Instructables
In this instructable I will describe how I built a hot tub for less than $100 NZ ($75ish USD) from an old bulk liquids tank, a gas bottle and some stainless tube and junk that I had laying around.



This tub is cheap and relatively easy to build and is also useful as a plunge pool in hot weather too. Oh and you can cook on the top of it too!
 
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Step 1: Stuff you will need

Parts:
- 3 metres of 25mm (1in) stainless tube
- 1 old LPG gas bottle (the kind used for barbecue grills)
- 1 bulk liquids storage tank (the 1000litre kind with a steel palletised cage)
- enough old corrugated iron to cover the outside of the tank
- scrap polystyrene packaging
- 1 closed cell foam camping mattress
- a roll of soft narrow gauge binding wire (or equivalent - you could use cable ties at a pinch)
- scrap metal parts for the legs and decoration
- a canoe paddle or something similar

Tools:
- arc welder (and the safety gear to go with it)
- angle grinder with metal cutting and grinding discs
- pipe bender large enough to bend 1 inch stainless tube
- tin snips
- heat gun / paint stripper
- box cutter
- strong pliers with a sharp cutting edge
- the trusty knockometer
- various clamps
- magnetic welding clamps are handy
- hacksaw (omit if you're deft with the angle grinder)
- handsaw/drawsaw or equivalent
- narrow nail punch/set or a strong nail
- cordless drill with a 2 - 3mm bit
- a vivid or permanent marker pen

- a gas axe is an optional extra here if you have one and aren't afraid to use it

Step 2: Shorten the cage

First thing to do is unbolt and remove the crossbars that retain the plastic tank in the cage and slide the tank out (to allow you to cut the cage without inflicting damage to the tank).

With a hacksaw or angle grinder remove the top of the cage by cutting the vertical bars flush with the next horizontal bar down.

Remove any sharp edges with the angle grinder or a file to prevent them from rubbing through the plastic liner.

Cut an inch or two out of one of the short sides of the ring you've just cut off and weld back together. The steel is quite thin so it might help to insert a chunk of steel bar inside the joint
to give you something to weld to. I guess if you didn't want to weld this bit you could drill through lot and bolt or wire it together instead.

Slide the ring into the top of the cage so that the short vertical bars are wedged inside the bars of the cage.
Note: One side of the ring will have the vertical bars on the outside of the cage - don't worry about this - it's covered up later by the roofing iron and it leaves enough room to get the tank back in.

Wire the ring to the cage using soft steel wire (I used the mesh segments from an old single bed frame and folded them out to use as ties)

Step 3: Open the tank

Picture of Open the tank
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If you put the tank back in the cage it makes this step easier.

With a vivid marker, mark a line just below where the curve of the top starts. You can use the lip of the cage as a reference for your line.

Cut the top off with a hand saw.

Save the top to use as an insulated lid.

Step 4: Fold the plastic liner over the top of the cage

Cut a deep slot in each corner of the plastic liner down almost as far as the cage.
Using a heat gun and brute force, heat and bend the plastic flaps over the cage rim. Use clamps and lengths of wood to hold the flaps in place until they cool.

Note: This step is made easier if you can do this on a warm windless day or inside.

Step 5: Clad the cage

Apologies for the lack of pics for this step

Cut old corrugated roofing iron to length so that the corrugations run vertically. Cut enough to go around the tub.

Tip the whole thing on it's side to make it easier to work on.

Remove the plastic liner.

Start from the edge of one sheet and use a fat nail as a punch or drill to make 2 holes either side of the upper and lower horizontal bars of the cage. Bend the wire into a long U and poke the ends through the holes and twist together on the inside of the cage. Make sure you twist them so that they don't poke outwards into the interior space (where they'd snag on the plastic liner).

Continue around the tub adding more sheets as required.

At the top edge of the tub you'll need to tidy up the edges of the iron. With tin snips cut down the top of each ridge to a depth of about 2 - 3 inches. Make sure one side is just under the other and smack the ridge sharply with a hammer - this makes it form a nice bevelled edge with no sharp protrudy bits.

Step 6: Insulate the tub

Picture of Insulate the tub
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I used scrap polystyrene packaging and cut it up into shapes that would fit between the bars. I toyed with using expanding foam but I reckon it's less wasteful and cheaper to do it this way.

