What you'll need: 2 hands! That's it. Also, this instructable is written under the assumption that you like to start count off your fingers on your hand starting with the pointer, then the middle finger, the ring finger, the pinky, then the thumb. Go ahead, count to 5 normally on your fingers. Did you do it like I just described? Good. If not, adjust accordingly.
In each step, I'll describe it starting from your left hand (used interchangeably with "first hand"), and the moving onto your right hand ("second hand") These correspond with the hands in the left- and right-side of the pictures. If you like doing it the other way around, feel free to switch, after you've gotten the hang of it.
A little note: the last 3 methods are called "Kabukistar I," "Kabukistar IIa" and "Kabukistar IIb," respectively. this is because I thought of them myself. Not to say that I was the first one to ever think of them, in fact I'm almost positive that these were known long before I thought of them. So, if anyone can find mention of these methods that shows their real names, show me where, and I'll change their name on this instructable, accordingly.
Step 1: Binary
Counting range: 0 through 1023
Pros: Easy To learn, and Easy to count up.
Cons: Difficult to start with a large number, and takes some thinking to realize what number you're at, just by looking at your fingers. Requires you to flip the bird, with some numbers (like 18).
The basic idea is that each finger is the sum of all the previous fingers (in the order you put them up counting normally), plus one.
So, start with having all your fingers down. This is 0 Now, stick your pointer finger up on your left hand, and this is 1. So, naturally, your middle finger on your left hand will be worth two (it's the sum of your previous fingers [which happens to be just your pointer finger] plus 1) So, to ahve 2, you just have that middle finger up. Since it's worth 2, and your pointer finger's worth 1, you put them both up to get 3.
Next, of course, your ring finger is worth the sum of all the previous fingers (1+2=3) plus 1 (3+1=4) So it's worth four. You can now use these three fingers to count up to 7, so the pinky is worht 7+1. You can use these four fingers to count up to 15, so the thumb is worth 16.
You can continue doing this with your other hand, where the fingers are worth 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512. You may notice that the fingers are going up in powers of 2, but if you didn't notice that, then just ignore it.
Anyways, once you have all your fingers up, it will total up to 1023; that's the highest you can count.
Step 2: Counting by Sixes
Range: 0 through 35
Pros: really easy to do
Cons: can only count to 35; and more difficult to start with a higher number than it should be for such a low range.
Ok, basically, how this works, each finger is worth as much as is shown in the picture. You count from 1 -5 as you would normally. Then, to reach 6, you put all the fingers on your first (left) hand down, and put up one finger on your right hand (each of which is worth 6). Then, with this finger up, you use your the fingers on your left had to count up to 11, and stick another finger on your right hand up for 12.
You keep continuing in this pattern, putting up 5 fingers on your left hand, then 1 finger on your right hand, until you have all your fingers up, at which point you'll be at 35 (30 on your right hand and 5 on your left hand).
Step 3: Chisenbop (formerly "Kabukistar Method I")
This one is my favourite method, and the one I use in every-day life.
Range: 0 through 99
Pros: Easy to do, easy to tell where you're at by looking at your hands, and easy to directly input a larger number.
Cons: Only 99, but that's still pretty good for most uses.
Ok, the basic idea for this one is that you use your left hand to count the numbers in the "ones" column of the number, and use your right hand to count the "tens" column of the number. So, on your left hand, you can count from 0-9, and on your right hand, you count from 0-90 (in tens).
Alright, to start use your non-thumb fingers on your left hand to count from 1 to 4. To hit 5, put your left thumb up, and all the other fingers down, then, you can use the non-thumb fingers again, to fount from 6 to 9.
On your right hand, each finger is worth 10X what is is on your left hand, so, to reach 10, you just put a finger up on your right hand then use your left hand in the same manor, to count up to 19, at which point you put another finger up on your right hand, for 20.
You can keep doing this until you have all your fingers up, worth 9 on your left hand and 90 on your right hang, totally 99.
Step 4: Kabukistar Method IIa
Range: 0 through 2559
Pros: Can count incredibly high. Works with multiples of five, so it's fairly easy to use
Cons: Requires you to flip the bird, sometimes. Also, makes you contort your hands into akward positions.
Alright, like I said, this one's alot like binary times five. Notice that every finger is double the previous finger. And also, that each finger is the sum of all the previous fingers plus five (instead of plus 1). So, it's really easy to count in fives with this. But how do you count the numbers between multiples of five? Well, that's what the thumb on your first hand (marked with an "X," because it has no specific value) is for. If that thumb is touching your pointer, middle, ring, or pinky finger, it's adding 1, 2, 3, or 4 to the value (respectively).
SO, to start off, all your fingers are down; this is zero. Touch your thumb to your pointer, middling, ring, and pinky fingers to count up 1, 2, 3, 4. Next, make it so your thumb isn't touching any fingers, and stick up your pointer finger to get five. Do the thumb-touches again to count up 6, 7, 8, 9, and then put your pointer finger down and your middle finger up to get ten. Do the thumb-touches again to 14, then have your pointer and middle finger up to get 15. Keep doing this, until you have all your fingers up, and your thumb touching your pinky, for a value of 2559.
Your thumb on your second hand acts like just another finger.
Step 5: Kabukistar Method IIb
Range: 0 - 6399
Pros: Highest-counting method here.
Cons: Confusing, and easy to lose track of what you're doing. Requires you to flip the bird sometimes. Akward hand positions.
Ok, this is alot like Kabukistar Method IIa, except that the thumb on your second hand acts like the thumb on your first hand, instead of your second hand just acting in simple binary. In this way, everything on your second hand is exactly like your first hand, but multiplyed by 80.
SO, you count up to 79 normally, on your first hand, then touch your thumb on your second hand to signify 80. Next, you count from 80 up to 159 on your first hand, and then touch your thumb to your middle finger on your second hand to equal 160. Keep doing this, so that touching your thumb to your ring finger will be worth 240, and touching it to your pinky will be worth 320. Next, your pointer finger on your second hand will be worth 400 (like I said, it's just like your first hand, but times 80).
When all your fingers are up, and each thumb is touching their respective pinky, you will have a total of 6399.