Introduction: How to Properly Care for a Betta

Picture of How to Properly Care for a Betta

How to Properly Care for a Betta Fish

This instructable will teach you how to properly care for a betta, a beautiful and hardy fish ideal for a beginner. And unlike other ornamental fish-related instructables, this one will actually give you legitimate facts about bettas that will allow your betta to thrive.

SHOP BETTA APPAREL: T-shirts, hoodies and more!

Visit for aquarium content!

Check out my betta and general aquarium-related videos on YouTube:

My Simple Betta Breeding Aquarium Setup:

SUPER DELTA BETTA | Quick Aquarium Vlog:


Upgrading my 3 Gallon Nano Reef Aquarium:

Step 1: Betta Background

Picture of Betta Background

Bettas, aka Siamese Fighting Fish or Betta Splendens, originally came from the muddy ponds, streams and rice paddies of Thailand. The original betta splendens had dull coloring and short fins.

The bettas we know today have long flowing fins and come in all sorts of striking colors, due to genetic mutations while breeding. Their long flowing fins is a distinguishing characteristic that is only acquired by the male, female bettas are generally smaller and have short fins. Male betta's aggressiveness is another trait that sets them apart from female bettas. Male bettas are much more aggressive than female bettas, that is why male bettas cannot be kept together where they are in contact with each other. Once in contact, they will instinctively fight to the death, hence the name siamese fighting fish. It is very important that the owner understands to respect this animal's trait, rather than to use it as a form of entertainment.

Step 2: Betta Essentials

Picture of Betta Essentials

Betta Essentials

These items are a must-have in order to keep a betta:

  1. Aquarium: minimum size of 5 gallons
  2. Water Conditioner: to remove chlrorine and other toxic heavy metals present in tap water.
  3. Heater: to maintain ideal temperature
  4. Betta Food: either pellets or freeze-dried specifically for bettas
  5. Lid or Hood: to prevent them from jumping out

  6. Fish Net: needs to be soft and flexible so it won't harm the fish
  7. Filter: can be any type of aquarium filter that doesn't have too much flow

  8. Aquarium Salt: can be added to the tank water to prevent diseases and help facilitate breathing

  9. Biological Conditioner: beneficial biological bacteria that "neutralizes" harmful substances produced by fish waste.
  10. A Good Owner: that is committed to take care of his betta


  1. Easy, beginner live aquatic plants that can help with the water quality

Step 3: Basic Betta Info

Picture of Basic Betta Info

Basic Betta Info

The Tank - Your Betta's Home
Bettas are labyrinth fish, meaning they can breathe directly from the surface of water. Therefore they don't need air pumps to provide them with oxygen like most fish do. You often see bettas at pet stores in small bowls without any type of filtration at all, as bettas do not like fast currents (they come from small rice paddies). And most pet store employees advise their customers to keeps bettas in such small spaces because they seem "happier". How would you like it if you lived your entire life in a 2 x 3 ft room?Bettas need a minimum sized aquarium of two gallons. Although bettas can easily be kept in a two-gallon aquarium, the bigger the better - they would also appreciate the extra space. The larger the tank, the less frequent you'll have to execute water changes. Make sure the aquarium has lid or hood, as bettas are excellent jumpers.

Betta Water
Although bettas are hardy fish and they can accept different ranges of temperature, the ideal temperature for your betta's tank is 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit (24-27 degrees Celsius). Lower temperatures (74 degrees F and below) can cause your betta's immune system to slow down and make them prone to diseases. But most betta experts suggest that higher temperatures (84+ degrees F) can cause your betta to age too quickly (accelerated metabolism) . Most people say bettas are boring fish because they habitually just lethargically lay at the bottom of the tank. In most cases, these owners had their bettas swimming in dirty water below the ideal temperature, bettas are much more active when kept in warmer temperatures. And to maintain the temperature stable, use a fully submersible automatic heater. (Image 3)

But like all fish, bettas need dechlorinated water. Chlorine and heavy metals present in tap water are toxic and can kill your fish, your betta's water needs to be either bottled water, RO water or treated tap water (treated with a water conditioner). The most common water conditioners used today are: Tetra AquaSafe, Jungle Bowl Buddies and Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Tap Water Conditioners; I highly recommend a conditioner not only conditions the chlorine in the water, but one that also removes ammonia and promotes the production of the natural slime coat of fish (a protective coat that keeps microbes away from your fish's body). (Image 4)

Bettas aren't fussy when it comes to pH. But the ideal Ph for your betta is between 6.5 and 8. If it isn't, then the water must be treated with a pH buffer.

