# How to Build a Magnetic Levitating Top

Nope, no Photoshop and no fishing line were used to make this picture, just 100% pure physics and some patience. This instructable explains how you can build your own top hovering in the air like a UFO.
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## Step 1: Video Overview

Some steps of this instructable are difficult to explain with plain text or even show with static pictures, so I encourage you to also check this video illustrating the build and tuning process. Sometimes it is better to see once than read a hundred times.

## Step 2: Earnshaw's Theorem

Did you ever try to levitate a magnet with the help of bunch of other magnets? It seems very easy: since magnets can repel each other you probably can put a bunch of magnets in circle so they equally push the other magnet towards the center of the system. Or maybe even build a sphere made of magnets that would suspend another magnet in the center. But if that’s so easy why it is so difficult to build trains that use magnetic levitation? If you try these “easy” methods you will find they all do not work. In fact back in 1842 British mathematician Samuel Earnshaw proved that it is in fact impossible to suspend a regular magnet in space with the sole help of other regular magnets statically placed around it. Well he didn’t prove exactly that, but this follows from his original theorem. The proof of the theorem contains too many Greek letters to explain it in this short instructable, so let’s just trust those smart guys who triple checked it and found it correct.

So it is impossible to suspend a magnet in space using just bunch of other magnets. But take a look at the video. There is a large ring ceramic magnet and another magnet which is also a top. And if I carefully spin the second magnet above the first one it will indeed hang in the air. How is that possible?! Let’s talk about this and a few other loopholes in the Earnshaw’s Theorem and actually build a few magnetic levitation devices. This is gonna be cool!

heey ... can i use a normal metal and Magnetizes with an electric current ? as i want the electromagnetic theory to be a factor here ..

what are the Obstacles that would face me ?

RC172 months ago
I was searching for this trick for a year.
JeyabargaviG2 months ago

Hello ... WOnderful instructables. I'd like to know if the same can work with shoes? Can anyone make this? I'm not much into science but love experimenting such things. Levitation has been my favourite subject and fantasies me a lot. I was super excited to see HUVRBOARD has built this technology, but disappointed as they are not giving any info on selling such boards (atleast for now). Could you possibly make this technology in shoes and other accessories? Could you kindly teach a layman like me how to build it sitting at home (required materials)?

ychoudhury5 months ago

Hi mikhalchuk.That was a great instructable.You have helped me a lot through this.

This is probably going to be a weird question but is it possible to add a bit more complexity to it so as to differentiate it from the rest.You see I have a science fair coming up and i had decided to exhibit this loop hole in Earnshaw's theorem but one of the other students overheard my team discussing it and now they too are doing the same thing.

Anyways I really like your instructable and your explanation was suburb.Pls keep up the good work.

samkashou10 months ago
Great work. Thanks.
bobdude11 months ago
Hook it up to the bottom of my state board...
argha halder1 year ago
i wanted to levitate something easily and found it here! thanks!
jmc3cz1 year ago
Can u use magnets different from what you used?
Jussi Kontio1 year ago
Hi, could you comment on Tom Shannon's magnetic sculpture relative to Earnshaw's theorem?
It stays in the air with static magnets and does not move.
You can see it on the video at 02:00.

1 year ago
Jussi, he clearly says he has it "down to one tether", it is not static with magnets alone, you can see the tether in this picture: http://i.imgur.com/GYfwY2g.jpg or at 1:52 in the video as the focus is changing
i am just a beginner..i have a doubt..
will it work if i rotate the base magnet (the one below using motor or smthing) and leave the small (levitating magnet) stationary.. will the small magnet levitate??
javidj181 year ago
As you probably saw many times when playing with magnets, magnets push each other away if you try to bring together their like poles, for example, two north or two south poles. Similarly, the north pole of the external field will try to push away the “north poles” of magnetized atoms. The magnet used in magnetic levitation creates a very large magnetic field (about 100 to 1000 times larger than household magnets). In this field, all the atoms inside the frog act as very small magnets creating a field of about 2 Gauss .You may say that the frog is now built up of these tiny magnets all of which are repelled by the large magnet. The force, which is directed upwards, appears to be strong enough to compensate the force of gravity (directed downwards) that also acts on every single atom of the frog. So, the frog’s atoms do not feel any force at all and the frog floats as if it were in a spacecraft.To levitate something the size of a human being it requires more powerful magnet.

Source: http://thesecretsofscience.com/science-in-nature/magnetic-levitation/

aharner13 years ago
in soviet russia magnet repels you!
lol awesome video
mikhalchuk (author)  aharner13 years ago
aharner1, hard to believe but in the USA magnets also repel humans! :)

Human body is 60-70% water which is slightly diamagnetic. In theory human body even can levitate in strong enough magnetic field. In practice, though, it is not achievable with permanent magnets and mankind didn't build so strong electromagnet just yet.

