Step 8: Framing the overhead door header and top plate

With the other three walls framed, you will want to tackle the big overhead door opening. Since most of this wall is empty space, it is easier to build two little walls on each side with the jack studs for the main beam and then lift the overhead door header into place. You can nail the top plate in place across the king studs before lifting the main beam in order to add some rigidity to the walls before hefting the big beam. The sequence of sketches below give an idea of one way to do this.

You will want to include at least two jack studs on the ends (as pictured) in order to support the large span and mass of the header beam. You can either bond nail the two 2x12's that make up the header beam on the ground and lift them both or you can lift one in place, end nail it to the king studs, hold it in place and lift the other one up and bond nail and end nail it as well. My opinion is that nailing the header together first while heavier is easier if you can muscle it. You will want at least four people for this job. Two to lift the header from the ground, and two on ladders at each end to hold and nail the header in place. You should also toe nail the header to the jack studs for security while you finish the wall.

The final step in framing the header beam is to cut and place cripple studs between the top of the header beam and the top plate. End nail them to the top plate and toe nail them into the header beam.

Once all four walls are up, take your 2x4 bracing across the top plates off. Then measure and cut another set of 2x4's that will nail on top of the top plate to form a double top plate. At the ends, be sure to cut the 2x4's so that the topmost top plate will overlap the lower plate and connect the two walls together. While nailing on the double top plate, measure across the opposite corners of your four wall at the top. If the measurements are off, then your walls are not completely square. Get someone to help wrestle the walls and corners so that the measurements are close and the walls square before nailing on the top plate.

With the top plate on and the walls square, nail on corner braces across the top plates again. Double check that the walls are square by measuring across the garage corner to corner as in the sketch. Once you start sheathing it will be difficult to square up the building so take your time here.
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3/4 done on roof shingles then just doors and windows to go. It's been a long 5 weeks of weekends and evenings... Thanks for this guide. It has been my Bible for the last 2 months.
Great to hear. Good luck with everything. Our garage is still going strong, even supporting a 12 panel solar array.
<p>This is awesome, such a thorough guide!</p><p>Also, great advice there in Step 11, I guess you learn something new every day.</p>
<p>Do you know how long a project like this usually takes? My sister and her husband have been wanting to build a garage outside their home for the past few weeks but they are traveling for the summer. They are trying to decide when would be the best time and how long it would take. I will have to pass these tips on to them though, thank you . </p><p>&lt;a href='http://www.toplinegarages.com.au/' &gt;&lt;/a&gt;</p>
The concrete takes a few days to do and then you need to let it cure a bit. Talk to the contractor on that, my guess is a week. <br><br>For us in MN, the best time to build is in September since it is still warm, one of the driest months, and less bugs. <br><br>If you have a slab with block and bolts for your sill plates, all the materials on-hand, a good set of plans, and a capable crew of 4-5 you could get the walls up, sheathed, windows in and the roof trussed and shingled in a weekend. After that, a day for electrical, a day for doors, and a day or two for siding. You could have a basic garage like mine done in a week. You only really need a crew for the walls and roof, I did the rest on my own on weekends and it took like 4 weekends or about 8-10 days of hard work.
<p>Would it be easier to do in the summer? I'm not sure if they have enough time with their jobs and kids to work on it themselves so it might be beneficial to hire someone for help. Although, doing it on the weekends seems like a great option. That way, friends and family can come and help if needed. </p>
I want to build a 24x24 garage but do it in two steps. Is it safe to use a 12 foot 2x4 wall with the ridge pole on top of that and install the rafters to just one half. I plan to build a second 12x24 section next summer. My concern is whether the roof will be strong enough with just one half built. I was planning on a 6-12 pitch. My roof framework is 2x6 roof joists on 24&quot; centers and the walls are 2x4 on 12&quot; centers.