Cycled water is another important factor in your betta's health. Cycled water is water that has been established with colonies of biological bacteria that convert harmful toxins produced by fish waste into less harmful substances. This can be done by adding a biological conditioner to the tank water prior to adding the fish (Image 5). Allow the biological bacteria colony to grow to a size that would consume all of the fish waste. This is why it's important to let your tank cycle before you add your betta fish.

Add some aquarium salt to your betta's water. This will prevent your betta from getting most diseases and parasites, and will also help its breathing. Follow the instructions on the product, make sure not to overdose. (Image 6)

Water changes are fundamental. Change about 25% of your tank's volume once a week with treated water in order to remove natural tank pollutants and replenish important elements. And a 100% water change once every 2 months.

Betta Feeding
Feed them about once-twice a day. Skip a day once a week so it can give their digestive system a chance to rest . Please do not overfeed, overfeeding can pollute their water and even kill them. Only feed them what they will consume in 2 minutes.
They should be fed betta pellets such as Tetramin Granules Tropical Fish Food. Don't feed them fatty betta flakes or fish flakes as they will probably not eat it. As a treat, you can feed them freeze dried brine shrimp or tubifex worms.

Step 4: Betta Housing

Picture of Betta Housing

Betta Tankmates
Every betta has its own personality, some can be aggressive towards its tankmates while others can be peaceful. The tankmate can't resemble the appearance of a betta, can't be aggressive (or else it'll stress or even injure your betta fish) and can't be too small that the betta can eat it. These fish make great tankmates:
1) Corydora (Image 3)
2) Pleco (Image 4)
3) Apple Snail (Image 7)
4) Medium to Large sized Tetras (Image 8)
5) Otocinclus Catfish (Image 9)
Despite the fact that these tankmates are appropriate for most male bettas, some might react differently to its tankmate. Like I said before, every betta has its own personality.

Aquarium Decor: Fake or Live Plants?
Before you decide to add anything to your betta's home, whether it be gravel or an ornament, never wash it with soap or detergent. No matter how well you rinse it off, the soap's residue will still be there and will eventually leach into your betta's water and kill it. Wash it lukewarm water, and make sure its material is appropriate for aquarium use and that it doesn't have sharp edges that can scratch your betta.

Plastic Plants

  • PRO: Doesn't need light
  • PRO: Doesn't need Co2 supplements
  • PRO: Doesn't need any special substrate or fertilizer
  • PRO: Doesn't require any trimming/maintenance
  • CON: Doesn't provide oxygen (under lighting)
  • CON: Doesn't harmful toxins produced by fish waste
  • CON: Most don't look very natural
  • CON: Plastic plants may rip your betta's fins, so silk plants are better suited

Live Plants

  • PRO: Provide oxygen under lighting
  • PRO: Consumes harmful toxins produced by fish waste
  • PRO: Natural looking
  • CON: Need strong lighting
  • CON: Need Co2 supplements
    • Easy beginner aquatic plants such as java moss, Anubias and java fern can be kept without Co2 dosing.
  • CON: Require special substrate or fertilizer
  • CON: Require trimming/maintenance

Step 5: Types of Bettas

Picture of Types of Bettas

Types of Bettas
Bettas come in all sorts of colors and fin-shaped varieties. The most commonly seen in pet stores are the veiltails.
1) Veiltail (Image 1)
2) Crowntail (Image2)
3) Super Delta (Image 3)
4) Delta (Image 4)
5) Round (Image 5)
6) Plakat (Image 6)
7) Double (Image 7)
8) Halfmoon (Image 8)
9) Comb (Image 9)
10) Fantail (Image 10)

Step 6: Acclimating Your New Betta

Picture of Acclimating Your New Betta

Bettas are usually packed in a plastic bag or cup. So when you bring your betta home, do the following:
1) Turn off your tank's lights (minimizes stress)
2) Float the bag (closed) or cup in the aquarium for about 15 minutes.
3) Open the bag or cup and using a clean cup, collect some aquarium water. Slowly dump this water in the bag or cup. This allows the betta to acclimate to your aquarium's temperature and water.
4) Wait 5-10 more minutes before removing your betta with a fish net.
5) Observe your new betta in its aquarium for a while.
6) After 15 minutes, you may turn on the lights.

