This is another "How to Solder" instructable, but it also attempts to get at why soldering doesn't go easily sometimes. On the following pages, there are also numerous pictures showing good technique, good and bad joints, and some tools of the trade that you may not find in your local RadioShack. If you've ever wondered what wattage iron to get, the 3rd step has a video showing how some irons of different wattages fair on a couple soldering tasks.

Here is my list of the top reasons soldering doesn't work well (looking forward to your opinions on this):

1. Soldering tip has oxidized (turned black) and solder won't stick to it. This happens when the tip is left bare while on--a naked tip will quickly oxidize at hot temperatures. The best advice for preventing this is to glob solder on the tip every time you set the iron down. Weller (high-end iron manufacturer) actually recommends holding solder against a new tip the first time you turn it on so that the solder will melt and cover the tip the very instant the it gets hot enough. One of the best guides out there that emphasizes tip care: Weller's HowTo

2. Bad technique: applying solder to the iron, letting it sit there for a while, and then trying to carry it over to the joint. If you let the solder sit on the iron, the flux quickly boils off (the fumes are from flux, not the lead). And without flux, soldering becomes almost impossible. Flux removes oxidation from metals, and it's crucial because solder won't stick to oxidized metals, and metals oxidize very quickly at soldering temperatures.

3. Not enough heat: A 15 Watt iron is fine for small chips, but any larger connectors or wire bigger than 16 gauge will cause problems. 25W-30W is probably fine for most hobby applications. Is there any risk to getting a 100W iron? Wattage is separate from temperature, right? ... depends on the iron. Watch the video on the next page.

4. Dirty or oxidized parts: Bare copper oxidizes relatively quickly (this is why most components are tin / lead coated), so older parts or bare copper that has been exposed for only a week or two can require a light sanding (pink erasers are great) or stronger flux.

Shameless plug: This instructable is an except from a larger guide with many more pictures found here: www.CuriousInventor.com/HowToSolder. There is also a desoldering guide, a review of the cold heat iron, and advice for choosing solder / flux types. And, of course, a store to buy stuff :)

Thanks for any corrections / feedback.

Step 1: Good Technique

You want to hold the iron tip to get as much contact between the tip, component, and board as possible. Add a small amount of solder in between the tip and component to act as a heat bridge--this may not be necessary if enough solder is already on the tip when you tinned it.