Cut a large piece of closed cell foam to insulate the base. You could use foam camping mattresses or similar. I just happened to have a huge piece laying around.

Step 7: Bend up the heating coil

Sorry I don't have any pictures of the next step - it all happened in a bit of an excited rush.

I used 3m of 25mm (1 inch) stainless steel tube for the heat exchange coil. This makes about 2 full turns and 2 half turns at approximately the inside diameter of the LPG bottle I used. You may want to increase the number of turns or vary the diameter of the coil depending on the gas bottle you use. The only word of warning I have is that the more coils you have the less well the fire will burn - the cold water in the coil reduces the efficiency of the fire.

I used an ancient manual screw type pipe bender which was a lot of work to use. You might want to take it to a muffler/exhaust shop and get them to bend it for you ( a local high school might let you use their workshop also)

You need to leave about 40 to 50 cm of straight tube at each end of the coil to give you enough distance to the tub (you don't want the flames and smoke to spoil your evening)

Step 8: Open up the tank

Warning!: This step involves explosive flammable gas and you should take all necessary steps to protect your safety yadayadayada - in other words exercise common sense and if you blow yourself up don't come crying to me.

You need to make sure there is no more gas in the tank. Open the valve all the way and leave it for a few days. If your gas bottle has a pressure reducing valve or quick release nozzle fitted, remove this also because it will not let all the gas out.

Use a heavy monkey wrench and hammer to remove the gas tap and valve gear on the top. You may need to insert a heavy steel bar through the handles to get more leverage and stop the gas bottle from rotating annoyingly while you're whacking it. It would be prudent to use a wooden mallet to hit the wrench with to avoid sparks and do this operation outside in a well ventilated space.

Fill the tank with water to remove any traces of gas and empty it before cutting it through the equator with an angle grinder.

Step 9: Cut the tank to take the heat exchange coil

Now you will need to cut some keyholes into the top and bottom hemispheres to take the coil.

Mark the location on the bottom half of the tank (bearing in mind that you want to place the more of the coil at the top of the tank to get more of the heat) and cut with an angle grinder.

Insert the coil into the keyhole and then hold the top hemisphere over the bottom, balanced on top of the coil. Mark the location of the outlet pipe on the upper hemisphere then measure how deep you need to make the cuts.

Make the slot wide enough to admit the pipe without having to rotate the top half at an odd angle to account for the angle of exit of the tube.

Step 10: Cut the hole in the top of the tank

You need to make a hole in the top of the tank to allow you to add wood and get a bit of a draw going.

The first thing to go is the handle/valve protection collar around the top. With a marker pen draw around the inside of the ring and continue the line in an arc across the gap.

Cut the ring at the tabs flush with the top of the bottle and grind of any remaining weld material. Trim the bottom of the collar to remove the remains of the tabs.

Cut a circular disc of steel out of the top with an angle grinder or a gas axe if you have one.

While you've got the angle grinder out remove the paint on both sides of the collar and around the lip of the hole you've just cut to prepare it for welding.

Save the resulting disc to use for the bottom ventilation ring.

Now you can weld the collar back onto the tank so that it surrounds the hole.

Step 11: Create the ash grill and ventilation holes

Picture of create the ash grill and ventilation holes
Next task is to create holes in the base to allow air to come through and ash to fall out of. You can go about this any way you like. The simplest thing would be to cut a cross into the base inside the steel ring and cut some slots in the sides where the upward curve starts. (This is what I do for my gas bottle braziers). I went a bit overboard with this one and made it a bit more decorative and added a little bit more volume to boot.

What I did was cut a disc out of the centre then a whole bunch of little ray like cuts around the edge. I then bent these outwards by smacking the tabs with a hammer and on welded the disc that I cut out of the lid earlier. This disc was attached so that the concave side was facing out - I figured that that way the ash would fall out better and not pool in the dish.

Step 12: Decorate the heater

Here you can go to town with decorating you burner with bits of scrap or by cutting out shapes in the sides of the tank. You should also add some legs to hold the thing the correct height off the ground.