That was very informative and I liked your humor throughout. I have framed a couple small additions to my cabin in the past, using a framing book for guidance. I feel very comfortable building a garage myself now. My only change to your instructions, will be to use PBR, rather then Miller lite. Thanks for your great instructions.
Just wondering if you had checked into metal roofing (like I've seen installed on primitive cabins). It seems like it would go on a lot faster, but perhaps I'm wrong.
Does rebar just lie there on the gravel or is it elevated to be surrounded by concrete? If lifted, what with? Does rebar have to be tied?
Hi <br>The rebar must be elevated enough so the gravel that is contained in the wet concrete will fit under it. The minimum is 1&quot; and the maximum, for a 4&quot; thick concrete, should be 1-1/2&quot;. If you've got old concrete blocks, you can break them and use the pieces as supports, but make sure you tie the rebar to these or they'll fall off while pouring concrete! Other items would be used bricks, pieces of concrete. NO organic materials that will decompose should be used! If you want to spend some $ and do it nicely, go to a contractors supply house and ask for 'rebar chairs'. These come individually and in 5' strips, which can be cut to short pieces. <br> <br>Yes, the rebar needs to be tied together. This helps to keep it in place while you're pouring the wet concrete, and it does give strength. <br>The rebar must also overlap where it is tied/spliced together. The rule for how much overlap is: 18 x Diameter (in inches). So if you're using 1/2&quot; diameter rebar, 18 x 1/2&quot; = 9 inch overlap. If using #6 bar (rebar is named in 1/8&quot;, so #6 = 6/8&quot; or 3/4&quot; diameter) the required minimum overlap is 18 x .75, or 12&quot; overlap.
Building your own garage is tough. As soon as we got do the garage doors part of it I just let the pros come install it. <a href="http://www.thedoorworks.ca" rel="nofollow">garage doors</a>
I have a 50' x 50' steel building divided 2/3 is a shop with a concrete floor, 1/3 is storage room with dirt floor. It was built before I bought the property. I would like to suggest three things :........... <strong>(1).</strong> Put your big air compressor as far as possible from work area to lessen noise when compressor is on ...................... <strong>(2).</strong> Make shop floor 2 inches or so higher than driveway so water will not come into shop. We had a deluge of rain and water came in.........................................<strong> (3)</strong>. If shop is a distance from house, consider installing security alarm system with loud siren on building and hard wired small siren inside house. You will not hear alarm on building if it sounds at 3:00am, but you will hear small alarm inside house. I bought a HoneyWell with 6 zones on eBay for about $150. &nbsp;It adds a lot of peace-of-mind.&nbsp;
I actually paid a guy $500 to shingle my garage when I got to this point. The roof had an 8/12 pitch and it was worth the money to have it done in 5 hrs vs 3 days
I have a 24' x 24' garage. The walls studs are 16&quot; on center, but the ceiling joists (2 x 6) only run along every 3rd stud (48&quot; on center). I would really like insulate and drywall the ceiling and use the new &quot;attic space&quot; for some light storage. I was thinking that doubling the number of joists would give me 24&quot; on center. My questions are:<br>1. Would that be enough to support some light weight storage?<br>2. The rafters sit right over top of the studs, so my existing joists are ~2 inches off to the side. The new joists would rest in middle between studs. Would that be putting too much load in a bad place?
The joists as described are not up for bearing weight. Not sure of the code requirements in your area but it sounds as if you have a hand framed as opposed to trussed roof. Even so, it sounds as if the 48&quot; on center joists are not to modern code. Is there a central beam that the joists tie into? I would guess there must be since we're talking only 2x6es. <br><br>1. If there is a central beam so that the joists only span 12 feet, then getting 2x6 on 24&quot; centers would support storage in my opinion, but your local inspector may be of a different mind. 24 feet is a long span for a 2x6, so without a central beam I would be hesitant to put much weight up there. I don't have my span table on me but that would be a good place to start for maximum span as a function of spacing and lumber.<br><br>2. The new joists in the middle between studs should not be a problem if you have a double top plate which is one of the main reasons a double top plate is required, if not it should still be OK for storage. Again your local inspector would be the end authority. You could put joists on 16&quot; centers over each stud to be safe. This would only be 6 extra joists, so not much money. Tougher to get big stuff into the &quot;attic&quot; though.<br><br>Good luck.
