How to Do CPR. (Red Cross)





Introduction: How to Do CPR. (Red Cross)

The first 2 steps will be the same as rescue breathing because this is the initial assessment. This part is very important and determines weather rescue breathing, CPR, or unconscious choking steps should be executed.

I am currently taking my Red Cross Life Saving class. To help me study for my final test I am reciting CPR, Rescue Breathing, Unconscious Choking, and AED steps from memory. This not only benefits me but also the Instructables community and anyone else who wants to study or learn.

The steps are relatively easy to preform and remember. A pocket mask is recommended to prevent diseases from spreading. They are not needed in training or a real emergency but are for the safety for everyone. I will be doing the instructable as if you did have one though.

I will be adding links and pictures later along with some other notes and some edits if need be.

Things to know:

I may group sections differently than in the Red Cross book, the steps are the same.

Children are considered 12 to 1 years old by the American Red Cross.

If you are a life guard or are working in a job that life saving skills are needed do not leave the victim until someone else that can help arrives. This is called abandonment and you can be held legally responsible.

Step 1: Initial Assessment

Step 1.

Survey the scene to see if you are in danger of getting hurt yourself. This includes some obvious dangers like fire etc. There are also less obvious dangers like toxic fumes etc.

This is very important because you do not want to hurt yourself and add to the possible death toll. This also is for the safety of the victim because it could be harder for them to receive treatment too.

Step 2.

Check for consciousness. For adults and children you can do this by tapping, shaking, and asking if they are okay. For infants you can check by tickling the feet. If they do not respond they are considered unconscious. If conscious you will need to ask for content to help. But, the government considers consent to be implied when the person is unconscious.

Step 3.

If unconscious immediately call 911 or tell someone to call 911. This is very important if the victim goes into cardiac arrest and needs further treatment.

Step 4.

Check for breathing. To do this tilt the head back and put your ear to the victims mouth. Your face should be pointing down the victims body.

Step 2: Start Rescue Breathing.

Step 1.

Assemble your pocket mask or breathing barrier and place it over the victims nose and mouth. There should be a marking indicating nose on the mask. Place the nose under this on children and adults. For infants you should turn the mask upside down with the nose part on the chin. This creates a seal so air goes into the lungs.

Step 2.

Do two rescue breaths into the barrier each lasting about 1 second. If too much air is forced into the lungs it will go into the stomach and cause the victim to throw up. This is normal and resume operations. When the victim throws up turn him on his side and let vomit come out and clean the mouth out with your finger to prevent choking later.

Step 3.

If the chest does not clearly rise during the 2 rescue breaths tilt the head back further and do 2 more breaths. If the chest still doesn't rise the victim is choking and unconscious choking steps will need to be followed.

Step 3: Continue Rescue Breathing.

Step 1.

Check for pulse. To do this place your ear over the mouth like before but position two fingers in the groove of the neck closest to you. This is for children and adults. For infants place finger in between the shoulder and elbow on the inside of the arm.

Step 2.

If there is no pulse the victim is in serious danger and you will need to start CPR after doing the next step.

Step 3.

Scan the area quickly for blood. You want check for a pulse no longer than 10 seconds every time you do this. You only need to scan for blood once and should only take a split second.

Step 4: Start CPR.

There is no pulse or breathing but the chest is rising. This means there is air entering the lungs but the heart has stopped working or is working wrong. The ways it could be working wring will be covered in the AED section. (The link is later on in the instructable).

Step 1.

Do 2 rescue breaths with your pocket mask into the victim.

Step 2.

Do 30 chest compressions with the same placement you do for unconscious choking. You use the same two fingers in the chest on infants you do for unconscious choking also. You want to do chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute. You do not do 100 but that is how fast you would go.

Step 3.

Do the rescue breaths again then do compressions again.

You do this until you get another person to help or take over. The next page will be on 2 man CPR. It is almost the same except for a few differences.

Once an AED comes stop immediatly where you are and use that.

Step 5: 2 Man CPR.

2 man CPR is the same except for some minor differences. It is a lot easier on the rescuers because it is a tiring job.

Step 1.

Do the CPR compression routine as normal but for children and infants you move from 30 compressions down to 15. For infants you will change to the bottom instead of the side and press with your thumbs and hold around the sides.

The first man will do compressions then the second will do breaths right after.

Step 2.

