Step 12: Final Assembly

The reason I dont bother with any fuses in the live leg of the AC input, is that you can get badly shocked from the HV side of things and the fuse is not even going to blow, let alone protect you.

I noticed that the cap array has a tendency to rotate inside the pvc tube so I glued some locating sections inside to stop it from doing so.

The important thing to remember is to discharge the unit if you want to work on it again, short the neutral grid to the HV side via the 10Meg resistors to avoid stressing any components.

DON'T FORGET to short out the 220v ac input once you have pulled it out of the wall socket, the caps still carry enough of a charge to wake you up rather rudely.

My future TO DO list might include:
  • upgrading the HV pins in the full wave version to CF tips
  • change the neutral wired grid in the half wave version to proper earth/ground grid, which just means I'll need a 3 core cable for the input instead of the present twin-flex.

The last image is a view of the upgraded CF tip array after a lot of use so its rather dusty in there.
Nice instructable. I made one of these some 30 years ago. My mum wasn't that happy about it, because the high voltage charges fine dust particles and they are attracted by more or less grounded surfaces like walls and even windows ;-) If you direct the ion flow trough a grounded tube, you have a electrostatic air cleaner. (you can have a thin wire insulated in the center of the tube and connect the high voltage there. As it's done in laser printers.) You can also make a ion propulsion propeller...
<p>Somewhere, I have a sixties Popular Mechanics magazine with the plans for a transcripitor, like submarines use. It used a car coil, of that era, and stovepipe housed in a wood case. </p><p>The unit was mounted vertically. As such, tapping the side of the pipe would cause all the debris attracted to the pipe to fall into a tray at the bottom. <br><br>For safety, the system deactivated with the clean out door was opened.</p>
How can I make electrostatic air cleaner by using this?
<p>Nice instructions and final &quot;products&quot;. I have one question regarding the full wave multiplier bridge, for our household grid power, it does not seem to make sense to use it because we don't actually have V+, V-, and GND per se. Even when you showed three prong outlet, the voltage on LINE (V+) is relative to NEUTRAL (V-) which is basically the same as V+ to GND due to NEUTRAL and GND bias voltage pretty small. Can you comment?</p>
<p>Quite correct, I looked in my &quot;street connection&quot; box and saw the &quot;neutral&quot; tied to earth.</p><p>I just figured it would be better ripple wise to use the neg portion of the ac sine wave as well.</p>
<p>You're not wrong...but I think you both have a misunderstanding of how AC works. The &quot;neutral&quot; line is a non-current carrying line in a balanced system, meaning current only flows along the &quot;hot&quot; line. I've always liked the ping pong ball in a tube analogy for electron flow, if you're familiar with that then in AC, the ball is constantly reversing which end of the tube it comes out. Your neutral line is not a &quot;V-&quot; in the sense that you are thinking of. Again, in a balanced system you should have ~0V from neutral to ground. What happens in unbalanced systems is that you get what is called &quot;leakage current&quot; on the neutral line, and this causes a voltage drop which leads to differing potentials. </p>
Hi, if after unplugging it, you short the HV output (via the safety resistors) to the AC neutral wire input (or neutral grid), does that discharge all the capacitors (so you don't get a shock from touching the output or the caps)? What is the difference between doing this and shorting the live and neutral of the 220V AC input after unplugging? I am thinking of incorporating a discharge circuit into a switch for the thing so when i switch it off it disconnects the mains power and also discharges the capacitors, but i am not sure which points to short to accomplish this.
<em>&quot;short the HV output (via the safety resistors) to the AC neutral wire input (or neutral grid), does that discharge all the capacitors (so you don't get a shock from touching the output or the caps)&quot; </em><br> <br> <strong>Yes</strong><br> <br> <em>What is the difference between doing this and shorting the live and neutral of the 220V AC input after unplugging?</em><br> <br> <strong>This doesnt short out the caps because the rectifier bridge blocks the rest of the circuit and if you short out after the rectifier you will only discharge one cap</strong> <strong>the others being blocked by the diodes<br> <br> There is a strong discharge when shorting the circuit so its best to use a resistor to do it gently to avoid damaging other components</strong><br>
