This is how I 'fixed' a pair of headphones. 

Materials and Tools:
1.Pair of broken headphones.
2.Speakers/Ear buds/Earphones 
3.Fingernail File/Flat Head Screwdriver
4. Scissors
5.(depending on the size of the speakers)something soft to fill in the extra space around the speakers.

P.S. Sorry for the not so good photos...

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Step 1: Pry open

Pry the headphones open with the fingernail file or flat head screwdriver. I used the nail file because its thin.
There is a little notch in mine and that's where I put the nail file.
Get rid of what ever is inside,you won't need it.

Step 2: Put in the new ear buds/speakers

Picture of Put in the new ear buds/speakers
First, put in the soft stuff to take up the little bit of space that will probably be left over.
(I used toilet paper because I couldn't think of anything else,and because that's all I had.)

Then put the speaker in on top of it.