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Picture of How to Weld - MIG Welding
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This is a basic guide on how to weld using a metal inert gas (MIG) welder. MIG welding is the awesome process of using electricity to melt and join pieces of metal together. MIG welding is sometimes referred to as the "hot glue gun" of the welding world and is generally regarded as one of the easiest type of welding to learn.

**This Instructable is not intended to be THE definitive guide on MIG welding, for that you might want to seek out a a more comprehensive guide from a professional. Think of this Instructable as a guide to get you started MIG welding. Welding is a skill that needs to be developed over time, with a piece of metal in front of you and with a welding gun/torch in your hands.**

If you are interested in TIG welding, check out: How to Weld (TIG).
 
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Step 1: Background

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MIG welding was developed in the 1940's and 60 years later the general principle is still very much the same. MIG welding uses an arc of electricity to create a short circuit between a continuously fed anode (+ the wire-fed welding gun) and a cathode ( - the metal being welded).

The heat produced by the short circuit, along with a non-reactive (hence inert) gas locally melts the metal and allows them to mix together. Once the heat is removed, the metal begins to cool and solidify, and forms a new piece of fused metal.

A few years ago the full name - Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding was changed to Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) but if you call it that most people won't know what the heck your talking about - the name MIG welding has certainly stuck.

MIG welding is useful because you can use it to weld many different types of metals: carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, silicon bronze and other alloys.

Here are some advantages to MIG welding:

  • The ability to join a wide range of metals and thicknesses
  • All-position welding capability
  • A good weld bead
  • A minimum of weld splatter
  • Easy to learn

Here are some disadvantages of MIG welding:

  • MIG welding can only be used on thin to medium thick metals
  • The use of an inert gas makes this type of welding less portable than arc welding which requires no external source of shielding gas
  • Produces a somewhat sloppier and less controlled weld as compared to TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas Welding)
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RogerM66 days ago

noahw did a fantastic job with this instructable. @psik - because you don't understand welding or the instructions in the article, doesn't make them wrong.

I will clarify some basic things for you though since you don't understand what the rest of us do.

1) The electric arc is caused by a short circuit. That's what electric welding is; a controlled short circuit.

2) CO2 is used a shielding gas, even with pure steel. Oxygen prevents a proper weld, so inert gas is used to push it away.

3) When he said to increase the pressure, it means increase the gas flow. Increasing the pressure of the gas is achieved by turning up the flow.

Do try in the future not to insult someone else's work simply because you misunderstand it.

psik16 days ago

Although it is very helpful, this Instructable has many erroneous information like:
- heat is generated by short circuit - not true, electric arc is a heat source in welding
- 100% Argon or a mixture of CO2 and Argon is used as a shielding gas - not true, for steel pure CO2 is mainly used to heat up the arc. It's also much cheaper than Argon
- you have to increase pressure when there is not enough shielding gas - not true, you have to increase gas flow instead

anode50516 days ago

Nice write up!

Now for fun, here a video of how NOT to weld.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=Us7VDZT-NcQ

BornOnFire4 years ago
In regards to Gas Tank Regulator Valves, An oxygen setup should always be opened completely so as to seat the stem of the valve against the packing. Failure to seat the internal stem's packing will likely cause a leak-resulting in a potential large scale explosion. The potential of a leak is more common than one would think. Imagine your garden spigot that you water your pansies with. Open it all the way and it usually works fine. Turn it a just few times and, usually, it drips-not a big deal. It's just a little water right? Apply this situation to your stuffy garage. You are welding a few things and the phone rings. 30 minutes later, your garage is a blasting cap just waiting for ignition. You get back to your work, strike an arc, and all of a sudden, you see a white light and your late grandmother welcomes you "Home" into God's kingdom. Now, we all would like to see Grandma again but I'm sure she can wait a few more eternities before you show up. Now, I'm not saying all regulator setups will blow you into grandma's arms again, but the Oxy-Acetylene setups are potential fatalities- now you know.
i was reading the comments just to see if someone let them know that the value should be open all the way, can be very dangerous. the value works both way up and down
Blackie Ray16 days ago

HG, I hope you defied them at your high school and took welding anyway. Recently reading about women and painting in the early part of the 20th century when women were expected to do pastels and water color. Oil was deemed to difficult for women to undertake.

Taykaim16 days ago

The 20 CFH you mention is a very good starting flow and the correct default setting for most mig welding. Depending on gas mixture, stickout and nozzle position relative to the tip you might go as high as 25 cfh, but any higher and you risk getting a venturi effect that sucks in room air and further decreases weld quality.

cammers Taykaim16 days ago

Interesting point. Thanks.