Thanks for the reply.<br><br>There is no central beam. They were able to span the 24' distance by using two 2x6. They are each about 13' long and are fastened together with several screws at the overlap. They are then fastened to a vertical 2x4 running from peak of the roof. Kind of scary, huh?<br><br>I don't know much about framing, but it doesn't sound like the joists should be able to support anything on their own; all the support would come from the 2x4 tied into the roof.<br><br>I'm going to have a framer come by and check it out for me. Hopefully, I can get away with replacing the existing stuff with 2x10 on 16&quot; centers.
The roof doesn't sound up to code, at least here in MN with our snow load. But with the 2x4 tie in to the roof the 2x6s are probably surprisingly strong. The key will be the strength of the attachment between the 2x4 and the overlapped 2x6s and the 2x4 and the roof up top. A simple overlap with nails or screws is not ideal as the load is carried in shear on the fasteners and the wood they are piercing. There are specific hangers and &quot;mending plates&quot; designed for this, which you can see in commercially made trusses. None of which use overlapping with screws/nails.<br><br>Replacing the 2x6s with 2x10s without increasing the bending strength would be a waste of money. If you can get 2x10s long enough (and can fit them in the building!!) to go the full span from wall to wall, and tie them into the roof with a vertical 2x4 using a suitable hanger then you should be in good shape. If you can't get full span lumber, then I would just fill in between the existing 2x6s and 2x4s with duplicates to make them 16&quot; on center and call it good. Use hangers or mending plates if possible. Throw some plywood up there to bridge the joists and you'd have some light storage. I wouldn't walk up there though.<br><br>Good luck
Yeah, I was surprised when I tested the strength of the existing joists. They used some kind of plywood as mending plates to join the vertical 2x4 to the 2x6 joists.<br><br>In any case, I ended up going to Home Depot and speaking with someone at their Pro Desk. He thought I would need a center beam and referred me to their LVL manufacturer. After I spoke with them and provided the dimensions and the live/dead load and they recommended four 1 3/4&quot; X 16&quot; LVLs.<br><br>I just have to figure out how to tie it into the walls. I plan on running it under the existing joists, but I will have to cut into my top plate so the top of the LVL will be on the same level as the bottom of the joists.<br><br>Thanks for your help.
One more thing to clarify, the 48&quot; on center joists as they are function only to keep the A-frame side walls from spreading under the roof load. The &quot;king&quot; post 2x4 would nominally transfer some of the vertical roof load to the spanning joists but with a screwed overlap is probably only supporting the 2x6s with the roof and any storage load you put up there. Six of one, a half dozen of the other I guess. And regarding mending plates, they are also called structural truss plates.
Your a great help but I need to self install a 4 way switch for a man cave (3 switches one light) any help?
When setting the walls on the concrete slab (with anchors all in place, etc) does the framed out wall set even with the edge of concrete or overhang slightly, say 1/2 inch? Reason I ask is the company that is building my trusses asked and I had assumed they would be flush/even with my concrete edge. Is one way better than the other or what is the preferred method?
I really don't know if there is a reason for one approach over another. I had a course of block around the perimeter on my garage and I set the sill plate (bottom treated 2x4) back from the edge of the block by 1/2&quot; so that the sheathing was flush with the outer edge of the block and concrete. Your mileage may vary.
what software are you using for your cad drawings? is it free?
