Using the fact that many microcontroller pins have three states (+V, GND, or
"high impedence", you can drive N*(N-1) LEDs from N pins. So the little 8
pin microcontroller like a PIC12Fxxx or an ATtiny11 can drive 20 LEDs on
its five available output pins, and still have one pin left for some kind of input.
See also https://www.instructables.com/id/Charlieplexing-LEDs--The-theory/