Step 7: Last Chapter: Betta Diseases

Picture of Last Chapter: Betta Diseases

Every pet has the risk of getting diseases, that includes bettas. Bettas are often exposed to parasitic and bacterial infections throughout their lives. That is why we need to prepare as well as prevent. Most betta diseases can be prevented by simple water changes, and are often cured by aquarium salt and treatments such as Melafix (Image 2).


CornH1 (author)2016-04-01
MaryD108 (author)CornH12016-05-07

I have a male Betta and have been changing the water every two days, using the correct salt. I feed him the very small pellets but do not know the correct amount of food to give him. The bottle says to feed 3 times a day, the pet shop said once a day with just 3 or 4 little pellets. Would appreciate any advice pertaining to this. Thanks.

PlanetE (author)MaryD1082017-10-22

you don't have to change the water too frequently, once a week is fine. Feed three or four pellets one or twice a day, three or four times a day could make the fish sick and could contaminate the water.

AveryB1 (author)2015-03-31

my fish won't eat its flaky food. I didn't have food a first so I fed him mosquitoes. His name is Freddy.

CDW27 (author)AveryB12017-09-08

Once they get that protein, they won't go back to flakes...

GenevraG (author)AveryB12016-04-23

Good for you, mosquitoes are ideal! :)

BrennaM3 (author)2016-05-03

I just bought my beta from Pet Smart about an hour ago, I have put him in a 2 gal tank with a plastic plant and cave. My last beta was very active after I bought him, but this one seems to be just hovering near the top, he is also much smaller than my other one. I used Aquarium salt, water conditioner and Nutrafin biological aquarium supplement 3 days before I got him. I turned off my filter because he seemed to be struggling a little bit, but I will probably turn it back on later once he's adjusted. I also hope he's not sick but he seems to be doing fine. Thanks!!

(I'm also looking for name suggestions!!)

CDW27 (author)BrennaM32017-09-08

Bettas have personalities. Several years ago I had one that was very active, and flitted his fins around for everyone to admire. The one I've had for a month now is very 'chill' - like yours, hovering, and hiding behind his tree. I have him on my desk in a school library, and the kids love him, but are always afraid he's dead because he's inactive. I took him home over a long holiday weekend, and he spent most of it with his head in the pebbles and his tail straight up. Nova is a character...

AmeliaO2 (author)BrennaM32016-07-06

Arnold, Caspar.

DragonMaster25 (author)2016-11-09

I just bought a male Betta today at Walmart. I bought a Marina Betta EZ Care Aquarium Kit and TetraMin Tropical Flakes fish food. Will the tank and fish food be alright for my Betta? Do I need to get a different tank and food for him? What kind of water can I use if I don't have any water conditioner handy or just don't want to get any? Is bottled water that you can find at a grocery store or Walmart be alright? How many times do I have to feed him? I believe he got feed today before I bought him since he didn't eat any of the fish food I gave him. How many days do I need to give my Betta before he is fully acclimated to his new surroundings and is accustomed to me? Should I put paper over the lid of the tank so that he doesn't jump out at night? What temperature should I set the house when I am there and when I'm not there in order for my Betta to be comfortable? This is my first time owning a Betta so I could use all the help that I can get. I'm also looking for a suitable names for him as well.

FelinaT2 (author)DragonMaster252017-06-08

I don't know if you are still using TetraMin, but you may have noticed that the water gets cloudy rather quickly. We switched to Beta Gold pellets and that helped alot, plus, Thomas likes them better. Also, if you decide you want a larger container, check your local thrift stores first. We bought a 3 gallon glass flour jar for $1.99 at ours and he loves it.

jabeln27 (author)DragonMaster252017-01-13

I'm not sure if anything has changed since you asked 2 months ago, but I'll answer your question anyway. Your Betta's tank looks smaller than required for him to thrive, and I would recommend upgrading to a bigger tank, maybe 2.5 gallons in size at least. A heater is required depending on where you live, because Betta fish are most comfortable in temperatures ranging from 70-80 degrees fahrenheit. Also in my experience a filter is recommended, but optional if you are okay siphoning water out with a straw and performing frequent partial water changes. Pants such as Anarchis and/or Marimo Moss Balls help with water quality and aeration too.

