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Picture of how to lose weight
In this instructable I'll be giving advice on how to come to terms with weight gain, and also how to motivate yourself to lose the weight through nutrition and exercise. I've got to warn ya'll - this will be quite long! I'll be naming the steps so that you can skip forward to what you're interested in, though. Hopefully this will make for easier reading!

This will be an instructable that is updated frequently! If you can think of something you'd like me to add, please say so. I will try to find resources and add information as needed. Please leave feedback and help me improve this instructable. :D

DISCLAIMER - This instructable is meant as a basic guide. I'm a public health educator, so I am aware what I'm talking about. This is what I talk about all day. :P I have a few years of experience under my belt and plenty of resources, whether they be teachers, websites, or books! I only hope that something I say or link to here will help someone!
 
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Step 1: Consider how you became overweight. (Thinking Pose alert!)

Picture of Consider how you became overweight. (Thinking Pose alert!)
The first step on the road to weight loss is seriously considering your lifestyle and how you've gotten to where you are - sounds cheesy, but it is indeed true. Did something cause you to cease physical activity or just become less active? Is stress leading to weird eating habits? Have the people in your life or your job changed your eating habits? It is important to consider that our eating habits are altered by many influences, including our cultural and social backgrounds, our environments, our emotional (or psychological) links to food, our body image, and our economic standing among other things.

Once you get to actively thinking about this, you might immediately come up with answers. If not, consider the following ways to track your habits and figure out what needs to be corrected:

- Keep a food diary for a few days. Try to write down everything you eat or drink. If you would like, take calorie counts for all of the items you consume. At the very least, you will most likely see a pattern!
- Take an inventory of the food in your house.
- Watch the way you respond to stress. Also see how the people around you are eating and if they change the way you eat. If your coworkers eat at McDonald's every day and you keep going with them... that is a problem habit! But normally, these are things you might not consider initially.
- Keep track of the amount of physical activity you're getting in a day. (Count walking long distances, consider the amount of the day you spend sitting down)
- Talk with friends and family about your weight gain. Ask them if they've seen habits you've overlooked. Perhaps they can shine some light on the problem!
- And last but not least, consult your doctor. If you can honestly think of no reason you're gaining weight and you're sure you're getting adequate physical activity and eating well, it could well be that there's something else wrong. And be completely honest with the doctor, too! ;)

Step 2: Find out about the basic needs of your body! yay!

Picture of Find out about the basic needs of your body! yay!
Weight loss is different for everyone, as is proper nutrition! It is important to see just what your body needs every day to survive as a basis for your weight loss.

This is called your BMR or Basal Metabolic Rate. The important thing to remember with BMR is that this is the minimum calorie requirement for you body to keep working - any physical activity will raise the amount of calories you need.

This is the easiest way I have found to calculate it:

BMR per day = 1C x body weight (lb)/2.2 x 24 (C = calories)

Here's an example, and I'll use my weight.

BMR per day = 1C x 120/2.2 x 24
= 1C x 1309.9
= 1309.9 Calories

This is useful information - many people who try to diet drastically cut the amount of calories they consume below a safe level. This is extremely unsafe and can lead to other complications which I will not go into here. :P

However, once you know this, you can move on to the recommended amount of calories you should consume per day.

Step 3: Find out what your basic needs per day are and try to meet but not exceed them.

Picture of Find out what your basic needs per day are and try to meet but not exceed them.

There are many basic resources you can use to do this. My favorite is mypyramid.gov, but there are also many others online. I love mypyramid.gov because not only does it tell you the amount of calories you need, it also gives you a personalized food pyramid. It is a great resource for those curious about losing weight - and best of all, it's free and reliable.

I really recommend that ya'll check it out and also browse the site after you put in your information. You can browse "Subjects" to the left, or click on the links to the right for more information.