BTW I think that converts to just over 9 l/min for the rest of the world.

cg216 days ago

Great instructable, thanks for putting all this info together

HandiGirl17 days ago

Thankyou for sharing this info about welding! When I went to high school in British Columbia, Canada welding, carpentry and electricity plus drafting was offered in school. I had a space in my schedule that would accommodate these interesting "crafts". However, I was mocked and jeered for putting my name on the list SINCE I WAS A GIRL. Hesketh, the principal of my Junior High School, laughed and mocked me in an all school assembly. I felt very ashamed that I had made the request. He singled me out for wanting to learn the basics of "manly crafts". At the time, I was unaware that my Father's family had for generations in Canada and Eastern European been noted craftsmen in this field of interest. It was within me. Nevertheless, after that public humilation, 20 girls signed up for the same courses. Unfortunately, I was leaving the Junior High School and entering the Senior High School, where same stupid policy was in place. So, thankyou once again for sharing. Some of us, are just born with the natural yearning to learn these so called "manly crafts" as well as being an expert on vacuuming, washing the dishes, laundry and crafting a decorative 4-5 layer sponge cake. I can also plough a field and milk a cow. And, I have changed the oil in my car several times including changing the filters. Handigirl.

Handigirl, the way you were treated is nothing short of disgusting! Ones sex should not matter whatever the craft or skill. My god, where would we have been if not for all the wonderfully skilled women mechanics, welders, lathe operators and engineers during World War 2? I am a 52 yr old male who does not underestimate the power of any other man or woman. I can weld (gas, MMA and MiG) but I can also sew and love it. I also bake a very nice coffee cake :) These are all human skills not male or female skills.

Handigirl, good for you! I would be proud of any of my daughter's to take on that task. Btw my Mom (Mum for our friends in Canada) was a welder during WWII along with many other women.
DaveyH1 month ago

This sounds like a great place to start for me. I've heard how much money welders make and I wanted to get some sort of certification. If you say it's that easy, I'll have to look more into it and see if there's a class nearby. Do you think it's possible to learn this by myself though? I'd rather do that than have to go to some sort of school.

http://www.williamsbroswelding.com.au

Mig welders don't tend to make much money. To get into the good money you need to be able to do all position (6g) with almost any medium but esp. stick.

Also welders tend to die earlier than most as the fumes often carry many toxic elements so remember to always use the correct PPE and fume extractors etc. My son wanted to be a welder but thankfully took my advice and picked another trade.

If you really want to do it and can get access to a welding facility to "play" you can learn quite a bit on your own.

One of my early instructors always reminded us that "somebodys life may depend on your weld" which I always stuck by when welding.

All the welders that I have known that died early (before they were 70 years old) were either heavy smokers or died in welding related accidents. Where did you get your mortality information?

There are a few sources. Try looking at the fume composition of welding. Also personal experience and a few of those were non smokers too.

Until recently (maybe last 10 years) fume extraction had always been a neglected subject and in the field its still a hit and miss affair.

http://www.ihdlnconference2014.org/abstract/Hardt

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12109555

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/88-110/

The list is almost endless. Seen a few lesser injuries too from components letting loose during setup of large parts as welders were getting set up

echetto DaveyH16 days ago

I work for a welding products manufacturer, and the company had also a training certification site in my home country. This kind of welding, for doing it properly, can't be learn just by yourself. From the quality of the welding, to how to protect yourself from injuries, the training is a must if you want to weld for a living. I don't have a clue of the USA marketplace, but in other places of the world a highly trained and experienced welder can make more money than an engineer. I mean gas pipe welders, the good ones, in example.

edanb2 months ago

I took a course on TIG welding a couple weeks ago and found it to be too difficult for me, I have since stopped welding, but after reading this I realized I should probably have started with MIG. Do you think it would make sense to take a month-long course? They are not so cheap and I don't want to waste my time. I was also told I should get a welding helmet, but wouldn't the instructor have to supply me with one? I'm a little concerned about the safety issues. Thanks!

Taykaim edanb16 days ago

I forgot to mention, TIG has (IMO) the steepest learning curve. While it can be just one hand for autogenous welds, it can involve up to both hands and a foot, so if you weren't a drum set player in another life, it might be a tough thing to get started with. Stick isnt bad once you learn to strike the arc, but IMO again, mig is by far the easiest to pick up for a beginner. Worth trying that in a class next time around.

Taykaim edanb16 days ago

Most courses require but do not provide PSE (Personal Safety Equipment). Which is honestly good for you, as the class would be much more expensive if they did. In my experience for a mig class, you'd be expected to show up with a pair of safety glasses, helmet, vice grips or pliers, mig pliers (AKA welpers) a steel brush, mig/stick gloves and a jacket or at least long sleeve shirt. Some also require or recommend a welders cap. For what its worth, starting with TIG IS probably the hard way, and both mig and smaw(stick) are though different from each other, easier to pick up than TIG.

Lastly, a word regarding cost. When you price out buying/renting a tank of gas, a professional level wirefeed unit, a high quality power source, a decent mig gun, the regulator/flowmeter, an endless supply of coupons(metal pieces to weld together for learning), the consumables such as tips, nozzles etc, the spool of (presumably) ES-70-6 or similiar for mild steel that you might use up or more often make welding classes a real bargain. And any PSE you buy you keep for after the class.

Almost all welding requires a proper welding helmet / goggles. Most guys buy their own but in any classroom they should be available along with proper FRC coveralls.