Your Betta looks healthy! I wish you the very best with your new fishy friend!

jabeln27 (author)jabeln272017-01-13

*Siphoning visible waste out with a straw

jmunny (author)2015-04-06

Hmmm, my two betta fish have been living in a 1 gallon tank for four years now and they are doing just fine. Dont waste your money on a large and elaborate tank. Just saying.

FelinaT2 (author)jmunny2017-06-08

We went to the Goodwill and bought a 3 gallon glass flour jar for 1.99. Thomas loves it and it didn't cost much at all.

CrystalE18 (author)jmunny2017-01-31

People can live in jail cells but it docent mean they are happy doing so. Upgrading your bettas home doesn't seem to me like a waste of money. Believe me you will see the diffrence in your fishes happiness, bettas respond well and are appreciative. If you do this it will make the whole experiance of owning a betta far more enjoyable

Laura527F (author)jmunny2015-05-03

Betta's thrive in larger tanks. They swim around back and forth, up and down. If you can afford to and have the space a 2.5 or 5 gallon is really great for one betta.

where can i get hoods for my 2.5gl tanks ?,

Klugegirl (author)2017-04-27

I have had my betta for a few months now. Freddie lives in a two gallon fish bowl. I have two gallon jugs that I fill with water, a couple of teaspoons of aquarium salt and seven drops of TetraSafe in each jug and leave the lid off. I fill these jugs up as soon as I use them for water change so they have the added advantage of leaching out chemicals, chlorine, floride, etc. as well as possible and always having water that is the same temperature as what Freddie is swimming in. I have a number of small aquarium things like different sized marbles, small mirrored marbles, medium sized rocks, a small cave and some plastic plants. I vary how I decorate his bowl with each change using things interchangeably. Once I just stuck a blue drinking glass in the bowl and he had a blast swimming in and out of that once he found the mouth of it. Freddie seems happy. He swims around freely often and often explores swimming through the large marbles I have. He enjoys taking his nose and shooting the smaller marbles around making the glass clink at night. I feed him TetraBetta, but it is too big for his mouth so I put some in a little 4 x 4 baggie and hit it with a hammer once keeping it in a pellet but a smaller one that will actually fit in his mouth. I have kept aquariums for elementary schools for many, many years, big ones, small ones, whatever the teachers wanted me to take care of in their classrooms as well as one very large one in the school's lobby. But I do not now. It's a great way to get problem children to behave. When they behaved, they could help me with the aquariums and the children clamored for it. I also kept a good sized goldfish pond in the school's courtyard. I usually kept cichlids and selected really colorful ones in the lobby and big goldfish in the courtyard as they are easier to keep and colorful. My Freddie's bowl gets a slime on the top of it within 4 or 5 days and it is usually objectionable to me, and it also appears to bug Freddie too as his activity slows down and he hovers near the top when the slime is more visible. The clearish, white slime is on the surface of the water. By the time the bowl is a 3 to 4 days old the slime is gross. By 6 to 7 days it is downright disgusting and Freddie is very much less active, so I change out his water around every five days. I have it down to a science and can do it in 15 minutes now. Can you tell me what is causing this slime to develop on Freddie's bowl. I do not use a filter, fine substrate or a heater in Freddie's bowl as I live in the South. What can I do to keep the slime from developing so fast? Or at all? (Sorry so long. I am a writer and find it impossible to stifle myself. :D )

FelinaT2 (author)Klugegirl2017-06-08

I don't know how to keep it from forming, but I switched Thomas' food to Betta BioGold from Tetramax and it has really diminished. You can alos just take a clean paper towel and touch it to the surface of the water and it pulls the slime right off. Because they are top breathers, the slime may be making it hard for Freddie to get as much air as he likes and that could be why he gets less active. Good luck.