Other great weight loss and fitness resources include:
Mayo Clinic Weight Loss Center
Self Magazine
Fitness Magazine
Men's Health Magazine

All of the above offer free information on their websites ranging from diet and exercise plans to tips for dieters. :)

The most important part of finding out your recommended caloric intake is that you see what you should be getting. Once you know this, it is easy to see how many calories over you are. I recommend starting at your recommended calories for the day and trying to stick with it for a couple weeks. If you do not see any results (and you should be checking your weight every day) then drop your total amount of calories by 100-200 calories or increase the amount of physical activity you participate in - but never drop your calories by a drastic amount!

Just dropping the amount of calories you consume to your recommended amount can help immensely!

It is also important to look at your basic nutritional needs. Here are the basics:

- 1g of fat is 9 calories. 1g of carbohydrate is 4 calories. 1g of protein is 4 calories.
- 60% of your daily calorie intake should come from carbohydrates. There are two basic types of carbs: simple and complex. These are also sometimes just referred to as sugars and starches. Try to stick to complex carbs such as those found in fruits, grains and vegetables. Simple sugars are more likely to be empty calories.
- 25-30% of your daily calories should come from fat. While this sounds scary, it is important to note that there are different types of fats and that your body needs this fat to survive! As stated before, it is important to stay away from saturated fats as much as possible. However, it is safe for saturated fats to be 10% of your daily 30% fat allowance. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats will make up the other 20%.
- Protein should be at least 10-15% of your daily caloric intake.
- WATER WATER WATER! It is important to keep hydrated at all times. I take a 32 oz. bottle everywhere and I just try to go through two of them a day. If you set goals like that, it's easy to meet them.

For more information on the vitamins and minerals your body needs, you can head to Nutrition.gov.

Step 4: How to watch your calories and what you eat. FOOD LABELS FTW!

Picture of How to watch your calories and what you eat. FOOD LABELS FTW!
I want to say here that it is not mandatory to track your calories the entire time you're dieting - I think it's silly to obsess over calories and lose the big picture. However, I think it is important to keep a close eye on calories at first. This will help you realize the foods you're eating that you need to omit from your diet, and it will also help you get a feel for what you can and can't eat and still meet your goals. Once you have a few basic ideas down, you can stop counting the calories and just use your common sense and experience!

First of all - avoid fast food! I cannot stress this enough. Not only are the portion sizes insane, but fast food is generally lacking in nutrient density. And the absolute worst part about all of this is that most fast food restaurants do not keep their nutrition facts posted - it's a terrible "don't ask, don't tell" situation. It's better to just avoid it.

Also, make sure that you're reading food labels on the things you buy. If you're unsure about how to read a food label, check the FDA guide to reading a food label.

Check the serving size of everything you buy. When eating that item, try your best to eat the serving size. A friend of mine who was dieting would always pack her lunch in the morning, and measure out the proper serving size of everything she was eating. She had a set of measuring cups she used just for it. However, sometimes you'll find that the serving size is listed in "pieces" or "slices". This will make it even easier, and it will allow you to track your calories more efficiently.

Be more choosy when you go shopping! Here are some tips to both save money and lower the fat and sodium contents in your foods:

- Don't go shopping hungry! You'll wind up buying convenience foods and splurging on things that will only set you back!
- Buy frozen vegetables instead of canned. This way you avoid unnecessary fats and added sodium. I also think they taste much better!
- Stay away from pre-made and processed foods as much as possible. I realize that sometimes this is hard, but if you must buy something like this look for the lowest fat and sodium contents you can find. Also keep in mind that in this case, organic or natural does not always mean the healthiest!
- Don't get suckered by "buzz words". Don't buy something just because it claims to be a miracle food and it has pretty packaging. REALLY consider each item you put into your shopping cart.
- Invest in dried beans and rice. These are cheap and tasty additions to any meal, or they can be a meal on their own.
- Look for high fiber foods - remember that you need at least 30 grams of fiber a day! Fiber will also help you become full quicker and feel fuller longer.
- Buy some low fat cookbooks. As silly as it sounds, Weight Watchers is a great option here. I adore their cookbooks even though I don't follow their plan. I love having the nutrition information for every recipe!
- Get some healthy snacks! It is important to snack sometimes - maybe you're bored or depressed or you need something to hold you over until your next meal. In this case, it's a good idea to stock up on things like low sodium pretzels, nuts, dried or fresh fruit. etc. I normally buy things like this and make homemade trail mix. Just put small amounts into plastic bags and keep them on you at all times. This is lower your chances of grabbing a bite to eat somewhere and it will also keep your eating in check.
- Buy fresh foods - buy carrots, celery, onions, and garlic in bulk and try to use them in as many things as you can throughout the week. Buy fruits like oranges, apples or bananas to take with you on the go.
- Buy less beef and more poultry. Not only is beef higher in cholesterol and fat, it's also more expensive!
- If you like fish, try buying tilapia or mahi mahi fillets to use throughout the week. This is another cheap alternative to beef, and also healthier. Yay good fats!