Depending on what you are doing to decorate it you may want to wait before you weld the two halves together because if you're making deep or awkward cuts with the angle grinder you'll run the risk of cutting into the coil.

To get an idea of the ideal height, think about where the top water level will be when nobody is in the tub. You want the top inlet from the heater to come in an inch or two below this level and make your legs the correct height to account for this.

Step 13: Perforate the tub

With the heater leaned against the spot on the outside of the tub that you want it to be, mark the locations of the outlet and inlet pipes on the corrugated iron cladding.

Think about where the hot tub is going to end up before you cut the holes to make sure you have it in the best place for your situation.

Drill out the holes and smooth off the sharp edges.

Now slide the liner all the way into the tub shell and mark the location of the pipes. Cut the holes for the pipes making sure you only make them as large as the outside diameter of the flanged pipe fittings you are using.

Step 14: Attach the hardware

Now slide the liner back out to expose the holes you made and firmly attach the flange fittings.

Slide the line back down whilst bending the sides in to get the threaded part of the fitting past the rim.

Pull the threaded ends of the flange fittings through the holes you made in the cladding.

Slide two hoseclamps onto each of the heater tubes and slip the flexible hose over the threaded end and the stainless pipe from the heater. Tighten the hose clamps so that they won't leak.

Now you're done!

Note: You might want to move the tub to it's full time location now before you attach the heater. It's heavy so get a friend. I actually made a trailer to allow me to move it on my own (I do have friends but they were at work at the time).

Step 15: Fill the tub and light it up

Picture of Fill the tub and light it up
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Fill the tub with fresh or sea water and set a fire in the heater. It took about 4 hours to heat the whole tank so start early.

You also might want to place the heater on a metal tray to catch any ash and hot coals that fall out.

The heat exchange coil will get covered in creosote because it's so much colder than the fire - this is to be expected.

The other thing you can do is make an insulated lid for the tub from the top of the tank and some more corrugated iron.

Enjoy!

Please excuse the camera work - there was a newbie at the helm...

Step 16: Improved rim

Ok so I've added a nicer rim to the tub.

It's rough sawn pine that's screwed at the corners to form a square frame. This is then screwed to the folded flap of the plastic liner.

I have some really nice hard wood decking that I'm going to attach to the rim of the tub but I'm still scratching my head over the best means of attaching it.

I am actually pretty happy with the rim that's on here now as it's nice and smooth and tidies the whole thing up somewhat.

There is also room for a bottle of beer in the apexes of the corners!

Step 17: Other options

Solar boost
- I have also added a solar boost loop to this by attaching a T-junction to the hot water inlet for a garden hose attachment.
- I have 30m of black polytube that I attach to the bottom outlet and hot water inlet. Use a one way valve on the cold water outlet pipe at the bottom of the tank to stop the tub from reverse thermo-siphoning at night. String the tubing out on the lawn in full sun. I don't know how effective this is yet - I'll keep you posted - but it should add a couple of degrees at least and reduce the burn time.

Update!
Either I haven't had this connected long enough in hot enough conditions or my loop is too short, but this technique's a non-starter :(
On the up side the new house I'm building has a 30 evacuated tube solar hot water heater and a wood fired wetback so hot water should be in plentiful supply in summer!

"Active pumping"
- I am toying with adding a 12v pump to the cold inlet to scoot the water through a bit faster. The thermosiphon works but 4 hrs is a long time to wait.

Update!
I recently bought a 2nd hand intex inflatable pool pump and set this up to pump water from the bottom outlet of the tub to the cold inlet of the heating coil.  You need to buy a few doohickeys to connect everything up properly but it's very straightforward. The results are interesting.  The heat up times are not dramatically affected by active pumping (it may give you a 1/2 hour on the thermosiphon method), but it totally eliminates the flash boiling of the water in the heating coil.  This is great because I've been poached a few times by the hot water inlet!

