Introduction: How to Make Authentic Milk Kefir

Milk Kefir (pronounced keh-FEER) is a wonderfully delicious slightly carbonated fermented milk beverage similar to yogurt (or buttermilk). Kefir is simply milk that is fermented at room temperature with kefir grains for about 24 hours. It has many wonderful health benefits, a great flavor and is also usually tolerated well by the lactose intolerant. It's much easier to make than yogurt - no heating or incubating involved, and kefir has a much larger spectrum of probiotics than yogurt. The reusable, sustainable grains also make it more economical.

Kefir has gained in popularity lately, due to interest in eating more responsibly and locally, as well as more economically, combined with a greater awareness of the health benefits of probiotics from cultures and whole foods.

But with that popularity has come a load of misinformation and deceiving products on the web. Authentic kefir can only be made by real kefir grains, not from any kind of packet or powder (or from incubating store-bought kefir). Kefir available at the stores are simply imitations. This is due to regulations on consistent products with known ingredients, bottling procedures and packaging and shipping standards. As with most nutritious foods, real kefir can only be made and experienced at home.

Milk Kefir originated roughly 2,000 years ago in the Caucasian Mountains between Europe and Russia, which makes kefir one of the oldest milk ferments in existence. If you have more questions you can check out Yemoos Nourishing Cultures to see photos, FAQ's, health benefits and other information on milk kefir.

Now, lets get started!

Step 1: Supplies

There isn't a whole lot you need. Milk kefir is quite a simple ferment:

A. First, you will need milk.

*Make sure the milk isn't ultra-pastuerized or 'lactose-free'. Raw milk is best, but if you don't have access to raw, simple basic whole milk works well. Skim or low fat milk will work, but the grains prefer the full range of nutrition found in whole milk. 

B. Second, you will want  a strainer on hand - fine plastic/nylon or stainless steel. Aluminum and other metals can leach when coming into contact with acidic liquids such as milk kefir. Stainless steel is considered safe for short term contact.

*Strainers with large holes (like pasta strainers) don't work well - the smaller grains may pass right through into your kefir drink, rendering it gritty and lumpy (and unstorable - it will continue to ferment quickly in the fridge). Though its not a health hazard to drink them, you will lose part of your culture.

C. As for the other supplies, you will need a bowl to capture your strained kefir, a jar and breathable lid to ferment your kefir in, and a jar or bottle for storing your strained kefir in the fridge. A sterile wood or plastic spoon is also handy to help strain the kefir. You may want to have some yummy fresh fruit or other vanilla extract on hand to flavor your kefir, though it is yummy plain, too! 

Step 2: Preparing the Kefir Grains

Now its time to prepare the little guys.

A. If you've just received your kefir grains in the mail, store them in the fridge until you are ready to feed them.

B. To prepare your grains, strain off and discard the kefired milk they are in. Sometimes they are 'naked' and thats ok too - either way, give them a quick rinse with spring water or a bit of milk if they've been in transit for a couple days. The easiest way to do this is to place them in a clean bowl with the spring water or milk after they've been strained and gently stir them to dislodge any cream stuck to them. Strain and repeat if desired. Do not worry too much about getting them pristine - a gentle rinse is sufficient.

Step 3: Feeding the Grains

Now that your grains are strained and gently rinsed, they are ready to be fed.

A. Simply place them in a sterile jar and fill with milk!

*Make sure the jar is big enough to have atleast a couple inches space between the milk and the lid. A quart jar typically works well. Also make sure there is no soap residue - antibacterial soap will damage the bacteria in the grains.

*A good ratio is about 1 teaspoon per 1 cup milk in the summer and 1 tablespoon per 1 cup milk in the winter (it simply ferments faster in the summer - more on this in later steps).

Step 4: Cover and Ferment!

Now your work is done, and the kefir grains' work begins!

A. Cover the jar with something breathable like a papertowel, coffee filter, dish cloth.

*Avoid cloth with large holes - you want something breathable but not something that dust or fruit flies can fit through.