Step 5: Teach yourself how to eat again.

Picture of Teach yourself how to eat again.
You there! Stop all that mindless eating! I know we're programmed to just cram food in our faces, but you can't do that if you're trying to lose weight. First of all - consider why you want to eat. Are you really hungry? Or are you just bored? Is that actually hunger you're feeling or something else? Hmm?

If you've decided that you're hungry, you must begin eating in a more mindful way. First of all, pick something good to eat by employing your food label readin' skills. (See step #4 for details!) Then let's find out how we should really eat.

Ways to eat in moderation and really enjoy the food instead of just gulping it down:
- Chew each bite... I mean, really chew! Don't just chew a few times and swallow.
- Drink in between bites. Preferably water!
- Have a conversation with someone while eating - invite someone over or make sure to sit down with a spouse or roomate at meal time.
- Make sure you're eating an appropriate serving size.

All of the above things will lead to you eating more slowly and therefore eating less. This way, your body can let you know when you're full when you're really full, and not five minutes late because you've been eating too fast. This helps you control the amount you eat.

Also, keep in mind that will will get cravings for different types of food - savory, sweet, bitter, spicy, etc. This can also lead to overeating! If you incorporate many different flavors into your meals it will also help you feel more satisfied. This is generally the basis of the argument to cut the fat and increase the flavor. :D

Also, do not try to limit the number of meals you eat a day. Most publications recommend eating three big meals and then having small snacks in between. This should keep cravings at bay and keep you feeling fuller throughout the day.

Something else to consider to ease cravings is allowing yourself to indulge every now and then. I tend to eat a 80/20 ratio of good to bad (bad as in sweets, normally). If I feel like I really need chocolate, I'll have a little bit (normally the serving size.) of it. I think this is a much more healthy way to eat instead of telling yourself you're horrible and fat and that, no, you cannot have that little tiny muffin because you're on a diet, you fatty mc fat fat. Indulging in small amounts every now and then will keep you from going nuts for whatever it is you're craving and devouring an entire package.

Step 6: But what about fitness?

Picture of But what about fitness?
One of the most important part of weight loss is to consider you calorie intake versus your calorie expenditure. You should really think about how many calories you're taking in and how many you're burning throughout the day. Here are a couple of calculators to tell you how many calories you're burning during certain activities:
UMMS Calories Burned Calculator
ACS Calorie Calculator

It is true that the obesity epidemic is blamed partly on our sedentary lifestyle here in America. I personally believe our diets to be more of a problem, but physical is just as important as nutrition when it comes to being healthy, which is really the whole point of losing weight!

I understand that in some areas it is harder for people to have access to physical activity. It is also harder once you've become overweight to start. However, here are some basic guidelines to follow to help you increase the amount of physical activity and help you understand just how much physical activity you need.

First of all, how much physical activity should a person get? And what types of activity are considered adequate?

It is normally recommended that adults get 30 minutes of exercise a day at least 5 days a week - for children and teens, they should get at least 60 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. When people normally ask me what I consider to be adequate exercise, I normally say anything as (or more) strenuous as simply walking. You need to feel a change in your heart rate. The easiest activity for most people to get into is walking, so it is the most frequently mentioned. However, some people might find it is impossible or near impossible to walk - in these cases it is important to consult a doctor before beginning an exercise program. Most times a water fitness program will be a good substitute, as it places less stress on the body.

