Introduction: How to Wind a 12N 14P Brushless Outrunner

You may have already seen my Instructable on how to wind a brushless outrunner motor and became frustrated because it didn't work on your 12 tooth motor. The previous winding instructions only works with 12n 16p, 9n 12p, and others (I'm not sure on all of them). The most common motor has 12 teeth and 14 magnets, and has a bit of a confusing way of winding it. This configuration should also work with 10 magnet motors. I should have done this a long time ago, so here it is.

Step 1: Materials

You will need:
brushless motor with a 12 tooth stator and 14 magnets
200-400 grit sandpaper
Enamel coated wire
Wire cutters
Pliers
I used a hexTronik DT or D40xx motor, They are great for this experiment because they are large, easy to rebuild, and can hold a wide range of wiring configurations that can handle around 150-650W and 400-2000kv. They work best on 2-4 cell lipo batteries with a 7-15" propeller.

Step 2: How to Wind It

Take apart the motor by removing the c clip from the back of the motor, and pull the magnet can off of the stator, pliers might be needed. Then remove all of the wire, it might need to be cut off if it is glued on. Group together as many strands of wire as you want wrapped on the motor, and start winding clockwise the desired number of turns. Then, move to the next tooth right beside the wrapped one and wind it counter clockwise. Then, go to the tooth on the opposite side (6 teeth away) and wind it clockwise. Then, wind counter clockwise the tooth beside it and opposite the one that was wrapped first. Cut the wire when finished and prepare to repeat the steps.

Step 3: Wind the Rest

Start the winding steps over by starting 2 teeth before the first one you wrapped. The picture shows the direction to wind the wire; CW for clockwise and CCW for counter clockwise. When all the teeth are wrapped; use sand paper to remove the enamel insulation on the end of all 6 wires. The three end wires can be soldered together for a Y configuration for the most torque and less rpm, or attach each end wire to one of the other two starting wires for a high speed low torque setup. More turns means more torque and less rpm, more strands means there's less room for more turns, but it can handle more current. Try to leave some room for air flow. Finally, reassemble the motor.

Comments

author
psron (author)2015-02-01

I'm with zeddus... it should be: A-a-b-B-C-c-a-A-B-b-c-C

(CAPS = CW; lower case = CCW, and ABC's are each different phase wire, or in your drawing Red/Black/Blue)

Always have a CW next to a CW, and a CCW next to CCW.... or you'll release the magic smoke from your ESC.

author
zeddus (author)2014-11-06

This looks incorrect to me. If a, b and c denotes the different phases then the order of the CW and CCW windings should be: aCW, aCCW, bCCW, bCW, cCW, cCCW, aCCW, aCW, bCW, bCCW, cCCW, cCW

not aCW, aCCW, bCW, bCCW, cCW, cCCW etc as in the picture above

author
umaximage (author)2014-10-06

Thank you for informative tutorial!
Can you please tell more about Y configuration, so 3 end of wires go to esc and 3 other ends soldered between each other? (What is that yellow wire in graph?) Thank you =)

author
rem0.061 (author)umaximage2014-10-06

You are correct, the yellow wires represent uninsulated copper that gets soldered together (the color coding doesn't matter at that part anyway). What else about Y config do you want to know? I don't know much about how it all works, this just shows how to wire a working 12n14p motor.

author
umaximage (author)rem0.0612014-10-08

Thanks for your answer, and which sickness of copper is the best for the job?

author
rem0.061 (author)umaximage2014-10-08

You would have to experiment with that, but I think using multiple strands of a small gauge wire will make getting the windings to fit easier. I think most factory made motors use 3-20 strands of 30-24AWG wire. They can pull several strands from several spools, but you may have to cut out several same length strands from one spool before winding them at the same time. I have used 1-3 strands of 22AWG wire on 22-40mm motors to save time.

author
sk8amazing (author)2014-01-12

did you forgot show the pic of 14p ?

author
rem0.061 (author)sk8amazing2014-01-12

The blue and silver motor is a 14p.

author
sk8amazing (author)rem0.0612014-01-12

thanks . if i want to use my cf2822 brushless for gimbal ( it need direct drive brushless ) what should i do with the motor ?

author
rem0.061 (author)sk8amazing2014-01-16

26-22 gauge wire might be best because I tried to build a gimbal and had the same problem as usual with single strand 30ga winds; they don't have the torque to turn big motors. 70t of 30ga on my 4013 motor and 40t of 30ga wire on my 2830 had the same problem, I did get 30ga wire to work with 40t on a 2 pole inrunner.

author
rem0.061 (author)sk8amazing2014-01-12

I don't know much about direct drive gimbal motors, but I would try putting about as many turns of 30 gauge wire on as you can, and use the Y configuration. You shouldn't have to worry about bearing problems on a gimbal motor.

author
rem0.061 (author)2013-11-12

Let me know how well it works for you, my first one seemed to work fine but my second attempt has timing problems. It had 5 turns Y and 9strands of 30AWG wire on the blue motor above. I'll try again to be sure.

author
rem0.061 (author)rem0.0612013-11-12

I think I figured it out. It can be hard to get the exact number of turns on each tooth because of the direction changes and end wires. I noticed I had about .5-1 turn less on two of the last teeth. Fixing that made it run smoother, but it was still catching, so I might have missed another. Also the problem was so noticeable compared to my first attempt of 20 turns is because the kv rises exponentially as the number of turns decreases as well as when using delta vs wye wiring.

For example, there could be a 5kv difference between 19T and 20T, but a 100kv difference between 5T and 4T. Testing the delta config made the timing worse too. So the kv difference between the teeth on my motor was huge.

I recommend not going less than 6T Y to avoid timing issues for the above 4013 motor, besides they work best at 7-15T.