As discussed in Step 1: <a href="http://sketchup.google.com/" rel="nofollow">http://sketchup.google.com/</a>
Thanks for taking the time to put this together, what did you use as a moisture barrier? Did you insulate the walls?<br /> <br /> Thanks<br />
I did not use a house wrap moisture barrier.&nbsp; I did insulate the walls with a craft faced fiberglass and sheathed the interior walls with 1/2&quot; plywood.&nbsp; I'm not sure the insulation does much since there is no ceiling and the roof is uninsulated, but the plywood was a great idea since it allows me to screw in mounts, cabinets and other gear just about anywhere and it has allowed me to unscrew the plywood panels at will to make changes to the electrical systems as needed.&nbsp; This came in handy a few weeks ago when I&nbsp;had to run wiring for a photovoltaic system that I&nbsp;installed on the garage roof.<br /> <br /> Maybe I&nbsp;should write that process up...<br />
Thanks so much for the quick response.<br /> <br /> Yes I'd like to see any additional work you've done.<br /> <br /> I'm planning the same sort of garage thing, but I want to insulate the roof and walls. We get no ice here in So Cal, but it gets roasting hot in the summer. I have been told to make sure to use a moisture barrier and weep screens at the bottom of the walls to avoid mold problems. <br /> <br /> On another note, was there a reason you chose this type of roof construction over what is called Type 5 which has a central beam and provides more open rafter space?<br /> <br /> I'm in the research phase, I'm right on the fence between trying to build one myself and just buying a Tuff-Shed brand garage as I don't have a bunch of framing experience. <br /> <br /> Thanks again<br />
Well the solar install is mainly a RTFM on the panel, inverter, and racking.&nbsp; Along with a sprinkling of local electrical code errata, so I&nbsp;haven't spent any time writing it up.&nbsp; I'll tell you though that having the panels on the south facing roof do keep the garage cooler.&nbsp; Basically functional shade.<br /> <br /> Using the moisture wrap and screens are a good idea, I&nbsp;just didn't feel it was needed on our install.&nbsp; Time will tell, and at least I&nbsp;know where to find the builder for rework.<br /> <br /> I chose this type of roof construction because of low cost, ease of build and permit approval.&nbsp; Getting a plan approved and passing inspection is easy with pre-fabbed trusses but takes a lot more work on a hand built roof as you describe.&nbsp; I&nbsp;just didn't have the confidence&nbsp;in getting a ridge beam hoisted 20+ feet in the air.&nbsp; Those LVL beams are heavy as heck, and getting them in position at the peak would require a crane that I&nbsp;did not have or desire to rent.&nbsp; An attic with more storage room is possible with that type of roof, but I am able to store a fair amount of stuff in the trusswork so I&nbsp;can't complain.&nbsp; The main reason I&nbsp;would go that route would be to allow an insulated ceiling in the main garage room, and a separate attic with access hatch/ladder.&nbsp; That would allow the garage to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter.&nbsp; However, the attic would be hot as all hell and limit what you could store up there.<br /> <br /> Framing is pretty easy if you can measure and mark wood, make consistent square cuts to length within 1/8&quot; of desired, have access to a pneumatic framing nailer, and if you have fairly straight lumber.&nbsp; Sizing and design of the door and window openings and headers can be an area where experience is helpful.&nbsp; That said, building it yourself is more fun than a Tuff-Shed any day, at least once you are finished. <br />
I'd like to do it myself, after reading all of this I'm considering very seriously. The project is about as complicated as yours except for demo of the existing structure. I have an existing garage that is the New Orleans of garages, it's 8&quot; below grade on all sides when it rains hard I get 2&quot; of standing water inside and after 60 years some of the sill plates are rotten and the stucco is peeling off. I'd need to knock the whole thing down, though I could probably salvage a lot of the lumber, pour more slab on top of the existing slab to raise it up with rebar to hold it in place and then build a new one on 1' stem walls. This would also give me a chance to make the garage 10' longer. I'm thinking of a Hybrid approach, a contractor to prep and pout the slab and stem walls and maybe a roofer to do the shingling and perhaps a pro for stucco. I read through your piece again, some details that seem to be missing are the actual building of the trusses and the block stem wall.<br />
Stacking your trusses that way makes it much harder to roll them into place. Also, the way you show it here, your last 3-4 trusses will be impossible to roll upright, since the placed trusses would be in the way.<br /> <br /> It's easier to lay them flat, with the peak (tip) laying on the cross wall (over your garage door in this case). After the first truss, spread the others out a little, like a spread deck of cards, to distribute the weight. Keep the bottom chord of each truss on your top plate.<br /> <br /> If you do this right, you can just stand each truss and wiggle it over into place, rather than flipping each one completely over. Safer and easier. <br />