But for the rest of us, it is easiest to begin walking either outside or even in place in our homes. You can then build gradually up from walking to jogging or biking, or even ease into aerobics or yoga when you're feeling more fit.

Here are some good ideas for getting you daily dose of physical activity:

- Get your friends, spouse or children involved. Not only is this a healthy activity, it will encourage the people you love to be more active and it will make it much more fun.
- Walk laps around the office or the block on your lunchbreak.
- Park farther away at the store. Instead of grabbing a cart all the time, use a handbasket instead or carry your items.
- Enroll in a fitness class. You can find many of these locally. Check with your local gyms, college campuses, and community centers.
- Try an exercise video. Yes, most of them are painfully cheesy and somewhat painful to watch, but some of them are quite fun as well! There are many offerings at the beginner level to help you ease into whichever activity you pick.
- Get involved with a sports. Try something new, like tennis, golf, or volleyball. This is an excellent chance to meet new people and form healthy habits and relationships.
- Exercise while watching TV. Get up during the commercial breaks and walk around the house. Do stretches. Lift weights. Do whatever you can to decrease the amount of time your butt is on the couch!

And here are some good resources regarding physical fitness:
The American College of Sports Medicine
The President's Council on Physical Fitness

Along with the sources I posted on step 3, you should have enough to read for a few years, haha! The ACSM site is my personal favorite. They even offer free online brochures on a variety of fitness topics.

As well as reading online, I think it's a good idea to get a magazine subscription or to even just pick one up that catches your eye from time to time. Magazines like Self, Oxygen, Fitness, Men's Fitness, etc. will provide you will tips, motivational stories, and complete workouts that can normally be done in the comfort of your own home. I find that reading about fitness and the consequences of being overweight and out of shape are enough to keep me going. ;)
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jlepack6 months ago
The link mypyramid. gov is no longer working.
In just chew gum

1 Hour of chewing gum = 11 calories burnt X 12 =132 calories a day burnt :D

Unfortunately chewing gum also keeps your gastric juices working overtime which is it's own health hazard.

And two cavities a week.
Unless it's sugarless.
 I could burn off all I need, minimum per day, by chewing gum for 14 hours! 
BtheBike3 years ago
Go fruitarian , Go play . Lose weight .

world's first frutarian instructable...


http://www.instructables.com/id/Frutarian-Fruitarianism-How-to-be-a-Frutarian/

danmark2 years ago
turkey bacon is better for u then pork bacon
the average person needs to get out and walk 2-3 hours a day.

we've become a nation of lazy couch potatoes. we sit at home and watch tv all day, we go to work sitting in our vehicles, we sit at desk jobs or stand all day getting very little cardio.

hardcore cardio generaly causes binge drinking and eating.


the caloric value for 3500 equals 1lb is widely known and incorrect. you may disprove this and help your weight loss goals by weighing yourself before and after eating a 700 calorie double quarter pounder with cheese. you will gain 1lb per burger eating sitting down.

you loose weight constantly. this weight loss can change based on bodytemperature, environmental temperature/weather, posture and clothing.

in order to loose weight you have to gain less than what you loose in a given time period.

in order to maintain your weight you have to eat and gain equal to the weight you loose in a given time period. by maintain i mean weight the same each day.

contrary to popular opinion water is not zero caloric. at 1/2 lb weight gain per cup water causes problems for fat people. obesity causes problems by causing fat people to be dehydrated and binge drink and retain water.

learn to maintain your weight first, weight loss 24/7 is not healthy. inducing a fever is not good for you, hot climates are not good for you nor are hot bodytemperatures, they cause cardiac exhaustion wich is why people die from starvation as the body looses so much weight it causes chronic fatigue
and slows your heart after speeding it up.