BTW - Thanks everyone for your comments and support!
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peets7 months ago

that louks liek my cuozzinn

nhill53 years ago
I'm just done building mine except instead of using an old IBC tank i managed to find a second hand build-in plastic (stay away from fiberglass, they break easily) hexagonal tub from trademe for $80 NZD. It also came with a pump, filter, electric heat (i'll still be using a fire) and a blower for free. I built a frame around the tub from wood, i can seat 10 people and it looks the part. Just another though as it was only $80 plus some wood from bargain boards in Thames. Still trying to perfect the heating system. At the moment i have an old open fire place with a wet back system, but it is a poor conductor so i'm thinking of throwing an old all copper car radiator in its place. Any ideas on this would be appreciated. Thanks, Nick
jasoncattnz nhill510 months ago

Any idea where I could get a tub like this? (I'm in NZ too) What size is it?

Just thought I'd include that you can add bubbles quite economically by using a ShopVac to send air thru an underwater ring of holes made of PVC, copper, or whatever. Obviously some sort of an enclosure is needed to lessen the noise level of the motor. The effect is pretty impressive for a $30 vac.

awesome! did you solve the noise problem? Where did you get that nice big rubbermaid?
How is this heated and what size is the PVC? I would think that the shopvac would burn itsself out after not too long.
pmaag3 years ago
Thanks !
I used your basic idea but modified the water heater :D takes approximately 2 hours to heat the entire thing! :D I am also using a pump as the pipes in a radiator are too small to sustain natural circulation in an effective way :D

but how do you keep it clean ? cause the water turns bad really fast !
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How's that radiator holding up? How long did it take you to burn through it (or have you not yet done so)?
i just fashioned an oven with some aluminium ventilation ducts, cause thats what i had on hand.
I have not yet burned through it, but I do think that the steal tube might be better because there is a lot of residual rust and oil and other dirt in old radiators that doesn't seem to disappear.
i am planning to re-make it in some fashion as it desperately needs some sort of filter as the water turns bad and smells of rust quite fast
lrushton pmaag3 years ago
what did you use insted of the 25mm steel tube for the heater??
pmaag lrushton3 years ago
a radiator ;) and a thin one at that. it is about 15 mm but you need to build the oven to the specs of the radiator. it isn't as pretty as the original but it is effective.
Why don't you contact some manufacturers to FIND OUT yourself...
omegaton3 years ago
SOOO awesome. I am planning a one-person version out of a light-weight wall-tent type stove and a disused bathtub. The advantages I see for using a bathtub are that it will heat more quickly, take up less space in my modest-sized back yard, will be easier to remove when I move, and can be drained between uses so I won't have to deal with maintenance. Being able to accommodate only one person at a time is fine with me, as I will be using it for peaceful relaxation rather than socializing.

Aside from this utopian vision, I'm pretty clueless about carrying the project out, as revealed in the following questions for those of you who are handier than me:

1- Someone mentioned concerns about superheating the water if you use a rocket stove, because they burn so hot. Should I be worried about that possibility with the stove I am using? (see picture).

2 - I haven't acquired the bathtub yet, and am trying to decide between fiberglass (I can get an awesomely gaudy giant pink one at a used building supply place for $70) or cast-iron (smallish used ones starting at $200). Aside from price, I think the fiberglass option would have the advantages of being easier to move, easier to cut the outlet hole, and easier to find one that is sufficiently deep. The downside would be that fiberglass is more fragile. Thoughts on how I might mitigate the fragility of fiberglass? Are there other pros and cons I should consider for fiberglass vs. cast iron? Other tub materials I should consider?

3 - If I run the tubing partially through the chimney (assuming I can get the tub high enough for the water to flow properly), will that help capture some of the heat that would otherwise be lost? Is there any reason I shouldn't do that (e.g. the risk of superheating)?

4 - Some non-metal tubing is rated for quite high temperatures. Am I right in thinking that, nonetheless, it would be unwise to use PEX or other non-metal tubing in place of any part of the metal tubing because it could melt? I hope I'm wrong, because PEX is so much easier to work with, I have bunches of it lying around, and would be much easier to configure with respect to connecting to the tub because it is somewhat flexible.

5 - Aside from having additional steel plating welded onto the rather flimsy bottom of the stove, what can I do to prevent it burning out? Would putting a layer of fire brick in the bottom help? Other material?

Thanks in advance for any advice!
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Just make a frame for a fiberglass one, the way the make them in houses and insulate it with insulation foam.
About your second question. You could do all of your plumbing that connects into the bathtub, if you use fiberglass, and then basically flip it upside down and then fill it with something like foam so that it is light weight, sturdy, and also very good at holding in the heat. I'm not sure how much it costs but it would work well.