Thanks, so to discharge all the caps i have to both short the HV output to the neutral terminal, and also short the live input terminal to the neutral terminal? <br> <br>Anyway my plan of having a 2 way switch which shorts the HV output to the neutral end of the cockcroft-walton multiplier when the device is switched off won't work because it would cause arcing inside the switch while the device was on (unless i fill the switch with oil, then it leaks out and is messy). So i am just going to have the switch short out the live and neutral input ends of the multiplier through a resistor when it is switched off. <br> <br>On another note, here are some ideas for other electrodes / ion emitters: A round wire brush of the kind used in drills for brushing rust off metal - the wires are thick and not very sharp, but there are a lot of them, and the places where they touch each other inside the brush also act like needle points. <br> <br>A wire pipe cleaner / rifle barrel cleaner type brush, these have thinner wires so might work better. An ioniser using one of these had the highest ion output count among competing models analysed by the Elrana ioniser company, see this page, it has images of ioniser PCBs: <br>http://www.elanra.co.uk/otherionisers.htm <br> <br>I have also seen razor blades recommended in one scientific paper - the super sharp edge is a brilliant at generating corona at low voltages, and the performance does not degrade as much with wear, compared to needle electrodes. <br> <br>And the edge of thin gold or aluminium foil is also good, especially if it is cut at an angle, or you tear it using the serrated foil cutter on the kitchen foil box. This produces a serrated and thin edge. Get the thinnest (which is usually also cheapest) foil you can find. <br> <br>Also, if you want to maximise corona production (which may also make a lot of ozone though), put a grounded or opposite charged electrode made of fine wire mesh near the emitter tips. The finer the mesh the stronger the effect, due to something about how electric fields behave when going to conductors shaped like a plane with slots.
<p>For the foil you recommend, I wonder if gold leafing you buy in hobby shops would work. It's cheap because it's so thin.</p>
Eventually I upgraded both to the carbon fiber tips as in step 4, burnt the end of cf pieces with a lighter and then frayed out all the strands and shrink wrapped them to the ends of the HV pins. <br> <br>Should probably upgrade the original doc.
<p>I know squat about electronics, but the engineers at Bangor Sub Base used to hand me drawings [on a napkin or whatever] and I'd get to make prototypes for them. One was a capacitor forming device for high voltage caps used on the big beasts you used to see on Navy movies (the screen went &quot;blip,&quot; &quot;blip,&quot; &quot;blip.&quot;<br><br>To keep from frying anyone tamping with the end product, I added a micro switch that was normally on, When the door was closed, that part of the circuit was dead. With it open, it shorted the caps.<br><br>Food for thought.</p>
<p>There should be absolutely no connection between live or neutral to ground,even through a capacitor unless it is specifically class Y rated and a very low value. An ioniser will find its ground reference through the mains supply. In this design the entire side connected between neutral and ground will be pointless. There is a reason the traditional ioniser design just had the multiplier between live and neutral.</p>
BigClive knows best :)
Made it but added a few extra things, uv led and spiral coil going to to the pins, and pvc with screw on caps to protect it when it's stored or moved.
<p>I tried a cheap, over-powered ionizer in my home for a few months, until it corroded itself apart. I'm sure the ozone levels were above recommended, but I didn't notice any negative effects on my health for those few months. However, I noticed a carton of milk in my fridge which was 3 months past due, and it still tasted fresh. Coincidence? Maybe.</p>
<p>Could one make two half wave designs. One of them wired as shown in your diagrams and the other with the diodes reversed to produce positive ions. Then attach both half wave arrays to the same AC power source to get positive ions half the time and negative ions the other half?</p><p>I'm attempting to eliminate static charges on a plastic surface by bombarding it with positive and negative ions.</p>
<p>http://negativeionizers.net/negative-and-positive-ions/</p><h2><strong>What Are Positive Ions?</strong></h2><p>Positive ions are <br>usually carbon dioxide molecules that have been stripped of an electron.<br> Also known as positively charged ions, they have been demonstrated to <br>have a negative effect on your body.</p><p>This is particularly the case<br> with your lungs and respiratory tract but your immune system can also <br>be affected. This is because positive ions can be so small they are <br>absorbed directly into your bloodstream from the air you breathe. </p><p>An<br> excess of positively charged ions in your environment is believed to <br>contribute to tiredness and a lack of energy, tension, anxiety and <br>irritability. Positive ions have even been investigated as a <br>contributing factor for <a href="http://mypage.direct.ca/g/gcramer/asthma.html">asthma</a> and depression.</p>
<p>I appreciate the article link. That is valuable information for all to be aware of. However, my application would be in an environment where positive ions would be required to restore electrostatic balance to a large piece of plastic:</p><p><a href="http://www.electrostatics.com/page2.html" rel="nofollow">http://www.electrostatics.com/page2.html</a></p><blockquote>Some materials such as glass, hair, and Nylon tend to give up electrons and become positively charged. Other materials such as Polypropylene, Vinyl (PVC), Silicon, Teflon, Silicone tend to collect electrons and become negatively charged. The Triboelectric series is a listing of various materials and there tendency to charge positive or negative.</blockquote><p>I hope to use the ionizer to balance the negative charge (as cited in the above article) from polypropylene, vinyl, and some acrylics. To do that I need positive ions. I also understand the need for negative ions as electrostatic charges fluctuate greatly across a large sea of atoms.</p><p>While I understand that the positive and negative ions generated will never be equal, thereby canceling each other out, I strongly feel that the majority of positive ions generated will be balanced after contact with the negatively charged plastic. The small remainder should be balanced by the now numerous negative ions, relative to the positive, with a net surplus of negative ions escaping into the environment.</p><p>Thank you for your time! </p>