I maintain my weight generaly at 1400 calories a day not 2000 with two cups fluids. more if its hot out or im tired.

if you experience illness, fever, chronic fatigue, dehydration symptoms during any weight loss program stop your program, try and get your bodytemperature and heartrate normalized by drying off and keeping dry,
keeping cool (air conditioning idealy to about 60-65 degree room), eat, drink and rest until your heartrate and bodtemp is normalized, your dehydration symptoms should stop.

your heartrate controls your bodytemperature. your body can also absorb heat through envirnoment so bring fluids and dry food with you on your walk.
walk on the pavement in pants is what i recommend.

keep cool will help you not dehydrate and gain water weight.


never do cardio to fatigue.

much of obesity is caused by not getting enough walking.

i also recommend a small snack sized meal 3-4 hours before bedtime. i incorporate a safe 12 hour fast by

hotdogs and popcorn are actualy great for loosing wieght. youll gain around .2 lbs per hotdog.

on a person scale 70 calories = .1 for a total of ten .1's

i also drop weight in 45 min at 700 calories, level 3 (mid intensity workout enough for resistance) at the rate of 1lb per 700 calories.

im convinced that whomever came up with the caloric scale did not do before and after weighs to see how food affects weight and simply slapped values in.

go buy a double quarter pounder with cheese from mcdonalds at 700 calories and weigh yourself before and after. it will be the best
thing you will have ever done for yourself to verify the caloric values
are not correct.

also eating an apple or an orange be prepared to gain 1.2 lbs aprox per.
foods with water you will weigh more than thier caloric value.

hope that helps. plethora of huge amount of idiotic dieting and nutritional advice out thier even by the medical communinty.

loosing weight isnt completely unhealthy, its just most people are idiots and do so starving themselves and excersize in an exausted state without food or water present.

food = fuel = energy.
i incorporate a safe 12 hour fast by 2 hours before and after my 8 hours of sleep.
sleep revitalizes your energy so you actualy do not have to eat first thing in the morning. i eat a small meal without excersize 3-4 hours before i sleep. try and keep your meal weight gain no more than 1lb and idealy walk with each meal or put enough time in to drop meal weight before eating again. offtime will go to work on fat reserves.

to verify 70 calories = .1 lb on a digital scale
eat 16 wheat thins wich will equal .2 lbs per 16 wich are equal to 140 calories, divide that in half = 70 calories per .1.

YamiEridani3 years ago
If one were to exercise in the mornings, when would be a good time to eat breakfast, before or after exercise?

I've not been able to find time/be motivated to exercise after work, so I'll have to try before work since I seem to do better with a set schedule. Although I'm not a morning person, in that I can't seem to loosen up while following a DVD, so this time around I'm going to start with a stretching DVD.

Thanks in advance,
Yami
jessyratfink (author)  YamiEridani3 years ago
It entirely depends on the person and how much time you have. I would try eating something small about 15-30 minutes before working out one morning, and the next not eating at all.

I like to exercise on an empty stomach just because I get pretty nasty stomachaches when I've eaten beforehand, especially with more strenuous activity like running. It could be the opposite for you!
kenbob3 years ago
like
lotusduck3 years ago
This post is what I have always been taught, but I've been doing my own reading lately. If you're a grown adult and you have a healthy amount of body fat (or more) and a working liver, eating less than your BMR shouldn't be unsafe unless you don't get enough vitamins from your restricted calories or if you continue long enough to deplete your fat stores. As long as that medium or high body fat percentage is there, it should supply fuel for your organs and brain without feeding on your muscles or causing any health problems.

I'm not doing any real fasting, but I'm eating a lot of nutrient rich and calorie poor foods, like cabbage soup. I'm obese, so my BMR is almost at 2,000 calories, and the high fiber food I'm eating any given day is almost certainly not that much, try to eat 2,000 calories of squash, and chicken stock, it's not easy. And I'm exercising as well, but I daresay I'm not doing anything unhealthy.
It's not entirely sustainable, but you can't expect a person to eat the same way for maintaining weight as they do for losing weight. I don't think you have to explicitly count calories every day, you can ballpark it, and when I fall short of my BMR I am not worried. My guidelines are these for while I have excessive body fat: if I don't feel faint, and I make bowel movements every day or every other day, I am eating properly. I'll certainly eat more than my BMR when I reach a healthy body fat percentage, but I don't see the point just now.
I'd like to +1 the Hacker's Diet. I lost 20 lbs using the methods described and using the sliding scale to track weight loss is a fantastic way to not get discouraged and understand why your weight fluctuates so much on a daily basis. There's and Android app called Libra that lets you track your weight this way.
raxr4 years ago
I would also add that doing fat burning workouts like running, jogging, and other cardio every morning while maintaining a proper diet is an excellent way to lose weight.
this is absolute madness destined to end in failure. telling people to get 60% of their calories from carbohydrates and moderately limit calorie consumption works for very few.

