Breadboards are a great tool for prototyping and testing circuits
The main section within the center of the breadboard is the prototyping area. This area consists of holes that are connected together in 5 hole rows. There is a channel between the two sets of rows for placing chips that have pins on both sides (prevents pins from being connected together) There are also power busses (usually one or two) along the sides of the breadboard for running power and ground around the entire board.
As you can see in the last image, we can place a IC chip over the channel to allow access to both side's pins, and we can also connect a resistor to the power bus into a channel, then an LED from that same channel to the ground bus to make a complete circuit.
and that is the basics of breadboarding
Photo credit in respective order: