Step 8: The Lower Half

Now that your top is all worked out it's time for the bottom.
Start out by checking your patterns for the nasal and cheek plates to make sure they work with the metal helm top. I needed to go back and re-pattern my nasal.

Once your happy with how your patterns look with the top cut them all out.

Now, take your cheek plates and give them a pass or 2 in the shallow dish. Look st the pictures to see about how much curvature you're looking for. Once you've dished the cheek plates you'll need to put a flare along the back edge. Well, you don't need to, but it looks good, is easy, strengthens the plates and will help deflect weapons away from the opening at the back of the cheep plate. So really there isn't any reason not to.

To flare the edge start by marking the line you want to flare it on. Next place the line on a soft edge (in this case the edge of the dish, the edge of a stump or even a 2x4 clamped in a vice will work too.) and start to hammer the edge down. Just do it a little bit at a time, I used 2 passes to set the flare on these plates.

Once your cheek plates are all formed mark and punch the holes where they'll attach to the top and bolt or cleco them in place.

Next we'll do the slat back. Start by giving them a quick pass in the shallow dish, that will add a bit of compound curve to them and make them a little stronger, plus it looks better IMHO. For a bit of extra flare I embossed little bosses into them the same way I did for the top plate. next drill a pair of holes in the top corners of each slat and mark and drill matching holes in your helmet top. I just spaced the slats evenly around the back between the cheek plates, it worked out to be a little less than an inch between each slat.

The slats by themselves are still fairly easily bent, so to beef them up I put a reinforcing bar across them. To make it I eyeballed out a length of 3/4" bar stock and used a modified machinists hammer to stretch one side, causing it to curve into more of a cone shape. the pictures explain it better than i can.
Once you have the right amount of curvature in it mark and drill your holes, then bolt or cleco it in place.
I ended up having to add as second bar underneath the first, just above the bosses to make it SCA legal. i don't have any pics, but it was done exactly the same as the first.

Lastly We'll do the nasal. I started by creasing the nasal. To do that I marked my center line as far up as i wanted the crease to go, then clamped it into the vice and hammed it over a little. It's that simple. Next I dished top portion of the nasal a little in the shallow dish, that makes it sit nicely against the top of the helm.
Once i was happy with the fit I marked the existing holes in the brow band on it, drilled them, then while the nasal was held in place with clecos I marked and drilled the other rivet holes.

That's it, all that's left to do at this point is your finishing and assembly.