After 2 minutes go by or the person giving compressions is too tired they will switch. The compressor will do his 14th or 29th compression and say change as he does his last. The person breathing will do his breaths then change and do compressions. This evens the work and gives people a time to rest. Make sure the person does his breath before he changes.

Remember once an AED arrives stop and use the AED.



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    Hey, this is a great instructable and is very informative. Just one thing is missing... pictures! It really helps a lot when trying to follow directions so you should consider taking some photographs. Once you do that and leave me a message when you have so that we can publish your work. Thanks! Thanks for the cool instructable and we hope to publish this soon!

    If an individual does not have a pulse compressions should start immediately!
    Blood flow to the heart is more important at this point. After the completion of the 30 compressions give 2 breath.

    Really great instructable - It has a lot of potential - but right now I think it needs quite a bit of work. I really hope this comes across as constructive, as that is how it is intended: Actual pictures showing the actual procedure I think would help. Yours aren't bad - but they're just generic first-aid/cpr pictures, not the actual steps involved. Step 1: The rescue breathing mask is not as much for diseases, as for the inevitable mouthful of vomit that is going to be ejected as you do your chest compressions. Step 1: A disclaimer that these are the 'as of time of writing,xxx 2009, best known practices'. and that people should if interested, become ACTIVELY CERTIFIED by an accredited institution, be it the red cross, st johns, or other. Why? Because if anything hits the fan - or anything turns into a lawsuit - if you're certified, then you have the agency to back you up. If you tell people you learned cpr from instructables - they would call you into question. I say this for the protection of the victim, AND the rescuer. Step 4 and 5 - you just say 'do compressions like unconscious choking' - which you dont explain in this article at all. I feel it important to note that landmarking is INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT. As a cpr-c rescuer myself, I'm taught to find the zyphoid - that cartilage at the junction of the lowermost ribs, and count 3 fingers 'up' from there, placing the palm of the lower hand above that 3-finger distance count. As a 911 operator, my instructions (loosely, dont quote me on this) are 'right between the nipples' - its the quickest way to find the right spot. Speed: Most people don't do cpr fast enough. my 911 instructions are 'twice per second' - 120bpm. Each agency has a slightly different number. The easiest way as a rescuer, is to note the song 'stayin alive' - which is exactly 120bpm, and pulse to that. 'ah ah ah ah, stayin alive, stayin alive...'. Morbid, yes, effective, yes - you can't really forget it! You have the workings of a great instructable here - but you're missing what seems like 'every other step'. You've written the instructions as if people ALREADY KNOW what to do - because you already know. Try to revise it as if the instructions are talking to a complete lay-person with no training. A picture is worth a thousand words. Telling the user WHERE TO SIT/STAND/BE is VERY important!!! The rescue breather must be near the airway. The chest compression person should be centered about the nipples, on the opposite side of the airway person. These are small details - but they are important - hence why the booklet you learn cpr from is ...big....and has pictures.

    3 replies

    I'll try to edit it sometime. Chest compressions don't cause vomiting and you wouldn't have your face right over them doing breaths while doing compressions anyways. Vomiting is from blowing too much air into the lungs and it overflowing into the stomach.

    Not to be argumentative - but almost every person I've done cpr over the phone with (911) has had at least something come up - there are various reactions - and you're right, the most common is from too much air - but still...vomit mouth sucks.

    Yeah, vomit in the mouth would probably not be the highlight of the day after saving someones life.

    I guess its a useful refresher, but it does skip quite a few details as mentioned above. and what do you do if you don't happen to have a fancy plastic mask in your pocket? you should probably point out that calling an ambulance immediately is far more important, CPR (especially that administered by an amateur) doesn't dramatically increase a persons chance of survival, and most people can't keep it up for much more than five minutes. I guess they changed the ratio of compressions to rescue breaths? when I learnt this (which, admittedly was about 10 years ago) it was something like 16 to 5.

    2 replies

    Agreed -- man down = 911 first.

    Survival after cardiac arrest drops to almost 0% at the 4 minute mark with no cpr, with cpr, it turns into approximately the 6 minute mark. With cpr and defibrilation WITHIN that first 6 minutes, it extends quite a bit longer.

    Early defibrilation. CPR will 'start' 1 in 10000 hearts - its just sadly the case. Advanced Life Support medics can administer heart-starting drugs and shocks *assuming fibrilation* - but they must arrive in that 4-6 minute window.

    I just looked everything up out of my Red Cross life saving book. I thought I mentioned calling an ambulance right after finding the person was unconscious?