grinchy1 made it! (author)2017-01-24

I have my betta for over a year now. I feed him a few small pellets once a daily, change the water every 2-3 weeks, I have a live moss ball in with him. I use tap water but first let it sit for a few days and use "betta clear" (I think thats what it is called). I have been pretty lucky with my bettas. I have have at least one for a few years. Some I have had were gorgeous! I have bought one or two from Walmart, they were pretty and lived a long time. I usually try to get them at Petsmart though. They have some gorgeous ones, a bit pricey though. I treated my self to a "dumbo" one last week. Was on sale for $14.99 But he is very pretty. I think they are pretty happy, they both have the "happy bubbles" on the top of the bowl in the corner.

The last two shots are the 2 I have now.

Teruya Lab (author)grinchy12017-03-23

Awesome bettas! I loved the white/yellow male. Thanks for sharing!

Teruya Lab (author)grinchy12017-02-10

Beautfil bettas you got there! But I would suggest doing water changes a bit more often, that'll improve their quality of life a lot! Thanks for sharing these pics!

TrevorY6 (author)2017-03-20

Is it ok if i have a water filter in my tank with "fish head" (my betta)

Teruya Lab (author)TrevorY62017-03-23

Yes, as long as the flow isn't too strong. If you see your betta is having some difficulty swimming, simply reduce the flow or swap with another filter.

garcia.cuevas (author)2017-03-16


RaymondZ2 (author)2015-11-19

Man my fish has been swimming around normal tap water and it's still going companies just want us to spend money on supplies and yes it's a better fish in regular warm tap water I don't even let it sit and I've done three water changes in three weeks

kjenkinsray333 (author)RaymondZ22017-02-09

So is your fish still alive?

bverns (author)RaymondZ22015-11-20

Hello Raymond!

The tap water is toxic to the fish - I am telling you this for your own sake and for your fish's sake. If you are going to use tap water you need to apply tap water conditioner! Such as this:

Please don't accidentally kill your fish :( Thank you and best wishes!

kjenkinsray333 (author)2017-02-09

If you love your bettas like my family does, then I dont believe that spending a few bucks on a tank should be considered as "wasting" money. Just saying...

alexishunter (author)2015-12-14

I own a very vicious betta named buddy. He's bit me twice, he has kills a whole tank full of fish, he flares at me, ect. To sum it all up he's a jerk and now lives in a 5 gal tank with no other fish except an algae eater. I did manage to train him a few tricks. He also knows his name. He also knows when I yell at him for flaring at me. He is a Wal-Mart rescue. I was buying supplies and saw him and fell in love. I don't support walmart in how they care for fish but it was love at first sight. I believe he thinks he is a dog.

Upndnglo (author)alexishunter2016-09-18

How can a beta bite you with that little mouth?

ryan37th (author)2015-05-01

Hello. I am from the Philippines. I fell inlove with the fish because of the simple reason that it is beautiful and it is less stressful to maintain it, plus the fact it wont need air pumps as it will use electricity (an issue in our office). I just want to ask if my bettas are all male? For now, I am using mineral water. Will it harm them? How about the tank? It is the only thing I can afford for now.

Thanks for the comments and help.

RyanL27 (author)ryan37th2016-08-16

I really hope your not keeping bettas in these tiny tanks. That's like a jail cell for your fish. Especially without a heater or anything to play with. Please tell me you got them a decent sized tank!

GenevraG (author)ryan37th2016-04-23

These fish are all male. Do you know the temperature of their water? Bettas are tropical fish and need a steady temp between 75-81 to thrive. Keeping fish long term in containers that size is the equivalent of spending your whole life in a closet. Since these "tanks" have no filtration, you should be doing DAILY 90-100% water changes to remove the toxic ammonia the fish are constantly producing. Hope this is helpful.

TiaJ1 (author)ryan37th2015-06-15

The all blue one is a female

TiaJ1 (author)TiaJ12015-06-15

I usually buy spring water for my betta and treat it still and he loves it

AmeliaO2 (author)2016-07-06

Thanks! I am getting a betta soon, I need to know all the stuff! Thanks Again!!