TIG needs a little more co-ordination than mig or stick but I would have stuck with it if I were you as once you master that the other forms of welding would have been much easier.

doctorlock17 days ago
Sorry but o2, oxy is not flammable but an oxidizer which helps things burn.
Cueball2117 days ago

Great 'ible' Thanks for taking the time.

Great intro.

Only exception I have is the all position comment.

Sure if you are not too bothered about integrity but for a fully qualified weld I would say no. I have some great pictures of overhead welds done with mig that look fine for profile etc. etc. done buy welders with years of experience, but all of which failed. v-up gives better pen. but v-down with mig is often just a cosmetic weld that can be useful as a cap for a v-up.

It sure is easy to learn though. Back in the 70s my instructor told me "Ya can teach a monkey to mig weld"

Its also great for large gap / bridge welds to lay down something to backfill where stick would not cut it or you don't have something to use as a filler bridge.

I think this article is really well done. You did a super job of it and this should bring people into MIG quickly, and easily. The only caution I would sound is that you made it sound SO easy people may not think that having an experienced welder around the first couple of times is needed. I do think it's needed. You can make a friend, get some tips & tricks and keep it safe...all at the same time! Find your nearest Maker/Hacker Space, check it out and see if they've got this gear already for you try before you buy, with an experienced facilitator at your elbow. Once you've got your "sea legs" underneath you, the sky is the limit!

pigpigpig20 days ago
ken.downer.72 months ago

Having just read the instructions for MIG welding I have to say it is a load of rubbish. Why do people think they can weld when it is very clear they cannot. I speak as a teacher of fabrication and welding (15yrs) my first year students after correct instruction would lay a weld 100 times better than what has been shown here. You guys out there that want to weld correctly, take the time and do an evening course at your local college.

Always clean your nozzle after every weld and when changing your tip. A clean nozzle prolongs the life of your tip and ensures a quality weld. A clogged nozzle also restricts your gas flow causing porosity.
JamesL193 months ago

I'm
struggling to choose my first welding equipment. Been searching the web for
reviews etc. There's plenty of pages like at here but I'm not sure if a
$300-$500 is good enough for my household needs.

DaveyH3 months ago

I've gotten burned before by a welder, and let me tell you, it's not fun in the slightest. It was actually a 3rd degree burn for me. Anyway, since then I learned then to wear gloves and be a little more careful.

http://www.gemstatewelderssupply.com/Products/

ColinB44 months ago

I have written so many articles on welding procedures
but after reading this article felt like never knew anything about MIG welding.
Great job author.

www.red-d-arc.com

This has been so helpful to me. I'm a freshmen in high school and I take welding class, I have gotten past my other 1st year class mates and I moved onto mig welding and this has helped me greatly.

AdeelR6 months ago

@weldpedia

This article is best for newbies. A very good briefing on MIG welding basics; equipment, mechanism, technique etc. Find more on

http://www.weldpedia.com/search/label/MIG

ncblu6 years ago
i weld for a living. folks before you spend large amounts of money on a welder, make sure you are willing to spend the time practicing, thats the most important thing, practice, practice, practice. start running straight passes, no weaving or sewing or circling. when running a bead remember - where you point the tip is where the weld will be. if you're using gas, watch for porosity because you pulled the tip back too far and contaminated the weld. dont grind your welds - it's a bad habit, even if your welds arent pretty, they will be in time. speed is very important, constant steady speed. the welders you buy at harbor freight or walmart are fine for tack welding, but i wouldnt put it to use on a trailer or something that could have bad results if a weld cracks. if you run without gas you will get lots of spatter, even with anti spatter dip. prep is the most important, make sure your metal is clean and bevels should be between 25% and 50%. when making t-welds or perpendicular welds remember the metal will contract TOWARD the weld bead, not away from it ( i know this is contrary to popular belief and highschool science but it will happen ). never weld in a down direction, never drag the bead like you would in stick welding, always be pushing the puddle in the direction you want to go. most of all practice, practice, practice
ncblu ncblu6 years ago
one more thing, if you want to make a living as a welder, do not weave or circle or sew - you likely wont make it through to morning coffee break. also be prepared to weld out-of-position, this is welding on any surface that isnt sitting flat on a table ( which actually is harder to do properly than it sounds ). you might be welding upside down with hot metal dropping in your shirt.
GabrielleC1 ncblu7 months ago

thanks for all the excellent tips!! A few questions…is it possible to find a 110v MIG that actually penetrates? I am a home/garage hobbyist looking to weld materials averaging around no more than 3/16-1/4" thick, mostly for art projects, making lights etc…I have more experience with arc welding on thicker materials. I have heard that you can't really weld with 110 but I see a lot of machines out there… I am also considering going for a lincoln 225, I see a lot of them on CL, but I am not sure if that will be more power than I need. What do you suggest?

HI There Can you tell me how close i should hold the tip from my work.
I usually Lay the tip on the metal and angle it.
For solid wire you want the wire to stick out about 1/4 to 1/2 inch, for flux cored wire you want a 1 inch stickout.
I agree on all points except for the grinding of the welds in my line of work (chassis fabrication) grinding the welds to make a flat billet style appearance is mandatory as long as the weld was properly prepped and is not over finished there will be no ill effects.
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