Also, if you heat up none metal tubing, most times it can ruin the PSI rating on it, I believe you would be beter off using metal tubing. And then in the heating system, toward the end of the pipe have some sort of removable filter to catch anything in the water from the metal reacting with your chemicals. While you want it to be cheam and effective, have to fix it repeatedly wouldn't work so, go with metal tubes.

To your last question, look at ideas from blacksmithing, buy a cheap fan and have it blowing into your stove, it will make the flames hotter and harder to go out, just make sure you stock your stove well.

Good luck.
milesnorth2 years ago
Great example and thanks for the pics. Can you explain to me how you keep leaks from happening around the inlet tubes into the tub? I have a regular "standard" hot tub that I got for free cause it has no pump. I want to make it in to a woodfired one. Anything you can think of that would be a problem with that? I wondered if the fiberglass would melt or something having the metal go directly through it (That might be incredibly silly, but so be it). I am also in Alaska, so i want to try to somehow insulate the heater and coils going to the tub to cut down on losing heat. Any thoughts on doing that? I love your guy. I have been looking at him for years now and finally scored a hot tub to try to make my own. Thanks for the inspiration.
veloboy (author)  milesnorth2 years ago
Hi there,
Those flanged fittings in step 14 are what stops the tub connection from leaking. They have rubber grommets that are sandwiched between the fixed and threaded flanges on the fitting. These are standard farm plumbing connections. I used threaded ones but you may be able to find some with barbed ends. That makes it easier to get a seal on the flexible hose.

I haven't had any problems with heat damage around the inlet. Remember - the tub is full of a lot of cool (by comparison) water that easily soaks up any excess heat around the junction. Which is partly why you can put a soda bottle full of water in a fire and it won't melt.

I use standard foam pipe lagging to insulate the coil pipes but they can end up mleting if they are too close to the fire.

Anyway - thanks for the feedback and good luck with the build!
jrauch22 years ago
mint dude.

im thinking sheets of ply stainded black instead of the iron might look good. (extra cost tho)

one question regarging heat flow?--------
you have your inlet and outlet pipes at only about 300mm apart?
wouldnt this work more effictivly if they were placed further apart?
how do you still get thermosiphon if theres people in the pool and water movement means theres a constant temp ( no hot at top and cold at bottom?

im also thinking for mine ill setup a 6l, p/m califont to heat the water.
ive looked into the cost. its about NZD$3 to fill and at 6L pm (25 deg above tap temp) it will fill to 40 deg in 1.5 hrs... for $3!
califont is 200-250 on trade me

my thought with the intex pump (40 on trade me) means (we) could now add chemicals to the pool so it doesnt need to be empitied?
i'd rather no chemicals but the empty/ refill may become a hassle?
do you get 2-3 days before it need a water change?

lastly, have you had any thoughts on the lid?
as you now have the flat pool edges, perhaps flatten the lid to strech across the pool edge, attach a layer of the same poly and a ply layer? making one solid lid piece.

anyway gerat buid and cheers for the inspiration
veloboy (author)  jrauch22 years ago
Chur for the props bro!

I haven't noticed any lack of oomph with the 300mm height differential. Thermosiphoning occurs due to the heat differential in the coil rather than the whole of the hot tub. When the heat source is cranking the water temp in the top of the coil will always be hotter than the water coming in the bottom - that's where the driving force comes from. Kill the heating and the thermosiphon will stop. Eventually it may even reverse!

Good luck with the build - post some pics when it's up and running!

Cheers
tocatech3 years ago
hey guys,

I hear alot about not using copper pipe in chloronated water and rather to use 316 stainless steel, it's just the price difference between copper and that grade steel is vast...

so is there anyone that tried copper in chloronated water?
And is their any other alternative tubing to copper and steel.

Another design i was thinking about was maybe using a barrol, fill the barrel with water, heat the barrol to get water to near boiling, have coiled polypipe in the barrol where the pool water will run through, what you guys think?
cool! i make this tomorrow (there finland clock is 23:24 or 11:24 pm)
How does the water circulate
I may be teaching you all to suck eggs, but may I suggest you use 3 legs instead of 4?
A "fouth" leg makes it wobble, and it's a pain trying to level a 4 legged stool, table etc.