if anyone is serious about losing weight, they need to cut carbs almost completely out, with no refined carbohydrates or starches. during the weight loss period i would minimize fruit as well (not long term). it will be difficult at first to break addiction to the blood sugar surge/crash cycle, but once you get over the hump it will be fine.

there is lots of new science on this. carbohydrates and ESPECIALLY SUGAR are bad for your, and hormonally they induce production of fat.

you don't need to take my word for it, try it. try one month on a 60% carb calorie restricted diet, and one month on an extremely low carb sensible calorie diet. the difference will be night and day.
Carbs are actually good for you. Not in excession, but you should be getting a proper amount to stay HEALTHY. If you want a low carb diet, then that's all it will be, a diet. You will lose weight, but you won't necessarily be healthy.
surfreak7 years ago
As a general rule, HIIT (High-Intensity Interval Training) is a much more effective weight loss and fitness building activity than the popularly held idea of exercise. Google it or visit Crossfit.com for an explanation.
I agree, but most people refuse to do any kind of high-intensity training.
abnor7 years ago
ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS EAT WHEN YOU are HUNGRY. it's not that hard! eat when you are hungry, eat until you are full, get a little more active, and stop worrying your little head.
I get hungry constantly since starting a new med. Eating when I'm hungry is how I gained 30 pounds in six months. Telling myself "Yes, you're hungry, but if you just have another cup of tea and wait another hour or two and you can eat dinner" is how I've lost about six of those pounds so far.
wonderful method!!
anansi6 years ago
how about liposuction? i don't see anything wrong with that. as long as you can afford one, right? but of course, the instructions you gave here are excellent! keep 'em comiing!
jessyratfink (author)  anansi6 years ago
I consider liposuction too dangerous to be beneficial, really. Plus, if you have lipo and don't change how much you move or eat, you'll wind up right back where you started!
RedFlash6 years ago
Add www.fitwise.com to the list (it has a tonne of health calculators)
smidge1477 years ago
I've put on 2 stone since starting college :( and my usual weight is 11.5 stone.
Ninja measurements rock! 1 stone= 14 pounds
I always thought it was 1 stone= 18 pounds
your wrong
THANK YOU CAP'N OBVIOUS
Nope, 1 stone = 14 pounds
huh?
you eat too much
how about loosing 10lb in 5 days while your sick (no seriously i need to do it)
umm my best advice... as a wrestler im guessing yerr gonna have to try to make a certain weight class... im getting classed soon too. soo i would say... atkins diet... basically try to shoot for no carbs... that only that... in practice if u get worked like we do... try some sprints after practice...of course u may not be able to practice if yerr sick so do them at home... whatever it takes... itll suck.. but it shoult be worth it. ... drink a lot of water... and the best advice ever... take a crap before u weight in... ive been known to lose 2 pounds doing that lol
outside practice i do parkour with 2 layers of sweats on (I'm now a 160 and i need to be at 152)
loveofchaos mater-of-chaos an entire chaos fest
jessyratfink (author)  master-of-chaos7 years ago
Losing it because you're sick? Or losing it for other reasons? (And what could really be that important?) I seriously wouldn't recommend losing that much weight in a short amount of time unless you can help it - like when you're seriously sick, for example. For ten pounds weight loss, your ideal time frame should be closer to 1-2 months. If you lose that much weight you're also running the risk of depleting nutrient storage, along with carbs. So you'll basically look like hell, feel like hell, and gain all the weight back pretty quickly because you're not making permanent changes, just starving yourself for a while. The only thing you can really do (relatively) safely is get rid of water weight... but even with that, you need to be careful about dehydration.
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