<p>This looks great. I love all the progress photos! I need to make my first helm so I can start heavy fighting soon, I'm glad there's a good guide. :)</p>
<p>Hello, your work is amazing. Please can you tell me how to fit the 4 triangles in the helmet ? I'm trying to make a viking spangen helm. I made the frame and then I cut out one trinagle but I spend all the afternoon trying to make it fit in the helmet's frame, but in vain. I use a 2mm steel. I shaped it with my hamers, I tried to warm up with my forge to shape it easily but it just doesn't want fit as yours.</p>
<p>Hi, I'm guessing that the problem your having is that the outer edges of the triangles are hitting the frame, but inwards from the edges it's gaping everywhere? am i right? because that's a problem i've run into many times. If it is then the issue is that your triangles aren't dished enough, alternately you could try to mark a line about a half inch in, all around the triangle and hammer the outer edges down to get the same effect as dishing it a little bit more.</p><p>beyond that it's pretty hard to say without seeing pictures of what exactly is going wrong. if you can post some pics though I can probably give you a bit more specific help with fitting the triangles in.</p>
<p>omg this is f-ing ridiculously cool. so impressed </p>
<p>Profoundly influenced by your design, I set out to create my first real metal project by simplifying what I saw here to suit my lack of tools and experience. This turned out to be my stepping stone into further metalwork and historicalish fighting as I'm now working on a harness of my own design.<br>Thank you, and keep going!</p>
<p>Awesome!, the looks like it came out really well. I like the 2 piece cheeks.</p>
How about instructions on a simple ROMAN RED PLUM Helmet???
Good to see more SCAdians here on instructables. I thought i was one of very few.
Which reminds me, about how much would you sell that helm for, i'm looking to buy a new one.
I know there are a few of us kicking around here, but the more the merrier. i think there is a group of SCA related instructables even.<br><br>I've actually still got that helm for sale, I'm asking 300 for it. For custom work the price goes up a you get fancier, and down to 150 for a bare bones 4 panel spangen.
Do you know where the scadian list is on here?
I'm afraid I;ve never been able to find it on purpose. I just stumble across it by acident once in a while and never remember how to get back to it when i want to.
you may have mentioned this in the instructable, but are your rounding dishes/swages made of aluminum or lead? did you make them? and how? I'm working on maille for a replica of the Gjermundbu helmet. you also may have mentioned this, but what is the best gauge of steel to work with, for a &quot;battle ready&quot; helm? or even armour. I have plenty of 16 gauge and some others... Thanks :D
I've got 3 dishes, deep, medium and shallow. I made the deep dish by welding a sheet of 3/16&quot; steel over a section of 4 inch pipe, then I heated it up and bashed it into a dish with my shot-put on a stick. I used the backside of it as a mold for my medium dish and poured down melted tire weights into the backside, let it cool and knocked it out, the shallow dish is just the bottom couple inches of a coffee tin with melted tire weights poured in then i just bashed away at it with my dishing hammer till it was about 1/4 inch or so deep. the tire weights are some kind of lead alloy. it's harder than straight lead so it holds up pretty good for dishing into. plus, with a bit of time you can scrounge them up for free off the sides of roads and whatnot.<br>As for what thickness of steel you want to use, well, that depends on a few things, what kind of use will it see, how hard will it get hit, are there pre-set requirements you need to meet. MY sca heavy helmets are all made from 14ga, my rebated steel helmet is 16ga, and my bike helmet is 18ga.<br>for a bit of a general guideline, assuming you're using mild steel, I'd go with...<br><br>Helmets 16 gauge minimum if you plan on getting hit, 14 gauge is better still. the weight is what stops you from getting a concussion after all.<br>For gorgets(neck armour) 18 gauge is usually a safe bet.<br>for 1 piece breastplates i use 16 gauge<br>back plates i go with 18 gauge<br>faulds and tasstes i use a mix of 18 and 16 gauge.<br>multy-plate breastplates and coat of plates style armour i use 18 gauge<br>spaulders/pauldrons(shoulders) i use a 16 gauge main plate with 18 gauge lames<br>elbows/knees are usually 16 or 14 gauge, with 18 gauge lames<br>vambraces (forearms) i use 16 gauge for the bottom half, and 18 gauge for the top.<br>rebraces (upper arms) i usually use 18 or sometimes 16 gauge.<br>cuise(thighs) I use 16 gauge, sometimes with 18 gauge wrap plates<br>greaves(shins) i use 18 gauge<br>sabatons(feet) 18 gauge, maybe 20.<br>gauntlets i usually mix 16 and 18 gauge<br><br>scale and lamellar armour i use 20 gauge, 18 at the thickest, but weight adds up fast with these.<br><br>in the end you're trying to find a ballance between coverage and weight. My current harness covers me from head to knees, minus my upper arms. it weighs about 60 lbs, i figure that adding greaves and finishing off the upper arms will bring my up to about 70 lbs. I only weigh about 150. I feel this is pretty reasonable for a full suite of plate armour, then again, i also like throwing 3 or 4 days worth of gear on my back and slogging up steep mountains, so what works for me may not work for you.<br><br>wow, thats a long comment now, hope something in there helps.