<p>Hi, if you measure 6 kV on the carbon tips, does that mean it produces positive ions? I measured on some Chinese ionizers and I measured <strong>-6</strong> kV... Thanks.</p>
<p>You will only get a positive output if your diodes are the wrong way around.</p><p>Their polarity must be as in step 1.</p><p>Positive ions will do more harm than good.</p>
Hi,<br><br>Ok, thanks for your reply. Its an industrial custom made one we are testing at work, but i guess our electronics specialist was sleeping or something ?. Its for reducing fine dust in big spaces.
<p>what if i reverse the polarity of the high wave circuit.</p>
<p>Positive ions will do more harm than good.</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>thank u sir</p>
<p>how to check whether my voltage multiplier circuit is working or not as there is no blue glow on the needle......</p>
<p>Read the comments, a lot of folk have added valuable contributions to further this sphere of knowledge.</p><p>Build a diy Electroscope, comment to SARMAC lower down.</p>
<p>Great educational stuf from Dave<br><br><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="281" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/ep3D_LC2UzU" width="500"></iframe><br><br><br></p>
<p>Can I use Ceramic disk capacitors? .01mfd 1KV? unable to source PP ones.</p>
<p>No experience with them, in theory they should work.</p><p>However they are physically much smaller and might fail. They seem to be more signal orientated compared to the ones I used, designed for mains power applications.</p>
Would this setup work with 110v input? If not, what would I need to change/add? Thank you.
<p>Sure would, output voltage might be a bit low though, but you could always add 2 or 3 more stages to compensate. </p>
<p>Thank you :)</p>
What area cover the full wave ionizer
<p>Dear Sir,</p><p>I have tried constructing a ionizer 4 to 5 times. But I could not get the result.</p><p>Now I have constructed the full wave ionizer as per your instructions. This time, I got the result. the voltage at the second capacitor itself has crossed 800v.If we bring the line tester near the tip of the pin, even without touching the pin, the light in the tester is glowing. when I move the tester even closer, blue light is coming between the pin tip and tester tip. Does this mean the circuit is working? </p><p>But I could not smell anything. is there any way to test whether this ionizer is working or not?</p><blockquote>Thanks again for giving valuable instructions. <strong><em>Kindly let me know how to test whether negative ions are coming out or not?</em></strong></blockquote><p>Thanks in advance,</p><p>CH M S SARMA</p>
<p>If you can see the tips glowing in the dark and all the diodes are correctly orientated then only neg ions can be present at the output spike/pins.</p>
<p>Dear Sir,</p><p>I have a small doubt. will the tips glow themselves? or we have to bring the tester near the tips? If I bring the tester near the tip, I can see the blue spark between the pin and the tester. and when we bring the tester near the tips, even without touching the pin, the light in the tester is glowing. I have checked the orientation of the diodes and everything is ok. </p>
<blockquote>I can see the blue spark between the pin and the tester. and when we <br>bring the tester near the tips, even without touching the pin, the light <br> in the tester is glowing. I have checked the orientation of the diodes <br>and everything is ok.</blockquote><p>You've answered your original question, its working.<br></p>
<p>I have one more question Sir. suppose we give the central pin to neutral and both the other ends to Line and we will reduce the Capacitors to half. will it give the required result? can we use alpins at the end as emitter?</p><p>Thanks,</p><p>CH M S SARMA</p>
<p>You could try other configs to see which gives best result, anything conductive and sharp can be used for emitter</p>
<p><strong>IT WORKED</strong>.. I have made a circuit of 6 capacitors in a row and given both ends to line and center one to neutral. I can see the blue spark when I bring the line tester near the pin. Also when I brought the tester near the pin from 1cm distance, the light in the tester is glowing. Any problem will have in this design? or I can use this?</p><p>Thanks,</p><p>SARMA</p>
<p>It should be fine, it might just be a lower voltage.</p><p>Leave it on in a vacant room for 1hr or 2 and see if theres a freshy electric kind of smell when you come back in.</p>
<p>Dear Sir,</p><p>Will there by any noticeable difference between full wave and half wave ionizer. can we make this circuit without a Fan?</p><p>Regards,</p><p>CH M S SARMA</p>

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Bio: general bloke type of tinkering
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