Finally, add solder to the opposite side of the joint. Solder will run towards the heat, so this helps to spread out solder, and also ensures that the components were indeed hot enough for solder to melt and adhere to them.
<p>Well done! Great pictures!! I hope you won't mind if I share your link!</p>
i have an 80W soldering iron with a chisel tip (Weller brand) that i bought for $20, but i find that it's too hot and the tip is too thick. Could i stick the tip in a lathe and grind it down so it's like a cone shaped tip, or would that ruin the tip? and when i was soldering connections on a plastic battery pack, the plastic started melting..... should i just get a cheaper soldering iron with less watts?
you could do that then find some chrome (chrome plated plastic junk is a cheap source, scrape it off then burn off any remaining plastic) react the chrome with a stochiometric quantity of hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid, find at pool store or someone who owns a pool), which will give you chromium (III) chloride in a hydrous form. this is your precursor for chrome plating your tip. find a small container that will hold your solder tip and a graphite electrode (or failing that a 4B - 9B pencil lead) a film canister would be ideal if you can glue it to a surface so it wont tip over. attatch your altered solder tip (cathode) to a negative wire and the graphite (anode) to a positive wire, pour in your chromium (III) chloride and if necessary add water to cover the part of the tip you have exposed as bare copper and add a DC current. a car battery is ideal, even better if the engine is running and charging the battery via the alternator.which should carry across even more amps.<br><br>leave this going until you have a reasonable coating of chrome on it.<br><br>viola.<br><br>you can also turn custom tips out of copper in this way, if you obtain discarded thick stranded high voltage copper electrical conduit cable (like i did while working as a council garbage collector) you can do this at very low cost, but otherwise just try get fairly pure copper rod to start off with, as this is what conducts the heat of your soldering iron. the plating is there to stop the copper oxidising, which will fuck yo solder joints uuup.
I've answered your question here:<br/><br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3/threads/1336">http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3/threads/1336</a><br/><br/>I'd be happy to answer followup questions on our forum.<br/>
Too bad the link results in a 404 error message. I understand that being an instructor or a student at a tech university, a small business partner, and life in general forces one to manage their online time. Having said that IMO it isn't cool to direct responses to comments that include questions and reader of those&nbsp; who also may benefit s from the answer away from&nbsp; an instructable.<br />
sorry, we changed our site structure a bit...&nbsp; corrected link:<br /> <br /> <a href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3/forum_threads/1336" rel="nofollow">http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3/forum_threads/1336</a><br />
404 again. You ought to consider setting up some permalinks that redirect to the correct location when your site changes again.
We decided to take the forums offline. If you notice any other bad links to our guides I'd be grateful to know about them.
Great, thanks. Not knowing what you recommended a held off in pointing out some tips are plated and sanding or grinding them will ruin them. In the event your group ever revise your instructions that would be something to include. along with that &quot;loose&quot; tips can cause problems. My suggestions to =D where going to be to get an iron in the 40-45 watt range and get a new tip for the 80 watt iron, and make sure it was tight when installed to see if it will tin, if not use a light dimmer to make a simple control to reduce the heat, to see if will tin then. The simple control will turn that 80 what monster into a dual purpose iron, and will be usable for any iron purchased in the future. Nawadays the digital readout infrared thermometers. make calibrating the simple temp controls much easier.<br />
thanks a bunch! I'll just go out and buy those el cheapo soldering irons, one of them i found for $8 and it's from my favourite electronics part store, so i'm sure it's fine. thanks again!
Where can one get one of those desoldering pumps for relatively low cost? I checked eBay, and they have a huge selection of three.<br/><br/>Also, beautifully done Instructable. Should this be somehow added to the <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.instructables.com/id/E30LR180T4EWP872BS/?ALLSTEPS">How to Solder</a> Instructable?<br/>
Added it to the &quot;How to Solder&quot; group. Thanks for the compliment and suggestion.<br/><br/>That desoldering tool is great (and over $600), but for occasional stuff the <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2062731&cp=&sr=1&origkw=desoldering&kw=desoldering&parentPage=search">RadioShack</a> iron with a bulb works great. If you really want one, the cheapest place that I've seen equipment like this is Madell Tech--<a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.madelltech.com/m3-9.html">here's</a> their page of desoldering irons. I actually prefer wick / braid since it's easier wipe up every last bit of solder with that. Shameless plug: you can get it <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/store/product/4">here</a>. <br/><br/><strong>Tip:</strong> If you do get one of the vacuum desoldering tools, sometimes it's helpful to add <em>more</em> solder to the joint first because they're most effective when they can create a strong vacuum, and it's hard to create a strong vacuum over a mostly clear hole.<br/>
I'm still in awe of that pump, and still trying to figure out a cheap version. What if a vacuum pump were attached in place of the bulb, and a hopper set up to catch the solder? Is that basically what the fancy version does?
My guess is any vacuum source could be used, even a home vac., with a chamber behind the tip to catch the cooled solder and a screen between the chamber and vacuum line.&nbsp; Post an intractable of what you try. My spring loaded solder sipper works for what I need for board repairs. My board component salvaging methods aren't elegant, so I don't need a pump for that.<br />
