After you have finished defining all the solid lines, it is time to add shading. When working with a banana peel the most useful shading techniques are stippling
, and smooth shading
: Creates shading by varying the density of dots. The closer the dots are to each other, the darker the area appears. This technique offers the most control but is the most time consuming. To create large dots, make shallow punctures in the skin as you did in the previous steps. To create smaller and lighter dots, hold the needle at a shallow angle and use your finger to repeatedly tap it against the surface. You may need to repeat this process several times to get the area dark enough.
: Creates shading by varying the density of parallel lines. The closer the lines are together, the darker it appears. This can be done with lines in a single direction (basic hatching), lines that intersect at an angle (crosshatching), or lines that follow the curve of the object (contour hatching). Hatching can be difficult on a banana peel because the surface texture changes as you mark on it. This makes it harder to keep the lines even.
: Creates a continuous gradient of color without any discernible lines. The best way to apply smooth shading is to bruise the skin with a blunt tool. You can vary the darkness of the shading by varying the amount of pressure that you apply. This can be difficult to control until you have had some practice. The riper the banana is, the more easily it will bruise and the more quickly the color will darken.