First, here is some terminology:
W3C ~ World Wide Web Consortium. It sets the standards for websites and web browsers.
HTML ~ HyperText Markup Language. Code for creating static webpages.
XHTML ~ eXtensible HyperText Markup Language. It is the next generation of HTML.
Tags ~ < tagtype />. An HTML element that tells the browser something.
Step 1: The DOCTYPE Tag
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//
Take a look at the code. It tells the web browser some very important things, such as:
~The Page is in English (EN)
~It is using XHTML 1.0 (eXtensible HyperText Markup Language - it's like the next generation of HTML)
~It states the place where W3C standards can be found (http://)
Step 2: Meta Tags
<meta name="keywords" content="words that relate to the website and are used by search engines to rank sites during searches, words are spaced by commas like, this" />
<meta name="description" content="This is a short summary of your site, which is displayed by search engines for the user to view. />
<meta name="copyright" content="your site's copyright information" />
<meta name="publisher" content="publisher info" />
<meta name="author" content="author info" />
These are examples of meta tags. The <!DOCTYPE> tag is also a meta tag. Each of them stores a different part of information for the web browser to see. All of this is stored inside the <head> tag.
Step 3: Information Files