B. Simply place the jar in a cupboard or other area that has a relatively cool and stable temperature. It does not need sunlight (which can heat it too much, anyways). Indirect light is ok.

C. Let it ferment about 24 hours. Read on to determine when it's done.

Step 5: Determining When It's Ready

To determine when it is done, barely tilt it and see if its still runny like milk, or slightly gel-like. When its gel-like, it's ready. It will ferment more quickly in the summer than winter.

*You may also see little pockets of clear liquid bubbles forming, especially near the bottom. This is the beginning of seperation of the curds and whey (curds=white part, and whey=clear part). This also indicates it's done.

As you can see the jar to the left is ready to strain and the jar to the right is considered a little past done ('over-fermented'), with a large amount of separation occuring.

Step 6: Straining Your Finished Kefir

Once the kefir is ready to strain (view previous step for how to determine this), you will want to bring back out your strainer, a bowl to capture the kefir in, a spoon to stir and a bottle to store it in.

A.Place your strainer over a bowl (stainless steel, wood or plastic -preferably with a pouring spout).

B. Simply tip the whole jar of kefir, grains included, into your strainer and let strain.

*You may notice the top is lumpy - this is normal - the grains usually float to the top at the end of the ferment.

C. It may strain slowly, if so, you can gently wiggle the strainer or use a sterile wood, plastic or stainless steel spoon to gently stir and encourage the kefir to strain through into the bowl, leaving the grains behind in the strainer. Don't worry, no matter how thick, it will all eventually get through.

*You may notice the clear whey straining first, followed by the thicker creamy white curd portion. Some people prefer to toss the whey for a more mild, thicker kefir. This is not necessary, and  you will also be discarding many valuable minerals and proteins found in the whey. 

Step 7: Bottle Your Kefir, Flavor and Repeat!

A. Once your kefir is strained, place your grains back into their jar. You can rinse or wash the jar if desired, but it's not necessary every time. Rinse or change jars once you notice too much build-up. The build-up can cause your kefir to ferment too quickly. 

B.Stir your strained kefir to smooth out any chunks and then enjoy! You can also bottle it to let it 'mellow' a bit in the fridge, which also allows it time to increase in B vitamins and folic acid (as well as carbonation).

*Store your kefir in tempered glass jars or bottles (designated canning or beer/wine bottles - which are less likely to explode) with atleast 1/2 inch of space between it and the lid. The carbonation build-up over time can lead to the jar exploding. To prevent this, you can store it with the cap on loosely, or simply 'burp' it once a day to allow any built-up air to escape (open the lid and close it again - this will not hinder the carbonation - it will still get carbonated).

*Mix in some fresh fruit, dried fruit, jam, honey, maple syrup, or extract (about 1 tsp per 1-2 cups) to up the yumminess! There are truly endless ways to flavor your kefir.

C.Now simply feed your grains fresh milk and repeat!

*If your kefir was over-fermented at 24 hours, increase the milk by atleast 1/2 cup. Or decrease the grains by atleast 25%. Store extra grains in a little milk in the fridge as back-up!

If you have more questions you can check out Yemoos Nourishing Cultures to see photos, FAQ's, health benefits and other information on milk kefir.

Comments

author
karen.coffelt.52 made it!(author)2015-02-18

I am just learning about kefir, as I am trying to become more health-conscious, and trying to add more healthy, nutritional food to my diet. This sounds really good. I'm wondering, though, can you store this in the jar at room temperature, or does it need to be stored in the fridge? And what is the shelf life? Can the grains be purchased at Whole Foods?

author
behrp made it!(author)2015-07-16

I love keifir, milk kefir and kombucha SCOBYs. I have always maintained that these cultures should be given and received freely and I try to post up in a local craigslist or freecycle to make sure anyone in my area can come get some from me for free. (I do understand if someone is across the country and wants to buy from a reputable source that is going to guarantee a live culture)
The SCOBYs multiply quickly and you will find yourself actually THROWING AWAY excess to keep them from transmuting your liquids too quickly, why not give some to a friend and keep SCOBYs readily available? You never know when you might need a return of the favor!

