An alternator helps power all of a car's electrical systems, including the starter motor, speaker system, and lights. A bad or failing alternator can discharge your battery, cause issues with your car's electrical systems, or leave you stranded when you need to use your car.
It's a good idea to know a few simple tests and early signs of alternator failure to avoid a breakdown. Here'a a step-by-step process to test your car's alternator.
Before you get started, gather the necessary materials to test your alternator. You will need:
- Rubber hose (about three feet)
- Voltage meter or digital multimeter
- Wheel chocks
- Safety glasses
Step 1: Getting Started
It's easy to set up for the job of testing your alternator.
- Park the car on level ground to make it easier to work on.
- Turn the engine off.
- Secure the wheel chocks around the driver's side rear tire to prevent the car from moving.
- Put on your safety glasses.
- Open the hood.
Step 2: Locate the Alternator
In many vehicles, the alternator is located near the top front of the engine. Most alternators have a round, vented metal housing, with visible copper wire inside.
Step 3: Check the Engine's Drive Belt
A loose drive belt can cause an alternator to not charge properly, so its tightness is the first thing to check.
- Locate the engine's drive or serpentine belt.
- Check its tightness by pressing on it between any two pulleys. It shouldn't have much movement or feel loose.
If the drive or serpentine belt is loose, it should be tightened before moving on to test the alternator.
Step 4: Listen to the Engine
The sounds the engine makes can help to pinpoint problems.
- Start the car's engine.
- Listen for any unusual noises like grinding or squeaking.
- Use your length of rubber hose to locate the source of noises. You can use it like a doctor's stethoscope by placing one end on the metal alternator housing, and the other end up against your ear. If the grinding or squeaking noises are very loud through the hose, it may indicate a failed bearing in the alternator, in which case the alternator will need to be replaced.
Step 5: Test the Alternator With the Engine Off
Now you're ready to begin the actual testing of the alternator. First, test it with the engine turned off.
- Turn the engine off.
- Turn on your voltage meter and set it to DC volts.
- Connect the positive lead to the positive terminal (+) on the battery, then connect the negative lead to the negative terminal (-) on the battery.
- Check the battery voltage on the voltage meter. It should read about 12.5 volts.
Step 6: Test the Alternator With the Engine On
Next, test the alternator with the engine and electrical systems turned on.
- Turn the engine on.
- Check the voltage meter again. It should read between 13.5 and 14.5 volts.
- Stress test the alternator by turning on the car's radio, headlights, and air conditioner.
- Check the voltage meter to make sure there is not a reduction in voltage with the electrical systems turned on.
If the voltage does not change when the engine is started, or if it does not read between a minimum of 13 volts and a maximum of 15 volts, the alternator may be faulty.
Step 7: Finishing Up
Now that you've checked your car's alternator, it's time to finish up.
- Turn the car off.
- Disconnect the voltage meter from the battery terminals.
- Close the hood.
If your tests result in normal voltage readings, but you still have issues with battery warning lights, a discharging battery, or your car's electrical systems, further testing is needed. You may want to enlist the help of a professional mechanic who can test or replace the alternator for you.
YourMechanic offers car repair and maintenance services at the convenience of your home or office, 7 days a week, and saves you up to 30%. A version of this article originally appeared on YourMechanic.com: How to Test Your Alternator.