The fancy irons do indeed have a hopper of sorts to catch the solder, but I'm not sure how it's integrated with the vacuum line, etc. One problem with those things is that you constantly have to use little cylindrical files to clean out the tips. It'd be neat try hacking up that radio shack thing, attaching a vacuum and screen and trying it out. I suspect the airflow will prevent it from getting how enough. But if you let it heat up for a while without air flow, and then only cut it on when the solder is molten it might work. A lot of people have made cheap hot air pencils out of that by attaching a fish tank pump tube to the bulb and blowing air through the tip. This did not work for me at all regardless of every permutation on tip shape and "stuffing" that I put in it. The air temp was never hot enough.
I know exactly what you need. It's the radio shack desoldering pump model #64-2098. I own and there great, plus they only cost $9.98. I highly recommend this if you want a good low cost desoldering pump.
As a person who has had hit and miss luck with soldering, I am happy I stumbled upon this video. Your video helped me to realize all the mistakes I have made in the past, I still have a way to go I'm sure but this is an excellent start. Thanks!
Question, I have a new Weller 40W chisel tip, using Oatey 40tin 60lead rosin core.<br /> <br /> Cant tin the tip if my life depended on it.<br /> &nbsp;the solder just rolls off the tip in little perfect balls onto the mat<br /> <br /> any ideas?<br /> <br /> thank you~<br /> <br />
bravo well done. the videoo helped alot. it is easy to get lost when there is only text. good job i learned how to solder properly now.
YOU are the MAN !!! I can and do solder quite a bit but you have really done a great job of explaining the reasons for all the innate things we do to get a good joint ... and the why not toos as well this is by far the best Ive seen...
wish i would have watched b4 attempting to mod a perfect 60$ 360 controller :( my iron is like lumpy and brown and has actually formed a hook shape some how.
Great video! thank you
Thanks for this. I'm brushing up on the basics again and this really helped. It also helped that the narrator for this video was easy to listen to and wasn't droning in a monotone. Very well-done.
i kinda think thats too much solder
Could you elaborate on why a smaller is better? Just to save solder? From my understanding, as long as a majority of the pad is connected with solder, and the angle the solder makes with the surfaces is less than 90 degrees, all is well... Would love to hear additional information.
if you make the blob too big you have the risk of connecting ajacent ones, a short circut is not good and will cause problems and it doesnt look good so it would probably be good practice to make blobs just big enough to make the connection so you dont cenect things
i found a de-soldering pump at the pound shop
were can i get the solder vacuum
wow this answered most of my questions! Thank you soo much!
I didn't know much about soldering at all, until I watched this video. It was great. Now i just have to figure out what all to get to get started.
YES! finally! why couldn't all the other tutorials I've seen be so simple yet so helpful thanks great 'ible
Wonderful set of How-To-Soldier videos. I've been doing these procedures for about 30 years. It took me a decade or so of trial and error and research to get this much information. Although it does take lots of practice. KUDOS to you guys!!!
Haven't soldered once wanted to find out about it before i jump in(i do have a iron though!)
Thanks for all this help, I just started Soldering and I've been having a hell of time trying to figure it out.
Cheers man, fixed my noobish soldering :D
even though i solder alot this is very helpfull. alot of it i knew butit gave me better teqnique
<a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.amazon.com/XYTRONIC-AUTO-TEMP-379-SOLDERING-STATION/dp/B0002UU8YQ/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;s=hi&amp;qid=1228360382&amp;sr=8-1">http://www.amazon.com/XYTRONIC-AUTO-TEMP-379-SOLDERING-STATION/dp/B0002UU8YQ/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;s=hi&amp;qid=1228360382&amp;sr=8-1</a><br/>Auto-Temp 379 soldering station. I found that 90% of my troubles soldering is that the iron is NOT HOT ENOUGH. When I finally sprang for this dirt cheap station, ALL of my issues went away!<br/>
so should i get a soldering station that goes from 5-40 watts or 5-80 watts. I am going to use it for general use and for circuit boards. Also, the station can be controlled, it is the WLC100 from Weller
40W will def. work for most things. 80W would only be needed for very large wires or circuit boards with lots of layers, and even then 40W would probably work, just a little slower.
Thanks. By the way, do you think the tips that are included in the Weller WLC100 soldering station would be sufficient to do general soldering and circuitry?
It comes with a .125 tip, which is good for most things, but you might also want a 1/16 tip for close together circuits. btw, we have a soldering forum: <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3">http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3</a><br/><br/>cheers<br/>
Thanks. This instructable is good and thanks for the info.
So if I need to add flux, when do I add it?
usually the flux contained in the solder is sufficient, but it can be helpful in surface mount soldering to help solder wick into place that has already had its flux boil off. See our <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/guides/Surface_Mount_Soldering/101">SMT soldering video</a><br/>
I asked because my solder doesn't have flux in it. Old stuffs.
First off, brilliant Instructable, it is extremely helpful. Secondly, instead of using the alcohol dispenser and pump to clean the joints, could you use alcohol wipes instead?
If you have any other questions, feel free to drop them at our forum:<br/><br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/forums/3/threads/539">your question at our forum</a><br/>
Cleaning usually requires some vigorous brushing followed by wiping up with some alcohol wipes, otherwise you're really just spreading around the flux residues. Alcohol wipes or any other lint-free wipes are fine. And actually, unless you're making something requires high reliability, you probably don't need to clean off the residues.<br/><br/>-Scott<br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.curiousinventor.com/guides">CuriousInventor.com/guides</a><br/>
Okay, cool, thanks.
wow thanks i always "knew" how to solder through trial and error eventually i got to the point were i had no problems BUT i never knew the mechanics nor chemistry of it . thank you for the help and you may have single handedly expanded my career.

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Bio: Interested in soldering techniques, electronic music instruments, arduino.
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