Stunning projetc Veloboy, well played sir
smy13 years ago
so i am curious how is the how circulating in and out of the heater coil??
arhillbilly5 years ago
Very nice! I have an old therapy whirlpool that I couldn't afford to run using an electric water heater. But there are plenty of dead trees in my woodlot that need to be cleared for fire prevention!

Just a word of caution to those who don't know about these things. Common sense would tell you that if you emptied the LPG bottle and even triple washed it with detergent and hot water that there couldn't be any gas left in it.

THIS IS NOT SO! With both gasoline tanks and LPG tanks, the steel can and does become impregnated with the fuel and can leach out for MONTHS after it has been emptied and even triple washed with detergent and hot water!

I have two personal friends that fortunately lived through the experience, though not without scars to prove it. In both cases it had been less than ten to fifteen minutes since the last wash and the time they began cutting/ welding. They both woke up in the hospital!

If you must use an LPG tank, it is best if you can do it with the tank FULL of water with an Oxy/Acetylene torch AFTER triple washing. It is dangerous to cut with an electric grinder when it is full of water for what should be obvious reasons.

It can be done safely, but if you don't KNOW what you are doing, it is better to either find a different container (a 10, 15, 30, or 55 gallon drum would work very nicely or an old hot water tank) for your heater or take it to a professional to have them cut it open for you, IF you can find one that is willing to take the risk.

Please feel free to copy and paste the above warning to the beginning of step 8. It could save someone's life. I know of others that were not so fortunate.

Again, Very nice! Awesome artwork!

Thanks for sharing it!
 Buying a new empty gas bottle is an option
veloboy (author)  lukeyj154 years ago
The trouble with new 'empty' gas bottles is that they are not empty! CMIIW but they're full of nitrogen. When you take them to be filled for the first time they purge the nitrogen first. Cutting into a new bottle without purging the gas could result in a nasty bottle rocket.
but nirogen is inert. how will it do anything?
veloboy (author)  lukeyj154 years ago
Even though its inert it's the pressure that's dangerous in that it could turn the gas bottle into an unexpected projectile. Maybe I'm being overcautious, but when I watched the guy filling my tank for the first time, there seemed to be heluva lot of gas in there at some impressive psi...
Well it never hurts to be cautious, but opening the valve for a couple of minutes should be sufficient.
If you don't have a recepticle on the tank nothing will leak out when you open it. If you don't understand propane, best not to mess with it!
and yes, gas tanks have a lot of gas at a lot of psi
I agree... these steel containers that have had highly combustible liquids/gasses in them, can react to heat by exploding.

If you fill them with sand though, they cannot get enough oxygen to explode, without the risk of electrocution.

The project looks very interesting and much cheaper than other options on the market.

I would think 1½" - 2" pipes would be better for natural circulation of the hot water. You risk the heater actually boiling, if the circulation is too slow.'
veloboy (author)  fred bloggs4 years ago
If you wanted to use larger pipe I would recommend flattening it a bit first (ovalising it) so that the heat can fully penetrate the the water in the pipe. Otherwise there'll be a cold core to the water which would lower the efficiency.
best way to deal with flammable gas/liquid containers, wash out afew times, then just fill with water and grind the top off. it cant explode when its full of water. Yes i am speaking from experience. youre going to be lighting a fire in it eventually anyway so once youve actually cut it open you may as well do exactly that, theres not going to be any more combustibles in there once youve set the damn thing alight.
Putting some dry ice in the tank works as well.
don't use water, use sand. i used to solder gas tanks and we filled them with sand AFTER washing. Sand won't react badly with electricity. I would NEVER EVER cut into a propane tank. Find a water heater liner. Everything else is wonderful and I plan on copying you on this. thanks for sharing! I do wonder about filtration etc ...
wow thanks for watching out.
tim132114 years ago
What does the coil in the tub go?
Annatar24 years ago
Love this project. Definatly going to build this at some point once I get back from Iraq. For those of you looking for the container, check 'IBC Tote' on Ebay. You can usually pick them up for under $100, though due to the size its generally local pickup only.
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