YuniantoS (author)2016-06-09

I really love this article about Types of betta fish, I use several part of this site for my article:

MaryD108 (author)2016-04-28

Alexis hunter--Are you serious about training your Betta to do tricks? I enjoyed your post but am still laughing over it. I bought a Betta today and am beginning to think that I am in over my head as to their care.

bluecaban13 (author)2016-02-16

Flexo is sick and I don't know what to do! I have changed his filter as I do every month! I added salt to the tank, even though I have live plants and after a change in the tank I never added it. I have been doing water changes and with no luck! I think he has Popeye;as he has white rings around both of his eyes. And even though he is eating he has become very lethargic and is not his usual playful self ?! any advice on how to treat this disease? Or tips?

GenevraG (author)bluecaban132016-04-23

Hi bluecaban13,

Hope your fish is doing okay!!

Your filter media (sponge, pad etc) is where your beneficial bacterial live. These bacteria convert the harmful waste chemicals your fish constantly produces (ammonia) into a harmless substance (nitrate) that you remove when you do water changes. For this reason, you don't want to change out the filter media on a monthly basis - you only need to shake it gently in a little tank water to clear out some of the muck. Every time you toss your "old" filter media, your aquarium has to start from scratch building up a new colony of bacteria, and this process is toxic to your fish!

To see if this is what's affecting your buddy, you can buy an API master test kit or take a sample to a local aquarium store and ask them to test it for you (free). If the test shows ANY amount of Ammonia or Nitrite, buy a water conditioner called Prime and add four drops per gallon every other day until the Ammonia and Nitrite readings are zero. The Prime will detoxify these substances while still allowing the bacteria to consume them so your tank will "cycle".

Best of luck, and I hope your little guy recovers!

Livefastdiepretty (author)2016-02-17

I have had blueberry *my betta fish* for about three years now!! He's an adorable little guy but he recently developed pop eye.. He has a heater and also a filter that I just bought today he is in a 10 gallon tank and I'm using distilled water always have and he's been alive for three years which a bettas life span is to about four years hes still very active but his eye is bulged out and its making him hurt and just lay around he does swim around still and eats.. I purchased some fish mox and do daily 50% water changes.. This is the first day of treatment.. But I had to take him out to do the water change and the filter I bought today requires you to run it for 24 hrs before inserting fish.. So I filled the container with the water in his tank and put him in.. Will he be OK overnight?? Also I wasn't able to run his previous filter due to it being too big and powerful it was for 15-20 tank!! But anyways will he be OK overnight?? Should I run the filter while doing treatments?? And if so what can I do to make sure he doesn't struggle when he goes back into the tank after the filter runs for 24hrs.. The previous filter I left off most of the time until I cleaned his tank which I do every week and water changes.. But still distilled water and he seems to love it he's even still the colors he was when I got him he's a happy lil guy but I'm worried I'm not treating him right. Please let me know and thank you

HarryM32 (author)2016-02-12

DO NOT use Melafix on a Betta, the tea tree oil in it is toxic to them and damages their labyrinth organ (which allows them to breathe the air above the water). If you use it for long enough, they won't be able to breathe and drown.

faceboogerz (author)2016-01-25

thanks for sharing bought one the other day and double tail male back and blue very nice color scheme but I want to enhance the blue any suggestions?

JadenT7 (author)faceboogerz2016-02-02

well first off if you go to store there are foods that are color enhancing thats the best and healthiest option in my opinion

smkw1 (author)2016-01-28

thanks for information . verry good

roy.bachtell (author)2015-04-06

Oh a list of what I use is just stress coat & water conditioner
And I have a real plant in the 2L tank as well and I use pellets give him 5 pellets once a day except for Sunday and Wednesday for fasting

CarenH (author)roy.bachtell2016-01-17

I only use stress coat the day before I change the water to stop him stressing over a maybe tiny change in water chemistry.

2L is not so great. 1gallon of water = 2.5litres, so these guys NEED a tank.

WarrenH10 (author)roy.bachtell2015-10-16

that is so funny, and kool!!!!!

About This Instructable




Bio: We feature aquarium-related content from all over the world. Our goal is to educate aquarium enthusiasts with articles, guides and news.
More by Teruya Lab:How to Culture Live Microworms for Fry and Small FishHow to Breed Bettas: Betta Breeding 101How to Properly Care for a Betta
Add instructable to: