Picture of How to Build a Bench-Top Power Supply
A key component of any electronics project is the electricity. You could use endless amounts of batteries, or use a simple, compact power supply to power all of your electronic projects. This is a great beginners electronics project for those just getting into electronics, or a fun project for those who haven't wanted to drop the cash for a commercial model. This circuit is capable of supplying a variable voltage output from 1.5 volts to 12 volts.
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Step 1: The Parts

Picture of The Parts
All of the following components can be found at your local RadioShack. You can also scavenge most all of these parts fairly easily from old electronics.

1 LM317T Adjustable Voltage Regulator - 276-1778
This is the adjustable voltage regulator. It takes input from two resistors (R1 and R2) and then ratchets the voltage down accordingly. I recommend you take a look at the datasheet if you want to learn more about this part.

1 0-5K Linear Potentiometer - 271-1714
This is R2, and will allow us to control the voltage output.

1 560 Ohm Resistor - 271-1116
This is R1.

2 1N4001 Diodes - 276-1101
There are two diodes to protect against short circuits. D1 will protect the regulator from the capacitors discharging if the input power is short circuited. D2 will protect the regulator from the capacitors discharging if the output power is short circuited.

1 .1 uf Capacitor - 272-135
This capacitor (C1) acts as a smoothing capacitor. It should be only a ceramic disk capacitor.

1 10 uf Capacitor - 272-1013'
This capacitor (C2) improves the transient response of the regulator. It should be electrolytic.

1 PCB mount SPST switch - 275-645
Allows you to turn the power on and off without unplugging the wall-wart.

1 PCB mount terminal strip - 276-1388
This is mounted directly to the PC board and is an easy way to connect your power supply to many different circuits and components.

1 12v Wall-Wart
Provides the power to the circuit. RadioShack has a nice selection, but I recommend salvaging your own as I did. Anything will work as long as the output current is no more than an amp. I choose one that has an 800mA output, but anything over 500mA should cover most basic electronics projects.

1 Small Perfboard - 276-148
This particular board is the perfect size for this circuit, and my layout is based on it. This is a perfboard, but if you wanted to make your own PCB, feel free to use the attached EagleCAD schematic to generate your own layout.

1 Heat Sink - 276-1368
A good precaution. The regulator has built in protection to prevent it from burning itself up, but it does that by limiting current. If you didn't have a heat sink, you might find that you have less current output than you expected. Any piece of metal will work as long as you can attach it metal-to-metal on the tab. Even a large alligator clip will provide decent heat dissipation.
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steelcity741 month ago

I made one of these also. Its a neat and very useful gadget to have. You can find mine here:

Mine is set up to use batteries..instead of a wallwart.

Mr Mrs RJD3 months ago

Need a/c output. How to make 12v ac 1800ma supply???? Just fried the one for my Xmas tree stand. It runs a small 12 a/c motor and a m16 lamp. Any suggestions, any ideas, Please.

Image of data sticker.

Thank you

12v ac output.jpg
dudes7 months ago
I made one, but with a lm317lz instead of a lm317t. it works great but can only handle up to 100mA, good for LEDs less than one watt. great instructable.
neutralityy10 months ago


Not required if you don't think you're going to make mistakes."

*Gets 20 solder suckers*

Do soldering guns really make semiconductors cry tears of melted plastic. Greyhathacker45?
blerpherp2 years ago
Can I use a 10K potenciometer instead of a 5K?? And, will a 1N4005 diode work as well?? Please help.
any silicone diode should work and yes you can use 10k pot and resistor is 1k
Coindude192 years ago
Could you hook up a solar panel to this. 9 volt at 100mA?
Flinchy422 years ago
Just built this and wired it up, and it works perfectly! thank you so much for this instructable, it was EXACTLY what I needed for my project! =D
ishmal11032 years ago
I just built this and whenever I turn it on, I only get about 14v, the potentiometer doesn't seem to do anything. Any ideas on where I went wrong?
M0HIZ3 years ago
Great 'ible, but why does the Wall Wart have to be less than 1 Amp when the LM317 can supply up to 1.5A?

Thanks for your help.
31mimo M0HIZ2 years ago
The stronger the better. I reused an old printer transformer 30 V - 1800 mA and added the LM317.
. The output range is 1,5V to 29V - 1500mA
sanmlight2 years ago
do you have a circuit for 10amps?

Dr.Alski3 years ago
I like this layout. Is there anyway to easily add a digital display to this? Thanks...
Potentially... You just wire up an old/cheap voltage meter/multimeter in parallel with the output, then have a seperate fixed voltage from the 'power in' connected to the battery terminals of your meter, obviously at the corect voltage.
Oh, then stick it all in a box :)
Abbaheart2 years ago
This is great idea. You know what they say about a great Idea? That one good idea leads to another. I want to make a complimentary Instructable that uses a laptop charger.

I have tested to find ground. Then I tested to find voltage. Hooked up the (-) and (+) to find nothing. Just a bunch of zero's. When I connected ground to (-) I got the 19.8 volts.

MAIN QUESTION ( Is this safe to have the (-) and GND connected together? Also is the voltage normal when it says on the black box that the cord runs out of say's 19.5?
yoyology2 years ago
If I have a 400ohm pot, will the circuit still work? Will I have to change the resistor value, and if so, how much?
Never mind. I think I figured it out. Using the formula from the LM317 datasheet and plugging in the total resistance of my pot (which actually measures at around 420ohm), I played around with the numbers and got 47ohms for R1.