author
DoveL made it!(author)2015-08-10

SCOBYS? This is the first time I'm hearing abiut this. Is it better than kefir grains?

author
tpeters8 made it!(author)2016-11-15

theres quite a bit of research that have been done on scobys and kombucha. the health benefits tend to be rumor or psychosomatic. more have gotten really sick from amateurs selling the colonies that aren't "right". while kefir is a functional drink, scobys don't seem to be.

author
tpeters8 made it!(author)2016-11-15

sorry couldnt edit, i meant to say that health benefits from scobys/kombucha tend to be rumor/psychosomatic. kefir doesnt fall into this category

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-08-10

SCOBYS are for kombucha, a black or green tea mixed with sugar and allowed to ferment with a scoby for a week or so. It is just a different culture. The health benefits of milk kefir and kombucha are equally good in different ways. And some people naturally will take to and benefit from one more than the other. It is very individual.

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-07-16

We wholeheartedly agree! Older scobies don't fare so well sometimes but if you have fresh ones on hand to share then we encourage it. :)

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-02-18

Kefir (the part you drink) can be stored in the fridge. It is best consumed within a week or two, but lasts indefinitely (becoming very sour and/or high in alcohol as it slowly continues to ferment). Live grains can only be purchased from a few online sellers including ourselves. You can also sometimes find them locally in listings.

author
boazkedar made it!(author)2016-03-17

Hi, thanks for this great 'able.

Can I make cheese with the kefir?

Will extra-long straining and hanging produce something like Paneer or Labna?

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2016-03-17

yes! And yes, exactly. :) Add some salt or whatever your taste buds fancy :)

author
ricerock made it!(author)2011-08-13

where can i find the kefir grains??

author
SandiA6 made it!(author)2015-11-16

Alberto that's awesome! I'll be making the cheese!, I also ferment my kefir longer than 24 hours. Thanks for your interesting post. Cheers

author
AnPeiYao made it!(author)2015-11-09

Thank you for that further clarification. So I really didn't know what the grains were.

author
AnPeiYao made it!(author)2015-11-08

There seems to be, among the comments, some confusion about the word 'grains'. I am far from an expert on making kefir and remember my own confusion at the beginning. Grains refers to the curd part of the mixture - as in 'curds and whey' in the nursery rhyme. You pour off the liquid and the lumpy bits you have left in the strainer are called the 'grains'.

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-11-08

Yes, sort of! The grains are very solid gummy bear textured pieces that are a mass of live probiotics. They do not disintegrate or squish into liquid when touched, they remain solid, and stretchy. These grains ferment milk into kefir. It's important to clarify further, when milk kefir over-ferments there is naturally going to be curds and whey from the milk. Just like making cottage cheese. And those curds are NOT the grains, they are just chunky bits of milk (which would disintegrate when squished between the fingers).

author
KimW18 made it!(author)2015-08-20

You say:

"give them a quick rinse with spring water or a bit of milk" but I have read never to rinse them in water, only milk, if they are milk kefir grains

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-08-22

It is a rinse and whether it's milk or water doesn't particularly matter. The only concern regarding water is to check that it's not heavily chlorinated. The milk and water are both rather inert to the grains.

author
KimW18 made it!(author)2015-08-20

You have a typo, you need a space between this:

atleast

author
KimW18 made it!(author)2015-08-20

author
twilight.horsman made it!(author)2015-03-27

anyone use a metal strainer?

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2015-03-28

stainless steel is ok to use with kefir. It is a top choice material in the kitchen due to it's mostly inert state. Plus, straining involves a very short amount of contact (vs fermenting in a metal container, which we don't recommend, although commercial yogurt is made this way all the time).

author
twilight.horsman made it!(author)2015-04-09

thank you!

author
MelissaS11 made it!(author)2015-03-27

Kefir is a fermented milk product that originated centuries ago in the Caucasus mountains, and is now enjoyed by many different cultures worldwide, particularly in Europe and Asia. It can be made from the milk of any ruminant animal, such as a cow, goat, or sheep. It is slightly sour and carbonated due to the fermentation activity of the symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast that make up the “grains” used to culture the milk (not actual grains, but a grain-like matrix of proteins, lipids, and sugars that feed the microbes.with my best wishes,melissa from www.cavediet.net

author
TheBlackSharpie made it!(author)2012-11-16

Awesome! I love it when my mom makes pancakes from kefir.

author
snoop911 made it!(author)2012-04-08

I usually make lassi ( I buy off the shelf kefir and mix it with my own homemade yogurt ), but I love the idea of someday making the kefir part as well!

In terms of grains, are all grains equal? Can they be stored in the freezer, if so for how long?

I know for my yogurt, I've cultivated many different strains, and I freeze a portion of every batch to be thawed and used the next time I make yogurt.. which can often be weeks later.

So many machines for yogurt, but not (m)any for kefir.. It's be nice to see a "progurt" like machine that can simultaneously yield lassi, with all the probiotic benefits of yogurt and the yeast benefits of kefir!

author
Yemoos made it!(author)2012-04-09

All grains are very similar, but the equality is hard to measure. It depends on how well the grains are cared for, what they are fed (regular or raw milk) and locality can even play a part - subtly enhancing the kefir grains over time with the local flora of your environment. The best thing to do is to find grains from someone you trust takes great care of them. And you may never find you get exactly the same grains from that one person either, as they are living and constantly changing through the seasons and in response to different milks etc. It is fun to gather from many sources - then you can have a nice variety to work with.

Yes you can freeze them, or dry them. They can be pat dry and stored in an airtight baggie in the freezer for several months. I'd recommend making a new back up in 3-4 months time, though they will survive to a lesser degree far longer than that usually. They can be stored in milk in the fridge for several months, too.

You do not need ANY kind of machine for kefir. It ferments at room temperature in a jar with a cloth over the top - simple as you can hope for. And with far greater health benefits for many people compared to yogurt.

author
Chanio made it!(author)2012-01-16

Keffir is a BIP yogurt! Thinner and tastier than commercial yogurt.

The 24 hours periods is a standard. But Arabs used to keep it longer (48 - 36) depending on the effect they desired to achieve on their intestinal flora... You should find out about this!

Drinking this you should feel healthier.

Keffir grains should be put in the mesh after being separated from the milk. And washed under running water for a while. You could help them with your hands to let them clean and healthy. Then, you could put them rinsed in a jar and in the fridge until the next use.
You'll notice that after a month of constant use, your keffir grain family has doubled in number. That means that they require the double amount of milk to achieve the same taste as before. So, it is time to find a friend to receive the half of your colony, unless you want to keep on increasing the daily keffir production until becoming a community service...
There are other things that you could do with your keffir super-production. It is recommended to produce it on a daily basis. It is healthier. But if you have an excess of production you can always make some cheese...

LABNA CHEESE

2 liters             yogurt or thick keffir
75 cc                olive oil
1 tablespoon  salt
1                        lemon (juice + grinned skin)

* Mix all well.
* Then put a clean cloth over a bowl and the mixture over it.
*  Make a bag by joining the four corners of the cloth together and tying it up with a thin rope.
* Let the bag hang over the bowl for a while until all the liquid drains out.
*  Leave the bag hanging for a day at the shadow and fresh air.

* After a day, find a nice and clean jar and fill it with the cheese like this:
* With a teaspoon take a ball of cheese and compress it a little.
* Then rub it with black pepper and put it into the jar with some olive oil in it to separate each ball.
*  Repeat with the rest of the cheese.
*  Leave it at the fridge for a day.
*  Enjoy!

Alberto

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