Oh yeah another quick question :D <br>I have my templates traced on the 16 ga. steel, and in the book &quot;medieval armor reproduction&quot; it said to use a beverly shear Or a jigsaw...can I use a plasma cutter? I have a small jigsaw, but in short, it sucks, and I do have access to a plasma cutter.<br>Thanks
yea, go for the plasma cutter, they're fun tools. really you can use anything that'll cut your metal, I usually use a jigsaw, tin snips and cold chisels, but only cause I don't have anything better.
I was also thinking about Acetylene, but I am kinda afraid that'll take a bit too much metal off, I guess it can't hurt to try on some scrap
I wouldn't bother using acetylene for cutting sheet metal, you'd need a tiny tiny tip for the thickness you'll be cutting, and you'll probably be left with a lot of cleanup. in my experience oxy fuel cutting isn't really worth wile for anything thinner than 1/4&quot;. That said, if you put down nice welds with it it's great for welded pieces and bar grills.
Thank you! That helped quite a lot! I will have to make some dishes now; scrapyard trip :D
A Whitney punch is the only way to fly for me. Center punch the holes, then punch them with the Whitney. No burrs to clean up, and no file scratches to smooth.
Have you ever tried your hand at making a container. Some type of chest, box, or keepsake? Good work.
I've thought of it, but no, I've never actually gotten around to making anything that wasn't armour
and i should really start to check whether me or the room mate are logged into instructables before replying to questions
Great job!&nbsp; I need to ask what type of rivets are you using&nbsp; and&nbsp; where are they available?&nbsp; I have done lots of welding,&nbsp; gas and mig,&nbsp; but have never seen that style of rivet.&nbsp; Thanks.
since i cant find anywhere in canada selling affordable rivets i just use plain old bright finish nails, i get them is the shortest lengths i can in 1/8&quot; and 3/16&quot; diameters, i know 6d is 1/8, but i cant remember what the 3/16 is off the top of my head. from there i just clip them down to length and peen them like any other solid shank rivet.<br>check out my riveting instructable for more retailed info.<br>https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-peen-a-rivet/
Just what pietseekoe said. they are 6d nails cut down to length and hammered down.<br />
i think he just uses nails that he cuts and then hammers down<br />
What may help you on your bar grill is a wooden swage plate, I'm going to write an instructables on one one as soon as I get pics, but I drew one up for you.<br /> <br /> It's just layered up plywood glued together, mine's about 10 years old and has seen weekly use.<br /> <br /> If you lay your bar grill out flat and weld it together first, then shape it, things are alot easier, use the swage plate to get specific arcs, make yourself two or three of various sizes.&nbsp; They are great for shaping vanbraces and grieves or anything else with a uniform curve.
hat is a brilliant idea, I;ve been wishing I had something like this for a long time, but it never occurred to me to make one out of layered plywood. I guess I;m going to have to scrounge up some plywood now
Wow your spangen is quite good, but if the marshals have a good look at your rivets they may not pass inspection. There is a company in the States called McMaster Carr, They sell solid steel rivets that one can't seem to find in Canada. The problem is they don't ship up here, but if you have a friend or whatever to ship them to they could forward them to you, or bring them across for you when they come up for a visit. The iron in nails is just too soft to hold up to SCA combat. Very good looking work keep our fighters armoured and on the field.
I've built all my own kit for the last 10 years, and built gear for a number of other people as well. I've never had a rivet fail, or had a marshal say anything bad about my rivets, I;ve even told a few of them that they're made from cut down nails. it may just be my part of the world, but i gather it is a fairly accepted practice. I also tend to over build things though, so that may be weighing in on my favor. I believe current regs state that rivets can be no more than 2&quot; apart on helms, but on this one they are spaced at just under an inch apart.<br>that said, on moving parts like elbows and specially knees I'd move up to a 3/16&quot; nail.<br>Thanks for the heads up though
awesome. Great work
I have a question. Is this a SCA legal heavy combat helm?
It is indeed. now i just need to find someone to buy it.
Where are you located? All you really need to do is go to your local fighter practice and you may find some who would want it or some other type of helm, or arrmor parts.<br><br>