Good tip.&nbsp; We had to bring one end of the truss down into the garage below the wall to get clearance to rotate.<br />
Bet that was fun! :)<br /> <br /> Forgot to mention, for the last few trusses you have to move them up against the completed trusses and work from the other end. Be sure to follow your layout (you DID mark a layout, right?) or measure off the places trusses so your sheeting lines up with your trusses.<br />
Exactly right :) Putting the strips on in this pattern drives any water towards the outside instead of to the wall.<br /> <br /> Great instructable, by the way. Looks like SketchUp for the visuals?<br />
Yep. SketchUp is great for this.&nbsp; Once you have the model you can generate as many views as you want.&nbsp; Thanks for reading and commenting.<br />
Starting on one end actually makes this a little easier. By cutting a few shingles in half and using them to start/finish a row, you will have less waste.<br /> <br /> You'll also save time by doing 3-4 rows at a time and working all the way across, so you don't have to move around as much walking back and forth cutting and filling the ends.<br />
The last pic shows this approach, I found that the ease/speed of each depends on how many people you have on the roof.&nbsp; With more than 2 on each face, starting in the middle is faster, otherwise at one end.<br />
Hello jmengel!&nbsp; GREAT&nbsp;write up.&nbsp; Love the sarcasm and jokes throughout.&nbsp; As everyone else who is reading this, I too am in the planning stages of building a garage.&nbsp; How big is your garage door?&nbsp; Is that a 2 car or 1?&nbsp; TIA!
The garage door is a standard 16 feet wide door, a two car.&nbsp; This winter was the first time we had two cars in it, and even with all the tools and other stuff it worked fine.&nbsp; If we had SUV's I would say an 18 foot door or larger would be really nice to have.&nbsp; So take that into account.&nbsp; <br />
<p>Great site!!!&nbsp;&nbsp; My roof will be 7/12 pitch.&nbsp; I've seen others&nbsp;nail down 2x2's or other size strips on the roof to use as footholds while on steeper inclines.&nbsp; Seems to me this would damage the felt---- or would you start at the top and work down in this case, removing the strips as you go?&nbsp; I'm in the southeast so I don't have to worry about ice barriers (thank goodness)...<br /> <br /> I'll have the same issue with shingles....</p>
Any holes you put in the felt should be covered by the shingles.&nbsp; The ice barrier is a membrane that seals around nail holes so water backing up under the shingles will not get through.&nbsp; If you don't have ice concerns then holes in the felt due to nailing foot strips will not impact the waterproofness of your roof if you overlap and nail your shingles properly.&nbsp; With no nails showing, the shingles will keep the water from the holes in the felt.&nbsp; The felt is more of a vapor barrier and last line of defense than an integral component of the waterproofness of the roof.&nbsp; Good luck.<br />
These are the best instructions ever written...<br /> Do you have an idea how much it would cost to build a commercial lube shop? Let's say 3 bays, 1 waiting area, 1 restroom, 1 office and 1 break room? <br /> I think I could really use your help as much as possible. If you think you could help, e-mail me at nyotasandja@hotmail.com<br /> <br /> Thanks a lot!<br />
The requirements for a commercial building are substantially different than a residential dwelling. Not to mention the infrastructure for hydraulic lifts and other capabilities required for the shop you describe.&nbsp; Additionally, in many locations (at least in the US) you need to be licensed and bonded to do work (electrical, plumbing, etc) on a commercial building whereas if you are the homeowner they give you a lot more lee-way to screw things up yourself.<br /> <br /> To answer your questions, I&nbsp;don't know how much it would cost, I don't think you can do it yourself, and thanks for reading.<br /> <br /> <br />
I'm adding an attached 2 car to my existing 2 car and I'll be using 2x6 construction with 1/2 ply sheathing with 1 3/4 styro over the ply. ( I want to heat the garage ) the styro was free from a industral building under construction that was damaged from a tornado. I was thinking that I would have trouble securing the window and door flanges to the styro so could I insert a 2x8 frame into the window and door openings to be flush with the exterior sheathing and give me something to nail to? I know I would have to widen my opening 3&quot; (1 1/2 each way). I live in Illinois in the country and have fields a mile each way around me and the winter winds get a good run at the house. The house is cedar sided but I was thinking about Hardy concrete board for siding for more rot resistance. Thanks for any advice!