There are electromagnets powerful enough to repel and levitate frogs and even mice.
1 year ago
http://www.ru.nl/hfml/research/levitation/diamagnetic/
3 years ago
Awesome accent.
hali182 years ago
can we use any other magnets
AltonB3 years ago
Excellent instructable. I have been working on building a mechanical based clock utilizing magnetic energy in order to extend run times, as well as, general experiments. There is a lot more to magnetic energy than conventional science would have one believe. For every law of physics there IS a loophole -(remember - conventional science at one time said human flight was imppossible)- it simply takes a lot of time, effort, and energy to find it. I appreciate your very thourough explanation of the process you use and excellent instructions. Your command of the english language is very good. Keep up the good work and I intend to check out your other stuff.
Alton B.
mikhalchuk (author)  AltonB2 years ago
Thank you AltonB! I'll keep working on my English too :)
Tinmanmike3 years ago
A good source of strong donut magnets is a broken microwave. They all have two good magnets in them. Wrapping electrical tape around them makes them chip resistant and easier on your fingers.
mikhalchuk (author)  Tinmanmike2 years ago
Too bad my microwave is not broken yet :)
Thanks for the tape hint!
So, if the temperature dropped or the humidity changed it would fall?
Unfortunately yes. In a controlled environment + vacuum it can spin and levitate for days, but in regular room conditions the effect lasts for a few minutes only.
Trooper5552 years ago
Dude this is great! hope you do more.
mikhalchuk (author)  Trooper5552 years ago
Thanks Trooper555! I'm working on new stuff, hope to get it published soon.
ericCycles3 years ago
Do stacked magnets generate a stronger magnetic field than one magnet? If not, could you replace the second magnet with any magnetically neutral spacer, like a piece of styrofoam or wood?
mikhalchuk (author)  ericCycles3 years ago
ericCycles, they do. The resulting magnet is less than twice as strong, but definitely much stronger than just one.
The spacer is also there - that's the primary function of the plastic container.
3 years ago
If you were to force them against each other, that effect may be attained. But not if you allow them to go the direction they want.
mikhalchuk (author)  Glenn Burrow3 years ago
Glenn, you're right, thank you for the correction and clarification. BTW, for reference here are a few sources that claim the opposite (and they are wrong):

To my best understanding in this particular case stacking the magnets changes the configuration of the magnetic field, makes it "more directional" and increases its strength alone the axis. So to the top it seems like the stacked magnet is more powerful that single one.

Could you please comment if this is a correct guess? Definitely with one magnet this particular top won't hover, but it does levitate on top of the stack.

Thanks alot!
3 years ago
Stacking magnets is not always a solution. If you chain them long enough they will self-node, and fall apart at those node points.

The only real problem with this project is that the top is balanced on a point of UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM, i.e., the forces that are balanced are all trying to pull the top out of the "sweet spot" whereas a pendulum is and example of STABLE equilibrium because the combined forces keep drawing it back to the point of stability.

It looks like fun to try out, but I don't want to destroy any of the decent speakers that I have...
3 years ago
do you have a picture/thread for this "pendulum"? I've been working on one and would be interested to see what other results look like...

cheers, tom
3 years ago
Letting the magnets go the way they want when stacking them makes the fields larger because of overlap but not stronger. but if put in a direction against their "wish" they have a stronger field.
3 years ago
Sorry, mikhalchuk, But that is not correct. The sides that contact each other cancel out. You end up with a magnet of the same strength but double the size.
mondeluz3 years ago
this system is used in alien space ships XD
vdhamodharan3 years ago
for how long will this spin??
chaitanyak3 years ago
genius!
doomsdayltd3 years ago
i see what your doing, the magnetic field is holding the magnetic top in place. very simple thing with magnets but very neat.
mikhalchuk (author)  doomsdayltd3 years ago
doomsdayltd, yeap, it's magnetic field + gyroscopic effect + precession. Pretty complex and not very stable combination.
cwinget3 years ago
I've seen this at a magic shop; I guess I know how he was doing it now :B

I like your accent too, would you mind telling me your native language?
mikhalchuk (author)  cwinget3 years ago
cwinget, it's Russian accent :) Thanks for letting me know, I was always wondering how Russian accent sounds like to people who do not speak Russian.
kea3 years ago
Some years ago Ispent \$40 on 1 of theese gadgets. Nobody in the family could get it to work. Not 1 of us could find the sweet spot.

It looks like it could be a great project to do.

