Introduction: How to Design and Make a Wood Carving Knife
I will show you how to make a wood carving knife with a minimum of tools.
This knife is perfect for carving the shrink cup in my last instructable
Step 1: Tools Needed
To make this instrucable you only need simple hand tools that most of you already have.
You need a hammer, a saw, a file, a vice, an ax and a knife.
I also use a froe and a metal ruler that is nice to have but you can do with out them.
If you don't have a froe use a big knife or a ax to split the wood.
And as a substituted for a metal ruler use the backside of a saw.
Step 2: The Knifeblade
Of course you need a good knifeblade, I like the ones from Frosts Mora. They are cheap and very sharp. The ones I use in this instructable are KB120 and KB106. They are laminated blades with a very hard center and soft iron on the sides. Making the edge durable without making the blade fragile.
The blades are slim, making them ideal for any kind of carving.
Step 3: The Wood for the Handle
I use green cherry wood for the handle. By using fresh/green wood I can hammer the blade directly into the handle. That way I don't need to drill holes for the blade, and there is no need for glue.
Other suitable wood for this ; Birch, Red Alder, Linden, Apple, Pear
Red Alder can even be used when dry, but the others need to be green.
Step 4: Prepering the Knifeblade
To be able to hammer the blade into the handle you first need to file the tang. The tang needs to be straight like a nail, not wedge shaped like it is from the maker. It you leave the tang wedge shaped the handle will split.
I use a hand file to do the job. But if you have a bench grinder you can use that. Just watch your fingers and that the blade don't get to hot.
Also cut the tang into length, it needs to be 5-6cm long. When you have cut the tang file the end so it is flat.
Step 5: Prepering the Wood
Cut a 15cm thick slice of your log. Split it a few times, and with the ax roughly cut the handle into shape.
Now fine shape the end that you plan to hammer the blade into. When the blade first sits into the wood it is very hard to work that area without damaging the blade and the edge of the carving knife.
Step 6: Hammer the Blade Into the Handle
This part are a little difficult so take it easy and don't rush it. With care and patience you will be able to do it.
First clamp the blade very tight in the vice. Use soft jaws made from rubber, copper or other soft metals so you don't damage the blade.
Now place the handle on top of the tang, and with firm and controlled strokes drive the tang into the handle. All the time you need to be sure that the tang gos straight into the handle. To start with, when the tang's not to long into the handle you are able to correct the angle. But then it gets in deeper it is stuck. If the blade gets in wrong there are noting else to do than split the handle, remove it and start all over.
When the tang are all gone into the handle this step is over. The blade now sits firm in the handle and you will not be able for remove it again without breaking the handle.
Step 7: Designing the Handle
Now take some paper and draw the shape of the blade and the handle.
When you design a handle you need to think of it as a fish. The fish have 3 parts, the head, the stomach and the tail.
1: start by dividing your handle into 3 parts.
2: Now draw a fish in it.
3: Can you see the handle inside the fish?
4: Continue until you have converted your drawing of a fish into a handle.
5; draw the handle from the side and from the top.
6: glue the drawing onto the handle.
Step 8: Shaping the Handle
Now start cutting away the wood outside the drawing. If your skilled enough you can start with an ax to do the rough shaping, and then using the knife for the final carving.
When your have cut all the way to the line of your drawing start to round the edges. When your cutting away, specially when rounding the edges you still have to think about a fish. The handle needs to be round and smooth like a small trout in the water.
Here is a film showing how to shape the handle with the ax. Sorry about the camera angle, maybe I need a tripod :-)
Step 9: The Finished Knife
Now the knife is finished and ready to use. If you don't like the rough expression from the carving knife you can sand the handle as smooth as you like. It is best to leave the greenwood to dry before sanding.
But no mater if you want to sand or not, you leave the handle to dry 1-2 weeks. Don't leave it in the sun or in a very dry or hot place that can make it crack.
When the handle is dry, sanded or not, apply oil. I use linseed oil or danish oil depending on have fast I want to finish the knife. If I use danish oil the knife will be usable in a day, with the linseed oil it has to dry for 2-3 weeks. But I like to use linseed oil because it is a natural product without any adjectives, so it is more safe for me and the environment.
Step 10: Oiling the Handle
To protect the handle against stains and dirty fingers I treat the wood with oil. I take the easy way out and just dips the handle into my drum of linseedoil.
Step 11: Bark for the Sheath
This simple sheath are only used to protect the knife and the owner, it has no belt strop. It is woven from birch bark. It is very fast and simple to make but yet durable. The bark I use here are purchased but if you have access to trees in the right size you can just collect the bark your self.
Step 12: Making the Sheath
Then cut 2-3 thin strips of bark, cut them 3-5mm width. Trim the strips from lose moss and lose outer bark.
Bend the wide strip of bark and weave the thin strips around it. Continue until there's no more room and cut the end.
Here is a film showing how I weave the sheath.
Step 13: The Finished Knifes.
After a day or two the oil have dryed and the knifes don't feel greasy. The oil isn't all hardend but if you want the knifes are ready to use.
Now you can enjoy your carving knifes, and they will be your faithful companions for many years.
I hope you enjoyed reading this instructable just as much as I enjoyed writing it.
Step 14: Other Handcarved Knifehandles
The end of the handle is ideal for carving. It you like to make your knife very special you can carve some thing in the end of the handle. Here you can see some examples that I have made.