Have you ever thought of making small ones and selling them at craft fairs? You could make them out of tin that would reduce on the cost and the time spent on making them being that tin is enormously softer than steel. I am currently making a full sized one out of copper that i had laying around so i hope it comes out the same. Over all this is a great Instructable it is very detailed and has a lot of good quality pictures which is good for a visual learner like me. Keep up what your doing i hope to hear more from you.
awesome now if only i could convince my dad to let me make this(i use his account)
hmmm I wonder what gauge sheetmetal that is used for making duct work is. <br /> <br /> my dad has like 300 plus square ft. of scrap metal.<br /> <br /> I know you don't entirely need a dish but how would I get or make one?<br />
most duct work steel I've seen is around 20 gauge, that said there isn't any reason you couldn't make a dress helm out of steel that thin<br /> <br /> the dish that i made the majority of this helm with was made by melting down a bunch of tire weights i scrounged up and pouring it into a coffee tin. Once it had cooled off i just cut the tin off about 1/4&quot; below the level of the lead then i just hammered stuff into it untill a shallow dish formed. i think it;s only about a centimeter deep.<br /> <br /> other ways of building a dish range from carving or cutting a bowl out from a stump. I used to have a chunk of cherry wood that i cut a bowl into by repeatedly plunge cutting into it with a skill saw, I;ve also got a dish made by welding a piece of 1/8&quot; steel over some 4&quot; pipe, then I heated it up with a tiger torch and bashed it into a dish with a shotput. the deep dish i use in this instructable cast lead again, but using the pipe and steel dish as a mould. Another common way is to call up some compressed gas companies and find out what they do when they dispose of old tanks. most places cut them in half and toss them or sell them for scrap. if you can get the bottom half of an old cylender they usually have a nice ready formed dish in them, just weld a bottom on, or stick it in a barrel of sand, use a dremmel to clean up any lettering sticking out form the dish section and you should be good to go there.<br /> <br /> so yea, dishes arent to tricky, most anything bowl shaped and tough enough to hammer steel into will work.<br /> <br /> For shallow cirves like in this helmet you could also probably go the sandbag route. just take a pair of old jeans, double up the legs, stitch one end shut really good then fill it 3/4 or so with dry sand or bb's, or buck shot or anything like that and stitch the other end up. lay it out like a pillow and you can do light dishing into it,<br />
Finally got around to making a dish!<br /> <br /> I cut the bottom of a refrigerant tank off and hammered the bottom into itself. it dishes amazingly ,I&nbsp; cant believe how easy it has become. only problem is it had 3 nubs on the bottom that I had to hammer down and they made little warps in the dish I didn't notice any problems as I dished a little piece of metal...<br />
duct work steel is about 20 g&nbsp; your correct, it is a bit thin for anything except a dress helm and difficult to dish without crinkles. I found sheet steel cut outs from a custom van place and it is 16g. and dishes nicely <br /> I was out at one of my local auto wrecking yards and found several &quot;dead&quot; H tanks the big type they use for welding and Co2 fire control banks. These had been drilled and dumped for scrap. I had them cut off the very end of the bottom about a foot from the bottom actually. The bottom of these tanks are very heavy and have a perfect &quot;dished&quot; end in them. A little work with a wire wheel and it was perfect. I have an anvil so cut two notches out on it so it sits down in a little slot there on the Anvil. I make helms all the time on it as well as shoulder pauldrons and Knee and elbow cops.<br />
whoa! Dude thanks my dad has a few gas tanks! I cant believe I never thought of that. Thank you so much.<br /> <br /> A tree stump sounds good to me too<br /> <br /> Copying this into note pad.<br /> <br />
I should also add that once you start getting thinner than 18 gauge dishing steel gets a little bit more difficult. this is because the edges tend to want to crease and wrinkle. So long as you stay on top of the wrinkles and hammer them out when you see them forming you shouldn't have to much trouble though.<br />
&nbsp;are you a&nbsp;panel&nbsp;beater?
Here's how mine turned out. pretty good for my first....<br /> <br /> still need to burnish it.<br /> <br /> My grill is made of copper cubes ,riveted to the frames.<br />
Super Job! much better then my first that was mistaken for a trash bucket
Lol , thanks. <br />
That's really good for a first. My first helmet ended up half finished in a scrap bin when i realized that it was about 10 sizes too big for me, and not really shaped like a head.<br /> If you got the helmet put together this good then spaulders should deffinetly be no problem for you.<br /> <br /> Thanks for posting pics, It;s awesome to see other peoples work.<br />
that reminds me ,once i did try to make a&nbsp; helm out of just one piece of metal. it was like a square shaped helmet with a partially circular top... or that was how it was planned to be. Icouldn't dish the top enough to close it up and i couldn't even weld like I planned on doing. <br /> <br /> lol so I still consider this a first :P<br />

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