Good work.
Cheers KIWI
mikhalchuk (author)  kea3 years ago
kea, well, maybe it's time to find that gadget, blow the dust out and give it one more try using the explanations in this video? :) I hope they can help to make that gadget hover finally.
3 years ago
Thanks for your thoughts guys. I gave to a friend who could not get it work & he gave it away I think.
Cheers. Kea
3 years ago
I think those gadgets are different. If they have a power connection, they are made with electro-magnets and some sort of sensor.(light-barrier most of the time) With this, you can levitate any ferromagnetic thing with the right weight and size. We built one from scratch with all-analog circuits some 30 years ago. In order to reduce the current through the electro magnets, we added permanent magnets. With that, we hung a little globe-pencil-sharpener out in the air. The magnets were about 1.5 inches above the globe.
dokcal3 years ago
Awesome! One of the best Instructables I've seen!

I have a Super Levitron with all the accessories--got it to hover for several hours once!--but I always wondered what the configuration of magnets in the base was. Much simpler than I thought!

One question: They used to sell a "Perpetuator" that sat under the main magnet and kept the top spinning longer and higher. It was powered by a wall transformer and didn't seem to have any moving parts.

I'm sure it must have been a very simple device, but I can't imagine what it was. I would think any variation in the magnetic field (rotating magnets or coils switching on and off) would tend to DEstabilize the top! A single big coil would certainly make it hover higher, but I don't see how it would make the top spin longer.

Any thoughts on what it might be?
mikhalchuk (author)  dokcal3 years ago
dokcal, thanks for the idea for new instructable and RTFMs episode :)

I don't have a levitron (had to figure out how it works myself) or perpetuator, so this is just a guess:

The reason why the top is not falling down is not just gyroscopic effect, but also precession. I think the Perpetuator is simply slightly pulsing at frequency between 1000K and 3000K with three or four electromagnets. If you pulse the magnets in sequence this will make precessing top "feel" like it is "skating downhill" all the time, so keep the RPMs equal to the perpetuator pulsation frequency.

Sorry about too basic terms used, I've got my physics education in non-english-speaking country thus my vocabulary lacks a lot of proper terms. I'm currently in the process of re-learning physics in english :)
3 years ago
Ha ha! No worries! I think your command of English outstrips my command of physics! ;>)

I had to look up "precession," but your theory certainly makes sense to me.

Thanks!
jtharkness3 years ago
Love it! Well explained also.
I wonder how long a well balanced top would stay spinning and levitated in a vacuum. Of course creating the vacuum after manually spinning the top would be an instructible all its own.
mikhalchuk (author)  jtharkness3 years ago
jtharkness, afaik it will spin for 30 minutes or so, depending on vacuum purity. Electrical motors work in vacuum, so it should not be difficult to spin the top and lift it in vacuum.

Creating a pure vacuum is a whole different story :) Thanks for the idea!
kimvellore3 years ago
I was wondering after getting this to work if you spin the bottom magnet will the top magnet keep levitating for a longer time?
mikhalchuk (author)  kimvellore3 years ago
kimvellore, in general I don't think so. The top magnet is stable until it is spinning faster than 1000RPM. It will slow down because of air resistance disregarding the bottom magnet is spinning or not.

In theory if you spin the bottom magnet it might create a kind of vortex that will help the top to spin. Also unevenly magnetized bottom magnet could create a perpetuator-like effect mentioned here in comments. But in general it will more likely destabilize the top instead.
lordmarx3 years ago
wow its cool. if it is possible to make it spin forever you can just add a coil to it to make a generator. a generator powered by magnets. no other source. it will be very good source of energy.
mikhalchuk (author)  lordmarx3 years ago
lordmarx, unfortunately it can't spin forever and won't make a perpetuum mobile. It will only stay spinning for up to a few minutes and then fall down.

In vacuum it could spin up to 30 minutes, but any kind of attachment that generates power will reduce that time.
muiftikhar3 years ago
it is a fact that i have tried several time to levitate by using magnets, but really this is an tough one to perform because of that point where all forces are acting equally :(
zjschafer3 years ago
Thats awesome!
6monkeyRS3 years ago
I like it... good job explaining it.
wainer3 years ago
Amazing. Congratulations and many thanks.
djimdy3 years ago
+1 for the matter-of-fact, dryly funny comments.
+10 because it was fun and educational.
Rybka303 years ago
A lot of pieces of electric tape :D
Greasetattoo3 years ago
The Levitron..
http://www.levitron.com/

I have a few.
Also, have the super Levitron.

Great Job!
ynze3 years ago
Good job!
mikhalchuk (author)  ynze3 years ago
Thank you, ynze!