Anyone want to check my math? I was an English major, after all. :-)
VALKIR3 years ago
i don't understand if it's for AC or DC or both? i looked through the regulator's datasheet with no conclusion... does your "wall wart" have a diode bridge to convert to DC or is it just a transformer in a plastic casing?

i want to use a 200/9V transformer, but i don't know if i need to convert it before or after the rectifier??
aclark17 VALKIR3 years ago
It should say on the adapter/wall wart input ~120v input, which is ac, and output if its ac would have a tilda, like ~24v, or dc is ---24v, but thats if it doesn't specifically say ac/dc. All adapters, plugs, chargers etc have this information printed or stamped on them so just take a look at it and see.

If it doesn't by some chance have it, you can test the voltage with a multimeter, ac voltage has an average voltage of zero, so if it tests zero on the dc range of the multimeter then its ac voltage.
VALKIR aclark172 years ago
well yeah, that's common sense, but does the LM314 work with AC or DC? or both? the transformer i'm gonna use will put out around 9V AC. so my question is do i need to convert it to DC before it goes into the regulator, or after it?
The LM317 needs DC input. (though in the LM317 datasheet there is an AC circuit that uses _two_ LM317's)
aclark173 years ago
I have to ask, but why wouldnt you just hook up a multistage voltage multiplier from a small transformer and regulate that voltage? Seems to me to be much easier than building a power supply, so Im thinking there must be a good reason. Better quality power?
mgh243 years ago
So I am brand new here. Are the numbers after the parts part numbers? Part numbers particular to a specific supplier?

alpe_97 mgh243 years ago
Welcome! Yes they are part numbers. But I don't know if there from a certain site, or all the part numbers, for each component, are the same for all sites.
Part numbers like a diode 1N4001 are manufacturer codes. Different manufacturers may have different codes, but if you dont know what something is you can google it to find the datasheet.
mgh243 years ago
I just built this on a breadboard, and everything works just fine up to about 10.5V.

With a 12V wall-wart I am good, but with a 16V wart, anything above 10.5 just bounces all over.

Do I need different capacitors and/or resistors to use the higher voltages? The LM317 data sheet says it can go up to 37V.

Thanks! Really appreciate you posting this.
sholtob3 years ago
just built this, works fine except it only goes up to 8volts, any idea what went wrong
seanksg3 years ago
The list of materials calls for 2 1N4001 diodes, but in your schematic you have one 4001 and one 4004. Does it make a difference?
alpe_973 years ago
At radioshack, I bought a '5K-Ohm Linear Taper Potentiometer' and when I hooked it up, lights flashed bright from inside the Potentiometer along with a horrible smell. (Is this the wrong one?)
alpe_973 years ago
I am attempting to build this and I can not find a 12v 800mA, I was wondering if I can use a 12v 700mA power adapter?
Can I input 30v into the citcuit, the regulator is 1.2-37v and get 1.2 - 30v out?
Please help.
beehard444 years ago
i think it would be better if you use presets connected to dip switches so that you don't need to test the voltages every time you switch voltages
if you put it in a project box you could put a knob on the potentimeter and lable it
Some folks at National Semiconductor agree with you and they have circuits with break away resistors in their applications guides. I've even made this circuit with radial switches connected to banks of resistors myself. DIP switches is another way to go but then you'd have to make sure you only had one switch, or possibly the correct combination of switches closed for the voltage you wanted. Confusing and prone to human error to say the least!

You can even connect this device up to digital control and those circuits are common and schematics are obtainable.

In the end a potentiometer and a meter is the simplest and most flexible configuration so I tend to use it the most. Anything else is much higher parts count and more work to build, while netting less fine control.

But yeah the uses the LM317 has been put to are virtually endless. The circuit here is excellent.
tim1273 years ago
instead of useing a heatsink do you think i could use a computer fan for everything?
Several other instructables refer to this same project. it is indeed a pity that, as another reader already remarked , the pinout doesn't correspond with the schematic. I did it as it appears there and all i got was 40 mah max, using the pot between pin 2 and ground. I reversed it , all is fine now. Pity i burned the only good 50k pot i had. before noticing it should go to pin 1.(All for the sake of learning)


I strongly suggest you fix your instructable, which otherwise is great.
ha ha that reminds me of one time I built a power supply and used the data on the back of a Radio Shack blister pack and it was wrong. What was funny was I got all done with it at like 2:30 in the morning and I was all excited and I just had to power it up before I went to sleep and blammo! One of my voltage regulators blew up like an M-80! It was a multi regulator power supply the whole thing was pretty complex.

Bear in mind I was a little kid and in my bedroom doing this at 2:30 in the morning. The device completely exploded all that remained was the center leg that is attached to the back tab sticking out of the board I had it soldered to. The rest completely vaporized.

The one that let go on me was a 7812 or some other fixed regulator. This is going back a number of years now so I cannot remember exactly. What I do remember is that thing was loud! I kept on waiting for my Mom to come into my room to see why I was lighting off fireworks in there but thankfully she must have slept through it or something I don't know.

I was pretty peeved too because I checked my work and it was "right" as per the data I used for the device. Just that information was wrong. So yeah it does happen. Even from sources you don't expect it to!
Many many thanks for the correction.

Just tried this on a breadboard as described above, and I thought the amperage was very low. Enough for a couple of LEDs.. But forget it for a motor. I was getting about 1ma from a 12 volt 1 amp wart.

Found the data sheet, and changed it like you said. Works great with even a 9 volt rechargeable battery.

Thankfully no magic smoke was released. So I'm a happy little solder monkey.

Will be soldering it up and making pretty in a day or two.
I am glad i could be of some help!!
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