a PC. Well, I think that's it, and any help would be sooooooo appreciated, as I trust you and respect you as a knowledgeable person of arduinoism, lol. Thank you so much and please reply as soon as possible. And once again thanks in advance, and many congratulations on the wonderful instructable. <br> <br> <br>By the way here are the pics of the cable: <br> <br>http://imgur.com/a/4FR7n <br> <br>
Very nice stuctable! I don't think I've ever seen this much detail and explanation. I've built a few pseudo-arduinos very similar to this. I prefer them to the &quot;real&quot; Arduinos for most projects. One thing I didn't see in your pictures (although I admit I didn't search ALL of the pictures) was a connection from the top 5v rail to the bottom 5v rail. When the regulator circuit is used, the top rail is powered, and when the programmer is attached, the bottom rail is powered. If either rail is not powered, the only way I can see for 5v to get there is possibly the 2 common Vcc pins of the 328. Since each Vcc pin is on a different rail, this means current must flow THROUGH THE MICROCONTROLLER. This probably works OK in a minimal circuit, but the chip is not designed for this, so as you add more to each rail it will stress the controller. At some point, you might have an expensive fuse. A simple fix would be to just connect the power at row 24/25 to the bottom rail. <br>
You know what, your soooooo-completely right !!! <br> <br>i usually always connect both the top and bottom rails for the VCC and GND together so that they share an equal supply of power but in all my explanations i had left that behind ! <br> <br>Oh thank you so very very much ! <br> <br>Also thanks loads for the praise, i really do appreciate it and am very grateful for it too, i just wanted a place where i could have almost every possible component that a Protoboard/breadboard Arduino would use to function as the official ones do and also have all the info in one place and some decent close-up pictures !! <br> <br>The official Arduino.cc instructions of putting Arduino loose components onto a breadboard are definitely NOT 'beginner-friendly' and the pictures dont show everything connected clear enough (in my own humble opinion, lol !) and only give a Birds-Eye/Top View of the components being added onto a protoboard/breadboard and as i was just beginning to learn about Arduino's and how to go about prototyping the bare bones of it, i wanted a clearer set of instructions for everyone to follow as i had great difficulty following the 'Official' instructions and just didnt want anyone else to go through the amount of head-scratching i went through !! Plus im now selling these Arduino Kits on ebay along with custom modified USB TTL to Serial converters that take advantage of the Auto-Reset function of uploading sketches, i just dont have the patience for all that timing of the press of the reset button to upload sketches !!! <br> <br>Just plug and play lol ! <br> <br>Once again abqlewis, many many thanks for the update - i will place the needed corrections asap !!!

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Bio: Always modifying something ! Some Simple Rules.. * if you havent taken it apart - you DONT truly own it ! * Tinkering is a way of Life :) * Do what ... More »
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