Yes, you would want some kind of wood to nail the window flanges to.&nbsp; If the styro is 1.75&quot; thick the 2x8 framing in the window would still be 0.25&quot; short.&nbsp; It might be easier to frame everything up normally with 2x6 and then nail some 2x4s with the wide face to the exterior ply around the window openings with a 0.25 plywood spacer strip (1.75&quot; total thickness) to get the wood flush to the styro.&nbsp; We had a similar problem getting uniform window jamb depths on an attic renovation with new 2x6 walls mixed with old 2x4 walls.&nbsp; Cutting a few sheets of the right plywood thickness into strips let us shim out to the necessary depth.<br /> <br /> I would imagine that siding over the 1.75&quot; styrofoam is not going to be easy either as you will need a pretty long nail to get to the sheathing.&nbsp; With that much free nail between the siding and the sheathing I'd bet the siding could move around a bit in the right kind of wind.&nbsp; Over time this might work the nails loose. Otherwise you could use regularly spaced furring strips like in drywalling the block walls of a basement.<br /> <br /> Based on what I&nbsp;have heard I like the concrete siding, but have not worked with it myself.&nbsp;&nbsp; Initial install is tougher than vinyl or wood, but supposedly lasts a long time if done right.&nbsp; You need to take care to seal the cut ends to avoid water wicking and another tip that I&nbsp;have heard is to skip the concrete hardi-board trim and use another product called <span id="dnn_ctr369_ContentPane"> MiraTEC for the trim pieces.<br /> <br /> </span><span id="dnn_ctr369_ContentPane">Good luck.<br /> </span>
I just completed a 24X24 foot work shop using this site. The building turned out great. Now I have to get the electrical installed. Any help doing this?&nbsp; Thanks for the great instructables
I can certainly answer questions, but I&nbsp;didn't take photos of the electrical install in the garage (or attic renovation) so a detailed step by step is not in the cards.&nbsp; Many of the books at your local hardware store or library have the basics of electrical work and cover anything a home owner will need.&nbsp; For a shop, just get a few hundred feet of 12-2 Romex and string it everywhere. Leave some slack where you are going to cut in an outlet.&nbsp; If you want 3-way switched stuff get some 12-3.&nbsp; 12 gauge is good for 20 amps and you will want 20 amp breakers at least on all outlets.&nbsp; You could get away with 14 gauge on the lights.&nbsp; Be sure to check your local codes, as outlets in shops/garages usually need to be elevated 48&quot; above the floor and GFCI protected.&nbsp; Good luck.<br /> <br /> -Jon<br />
I plan on building a 28'x32' to add a car lift. Any suggestions on wall height. I was thinking 2' block and 12' walls. The area for lift 6" concrete rest of floor 4" concrete. Suggestions please. These steps are very helpful that you posted I plan on doing all the work except foundation and concrete to save on cost. With money saved I can add lift. Thanks

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