Speakers are used in everything around you. From your phone to ultrasound machines to singing toothbrushes - they all have speakers inside of them!
Step 1: A Little Technical Background Knowledge on How Speakers Work
The speaker I will help you make is called a moving coil driver or a dynamic driver. A dynamic driver consists of a stationary magnet fixed to the base or bottom of the speaker housing or basket. Sitting around the stationary magnet is a moving coil, which is attached to the output of whatever device your speaker is connected to. As you play music, a current is run through the coil creating an electromagnetic field around the coil. This current is constantley alternating and reversing the poles of the electromagnet. Since opposite poles attract and like poles repel, the coil, attached to a diaphragm, or thin layer that vibrates the air, vibrates as the coil is attracted and repelled and attracted and repelled and so on.
Sound is created by the diaphragm vibrating the air in front of it. Basically, when the diaphragm moves out, it compresses the air in front it. Then, the air in front of the air in front of the diaphragm is compressed and so on.
Since air has weight and it is accelerated by the wave of compressed air behind it, force is created (a push or pull). Once this wave finally reaches your eardrum, this push (force), pushes you eardrum in and turns that wave into something your brain can interpret and you can hear.
Step 2: Acquire Parts and Tools
1) 1x Bowl (any size works) - Can be Found in any Grocery Store or CVS
2) 1x Plate (should be about the same diameter as the bowl) -
Can be Found in any Grocery Store or CVS
3) 1x Role of 30 or Higher Gauge Insulated Magnet Wire (the more the better) - Can be Found in Any RadioShack or on Amazon
4) 1x Magnet (I am using a 1in by 1in N50 grade neodymium magnet which is dangerously powerful but louder - so be careful) - Can be Found at True Value, Home Depot, Lowe's, and Amazon
5) 1x Index Card/Sheet of Construction Paper - Can be Found at CVS or Michael's Arts And Crafts Stores
6) 1x Role of Electrical Tape - Can be Found at
True Value, Home Depot, Lowe's, and Amazon
7) 1x Audio Jack - Can be Found at RadioShack
You will also need some tools/glue.
1) Scissors or Knife
2) Glue (hot glue works best)
3) Sandpaper or Lighter
Step 3: Start Building
Note: Make sure you leave enough wire that is not wrapped so that you have something to attach your audio jack to.
Note: Make sure your coil/index card cylinder is the same measure as the bowl's depth.
Step 7: Finishing Touches
Step 8: Testing Your Speaker
Step 9: Tips
2) The thinner your wire and the more times you wrap it around the index card will result in a louder speaker.
3) The bigger your plate, the more defined your bass will be (lower pitch sounds - the sounds that make your heart thump).
4) The smaller your plate, the more defined your treble will be (higher pitched sounds - the sound that, in movies, breaks windows when a female screams loud enough).
Step 10: Troubleshooting
1) make sure your connections are good and not touching each other.
2) make sure you stripped enough enamel coating off wires.
3) make sure you used insulated wire.
4) make sure your device is working.
If your speaker plays sound that is too low,
1) try to get a more powerful magnet.
2) wrap wire more times around index card.
3) buy an amplifier at RadioShack for around $30.
4) make sure that your device's volume level is on the highest level.
If your speaker is vibrating a lot and not playing clear sound try to
1) use a smaller plate.
2) use an EQ (for an iPhone: Settings > Music > EQ > Scroll through list to find Bass Reducer/Treble Increaser).
If there is a lot of distortion try
1) lowering the volume.
2) play around with the EQ (for an iPhone: Settings > Music > EQ > Scroll through list and test out different EQ settings).